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inorganic Analysis of Cation and Anion

Pharmacy, FMIPA - UHAMKA

Table 2 – Analysis of Group I Ions

Step

Substance 2 mL Solution Containing Group I ions Precipitate from Step 1

Reagent 10 drops 6M HC1

Observati on White Precipitate forms Some Precipitate Dissolves

Conclusion

Precipitate AgC1, Hg2C12 PbC12 possible AgC1 and/ or Hg2C12

Solution All other ions possible Pb2+ possible

1

Ag+, Hg22+ or Pb2+ possible All Group ions Possible Pb2+ likely Pb2+ present Hg22+ present Ag+ present

2

1 mL hot H2O

3

Solution from Step 2 Ppt from Step 2

4 drops1.0 M K2CrO4 10 drops 4 M NH3 6 M HNO3 to make acidic

Yellow Ppt forms Black Ppt forms White cloudy ppt forms

PbCrO4

Excess reagents Ag+ Possible Excess reagents

4

Hg and HgNH2C1 AgC1

5

So1n from Step 4

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'baking powder') from anhydrous sodium carbonate (Na2CO3. sodium hydrogencarbonate is one of the few common carbonates to give off water on heating and condenses on side of test tube. (ii) Effect of fairly strong heating and testing for any carbon dioxide given off.TEST FOR TEST METHOD OBSERVATIONS TEST CHEMISTRY Carbonate ion CO32.if colourless gas given off. There might be colour changes in the solid.e. Methods of gas preparation are described in more detail on another page. (i) Add any dilute strong acid to the suspected solid carbonate .or hydrogencarbonate HCO3Acid is added to the solid carbonate in a test tube. the solid is where the liquid is in the left hand test tube. Test (ii) will distinguish sodium hydrogencarbonate (NaHCO3 readily decomposes . but you need to collect a sample of gas from just above the heated solid to see it gives a white precipitate with limewater. but basic carbonates will also give off H2O as well as CO2. test with limewater. . i. thermally very stable). You could also collect a sample of gas from a heated carbonate. Apart from hydrated sodium carbonate. (i) (ii) Fizzing .colourless gas which turns limewater milky cloudy (see above CO2).

. 2NaHCO3(s) ==> Na2CO3(s) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) .. M = Mg. 2HCO3-(s) + 2H+(aq) ==> H2O(l) + CO2(g) (ii) The thermal decomposition equations are for carbonates MCO3(s) ==>MO(s) + CO2(g) e. CO32-(s) + 2H+(aq) ==> H2O(l) + CO2(g) and for hydrogencarbonate . Zn. CuO and note some give clear colour changes in the solid which might be useful to identify the metal (see heating carbonates in metal cation section) and for sodium hydrogencarbonate . then white precipitate with limewater. The ionic equations are for carbonate .. (i) Any carbonate/hydrogencarbonate + acid ==> salt + water + carbon dioxide..TEST FOR TEST METHOD OBSERVATIONS TEST CHEMISTRY …..g..

This is because silver sulphate is also ~insoluble.Sulphate ion or sulphate(VI) ion SO42If the solution also contains the chloride ion. (i) A white precipitate of barium sulfate. (i) To a solution of the suspected sulfate add dilute hydrochloric and a few drops of barium chloride/ nitrate solution. you test with barium ions 1st. (ii) A white precipitate of lead(II) sulphate. (i) Ba2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) ==> BaSO4(s) Any soluble barium salt + any soluble sulphate forms a white dense barium sulphate precipitate. Test (i) is more definitive. filter off any barium sulphate precipitate and then test for chloride ion. (ii) Add lead(II) nitrate solution. . (ii) Pb2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) ==> PbSO4(s) Neither white precipitate is soluble in excess hydrochloric acid.

Note: sulphites do not give ppt. of barium sulphite which dissolves in excess hydrochloric acid to give a clear colourless solution. The sulphur dioxide reduces the dichromate(VI) to chromium(III). Any sulphite salt + hydrochloric acid ==> chloride salt + sulphur dioxide. (ii) The dichromate paper turns from orange to green. with acidified barium chloride/nitrate because sulphites dissolve in acids. (iii) Add barium chloride or barium nitrate solution. (iii) A white ppt.Sulphite ion or sulphate(IV) ion SO32Test (iii) is easily unreliable. the sulphite ion is oxidised by air (dissolved oxygen) to give the sulphate ion. so you will lucky to obtain a clear solution after adding excess acid. . (ii) Test any gas evolved with fresh potassium dichromate(VI) paper. (i) Add dilute hydrochloric acid to the suspected sulfite. Ba2+(aq) + SO32-(aq) ==> BaSO3(s) BaSO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) ==> BaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + SO2(aq) Characteristic of result (i) Acrid choking sulfur dioxide gas formed.

) Then reaction (i) above occurs on the lead(II) ethanoate paper (old name lead acetate). Cu. MS(s) + 2H+(aq) => M2+(aq) + H2S(g) (e. (ii) Rotten egg smell of hydrogen sulphide and the H2S gas turns lead(II) ethanoate paper black. Characteristic of result (i) Black ppt. add a few drops lead(II) ethanoate solution. add dil. . Ni etc. HCl(aq) acid. M = Pb.Sulphide ion S2In test (ii) dangerous hydrogen sulphide is formed. test smelly gas with damp lead(II) ethanoate paper (old name lead acetate). Fe.g. of lead sulphide. Pb2+(aq) + S2-(aq) => PbS(s) (ii) If solid. (i) If soluble.

(ii) You get nasty fumes of hydrogen chloride which turn blue litmus red and give a white precipitate with silver nitrate solution. so the two precipitates of silver sulfate and silver chloride could not be distinguished (i) If the chloride is soluble. add conc. Cl-(s) + H2SO4(l) ==> HSO4-(s) + HCl(g) . Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) ==> AgCl(s) Any soluble silver salt + any soluble chloride gives a white silver chloride precipitate. warm if necessary then test gas as for HCl. This is because silver sulphate is also ~insoluble. filter off any barium sulphate precipitate and then test for chloride ion. of lead(II) chloride is formed. you test with barium ions 1st.Chloride ion (Cl-) If the solution also contains the sulphate ion. sulphuric acid. .test (i) is best. add dilute nitric acid and silver nitrate solution. that darkens in light (ii) If insoluble salt. then Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) ==> AgCl(s) (iii) Add lead(II) nitrate solution. Not a very specific test . (iii) A white ppt. Pb2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) ==> PbCl2(s) Characteristic of result (i) white precipitate of silver chloride soluble in dilute ammonia.

add conc. warm if necessary.test (i) is best. . (ii) Orange vapour of bromine and pungent fumes of SO2. The bromide ion is oxidised to bromine and the sulphuric acid is reduced to sulphur dioxide. only soluble in concentrated ammonia. Pb2+(aq) + 2Br-(aq) ==> PbBr2(s) Characteristic of result (i) Cream precipitate of silver bromide.Bromide ion (Br-) (i) If bromide soluble. sulphuric acid. Ag+(aq) + Br-(aq) ==> AgBr(s) Any soluble silver salt + any soluble bromide gives a cream silver bromide precipitate (ii) If insoluble salt. add dilute nitric acid and silver nitrate solution. Not a very specific test . test for sulphur dioxide. (iii) A white ppt. (iii) Add lead(II) nitrate solution. of lead(II) bromide is formed.

add lead(II) nitrate solution. Not too definitive -Test (i) best. add lead(II) nitrate solution. sulphuric acid. insoluble lead(II) iodide formed Pb2+(aq) + 2I-(aq) ==> PbI2(s) Characteristic of result (i) (ii) (i) Yellow precipitate of silver iodide insoluble in concentrated ammonia. any soluble silver salt + any soluble iodide ==> silver iodide precipitate. add dilute nitric acid and silver nitrate solution. (iii) if soluble. . (ii) get purple fumes of iodine and very smelly hydrogen sulphide. (ii) If insoluble salt can heat with conc. iodide ion is oxidised to iodine and the sulphuric acid is reduced to 'rotten eggs' smelly hydrogen sulphide.Iodide ion (I-) (i) If iodide soluble. purple vapour and rotten egg smell!. Ag+(aq) + I-(aq) ==> AgI(s) . (iii) a yellow precipitate forms Yellow precipitate of lead(II) iodide. (iii) If iodide soluble.

forms ammonia with hot Al powder-foil/NaOH(aq) (see nitrate test) and gives 'brown ring' test . The aluminium powder is a powerful reducing agent and converts the nitrate ion. it decolourises (purple ==> colourless) acidified potassium manganate(VII). see ammonia test details (ii) Where the liquids meet a brown ring forms (iii) Nasty brown gas (beware!) of nitrogen (IV) oxide (nitrogen dioxide) Nitrite ion or nitrate(III) ion NO2. NH3 (ii) Add iron(ii) sulphate solution and then conc.d. Mg. Ammonium ion (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) . it.Nitrate ion or nitrate(V) ion NO3(i) Boil the suspected nitrate with sodium hydroxide solution and fine aluminium powder (Devarda's Alloy) or aluminium foil. where M = Pb. NO complex of iron(II) formed (iii) Strongly heating nitrates of M2+ salts. Zn. which turns red litmus blue.see nitrate tests above. Characteristic of result (i) the fumes contain ammonia.No simple test to clearly i. NO3-. a general thermal decomposition equation for this reaction is 2M(NO3)2(s) ==> 2MO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g). Cu etc. sulphuric acid (the 'brown ring' test). into ammonia gas. it liberates iodine from acidified potassium iodide solution. in acid solution it decomposes to give colourless NO gas which rapidly oxidises to nasty brown fumes of NO2.

) (i) Litmus or universal indicator or pH meter. ind.Ammonium ion(NH4+) If no smell at first.g. H+ or H3O+ ion (note: to completely identify acids you need to test for the anion e. weak . variety of colours with univ.e. (ii) Fizzing with any carbonate . add COLD sodium hydroxide solution to the suspected ammonium salt and test any gas with red litmus. HCO3. the higher the H+ concentration. Smelly ammonia released! and red litmus turns blue.test for CO2 as above.yellow /orange. .red. strong . A pH meter reading gives a value of less than 7. Ammonia gas is evolved: NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) ==> NH3(g) + H2O(l) Acids Hydrogen ion i. (ii) Add a little sodium hydrogencarbonate powder. the lower the pH number the stronger the acid. chloride for HCl etc. depending on strength of acid.(aq) + H+(aq) ==> H2O(l) + CO2(g) Characteristic of result (i) Litmus turns red.

see ammonia test for rest of details . NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) ==> NH3(g) + H2O(l) Characteristic of result (i) It turns litmus blue.Ammonium ion(NH4+)….e. a soluble base (alkali) which forms the OH. dark green violet for weak . the higher the pH number the stronger the alkali.strong. (ii) If strongly alkaline ammonia should be released. (ii) ammonia gas is evolved: (ii) Add a little of an ammonium salt. Alkali: Hydroxide ion i. A pH meter gives a value of more than 7.) (i) Litmus or universal indicator or pH meter.ion in water (note: to completely identify alkalis you need to test for the cation e. the higher the OHconcentration. Ammonia released from the salt.g. variety of colours univ. ind.. sodium for NaOH etc.

Chromate(VI) ion (CrO42-)/(yellow) These tests are not very definitive. 'lead chromate' . Ba2+(aq) + CrO42-(aq) ==> BaCrO4(s) (iii)Add lead(II) nitrate solution. Pb2+(aq) + CrO42-(aq) ==> PbCrO4(s) Characteristic of result (i) The yellow solution turns orange as the dichromate(VI) ion is formed. (iii) A yellow precipitate of lead(II) chromate(VI) is formed. (ii) A yellow precipitate of barium chromate(VI) is formed. CrO42-(aq) + 2H+(aq) ==> Cr2O72-(aq) (ii) Add barium chloride/nitrate solution. but collectively they are a good 'pointer'! (i) Add dilute sulphuric acid.