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# DESIGN OF PIPE LINE

HAZEN -WILLIAMS EQUATION
V=0.85 xCx(d/4)^0.63xS^0.54

THIS HAZEN -WILLIAMS EQUATION IS OBTAINED FOR V=0.9 AND R=0.3 BUT USED FOR WIDE RANGES OF VELOCITIES AND DIAMETERS

Parameters of Hazen –William Equation

V=0.85 xCx(d/4)^0.63xS^0.54
V= Velocity in mt./second  D= Diameter in mt.  S=Slope i. e. head loss per kilometer  C=Is constant , value is 100

Value of Hazen Williams coefficient for different type of pipes Type of pipe Cast Iron pipe Mild Steel Bare pipe A.C. Pipe Value of Constant " C" 100 100 130

PSC pipe
D.I.Pipe P.V.C Pipe

130
130 140

DRAWBACKS OF HAZEN WILLIAMS FORMULA For any given pipe and fluid, there is some velocity ~call it a“ reference velocity”! where the Hazen-Williams equation is exactly correct. As velocity changes from that value, there is a small error, and this can be calculated in a formula given by the discusser ~Walski 1984! as C = C0 (V/V1)^0.081 where C=C-factor at velocity V; C0=C-factor at reference velocity; V=Actual velocity and V0=reference velocity. Reference velocity is 0.90 mt./second

CORRECTION FACTOR FOR HAZEN WILLIAMS COEFFICIENT Velocity below 0.9 mt/sec Add 5% to C value Add 3% to C value Add 1% to C value Velocity above 0.9 mt/sec. For each redoubling of velocity of 0.9 mt/sec

C Value

Below 100

Subtract 5% from C value

100-130
130-140

Subtract 3% from C value
Subtract 1% from C value

Reference:- Book of Pramod R. Bhave P/41

EFFECT IF AGE ON HAZEN WILLIAMS COEFICIENT FOR COATED CI PIPES Diameter in mm Degree of corrosion 30 Years age Slight Moderate Appreciable 100 83 59 106 90 70 112 97 78 117 102 83 120 107 89 75 150 300 600 1200

Severe 60 Years age
Slight

41

50

58

66

73

90

97

102

107

112

Moderate Appreciable
Severe

69 49
30

87 58
39

85 66
48

92 72
56

96 82
62

Reference:- Book of Pramod R. Bhave P/86

BERNOULLI’S THEOREM
Z1 +P1+V1xV1/2g= Z2 + P2 +V2 x V2 /2g + HL

Parameters of Bernoulli’s Theorem
Z1/Z2= Initial and end ground level elevation in mts  P1/P2=Initial and end pressure in mt  V1/V2= Initial and end velocity in mt/second  HL= Friction losses between section in mts.

GRAVITY MAIN DESIGN TABLE

Poin t on line

Chai nage

Location

Averag e daily deman d in mld

Peakin g factor

Maxim um daily dema nd

Size of pipe in mm

H W C

Leng th in mts

Loss per KM

Tota l loss

HMG in mt 35.1

GL

0 7450 745 0

Varsamedi 40 Rambagh 1 40 860 13 0 7450 0.6498 03 4.84 1

35.1

30.7 6

4.34

4.34

30.26

25.7 8

4.48

9.33

ECONOMIC DESIGN OF RISING MAIN

INPUT DATA OF RISING MAIN DESIGN-

1) Water requirement : Initial Intermediate Ultimate

Year

Disc harg e 17.58 21.98 26.37 mld mld mld

2002 2017 2032

2) Length of pumping main 3) Static head for pump 4) Design period 5) Combined eff. of pump set 6) Cost of pumping unit 7) Interest rate 8) Life of elec. motors 9) Energy charges 10) Pumping hours for discharge at the end of 15 years.

4000.00 10.00 30.00 75.00 17500 12.00 15.00 500.00 22.00

m m yrs % Rs/kw % yrs paise/unit hrs

INPUT DATA OF ECONOMIC DESIGN OF RISING MAINP I P E DI A METE R TYP E MS MS MS MS MS MS CLAS S 5MM 5MM 6MM 6MM 6MM 6MM "HW C" 130.00 130.00 130.00 130.00 130.00 130.00 D A T A RATE

Rs. /m

498.00 549.00 598.00 648.00 699.00 750.00

2052.00 2301.00 2818.00 3039.00 3253.00 3470.00

OUTPUT OF ECONOMIC DESIGN OF RISING MAIN

Result: Table : 3 Shows that the most economical of Rising main is :

699

Mm dia.

Total capitalized cost for 30 years is Rs.: 23,748,000

Pump level below GL Ht of ESR Ht of water column Friction losses considering 500 mm dia 40 mld discharge @ PF1.2 3.3 12 8.8 1.3 Mts Mts Mts Mts

and 20.8 mt vertical & 40 Mt horizontal pipe Losses in bends welded not rounded 1.25 VxV/ 2xg 3 Nos 1.1 Mts

Velocity 2.36 mt/second Other minor losses such as sluice valve, water meter etc Residual head required 2.36x2.36/2x9.81 TOTAL HEAD Say DISCHARGE REQUIRED Considering 20 Hours pumping Considering 2 Pumps Calculating of lpm Say 1 0.3 27.8 30 1666667 2000000 1000000 16666.67 16670 Mts Mts Mts Mts liters per hour liters per hour liters per hour Liters per minute lpm

W x H / 75 xn 16670x30/ 75x60x0.85 Say 130.7 140 hp HP

COMPARISION OF HAZEN WILLIAMS & CHEZY'S FORMULA Loss as per Haze n Willia ms
1.29
4.52 16.33 15.75 65.96

Diamete r
300
300 300 100 100

Velocity
0.45
0.90 1.80 0.88 1.92

Loss as per Chez y's
1.43
5.52 22.69 15.95 74.89

Diff in %
10.85
21.93 38.92 1.27 13.54

Diff in 0.9 & 1.8 veloci ty

16.99 12.27 12.06 13.20 14.72

200
200 400 400 500 500

0.92
1.80 0.90 1.87 0.90 1.80

7.57
26.32 3.24 12.62 2.50 9.02

8.65
33.25 4.15 17.83 3.31 13.27

14.27
26.33 28.09 41.28 32.40 47.12

VELOCITY OF FREE FLOW PIPE
V= ( g * X^2/ 2*y)^0.5 V= Velocity in mt / second

X= Horizontal ordinate of free flow
Y= Vertical ordinate of free flow g=9.81

MINOR HEAD LOSS DUE TO SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT H= K x (V^2 - V2^2 ) / 2 x g D:D2 1:1.2 1:1.4 1:1.6 1:1.8 1:2 1:1.25 1:3 1:4 1:5 K 0.11-0.08 0.26-0.2 0.4-0.32 0.51-0.4 0.6-0.47 0.74-0.58 0.83-0.65 0.92-0.72 0.96-0.75

MINOR HEAD LOSS DUE TO GRADUAL ENLARGEMENT H= K x( V^2 - V2^2 ) / 2 x g Degree 2 4 K 0.033 0.039

6
8 10 12 15

0.046
0.055 0.078 0.1 0.16

20
30 40 50 60 75 90

0.31
0.49 0.6 0.67 0.72 0.72 0.67

MINOR HEAD LOSS DUE TO SUDDEN CONTRACTION H= K x( V^2 - V2^2 ) / 2 x g D:D2 1.2:1 1.4:1 K 0.07-0.11 0.17-0.2

1.6:1
1.8:1

0.26-0.24
0.34-0.27

2:01
2.5:1 3:01 4:01 5:01

0.38-0.29
0.42-0.31 0.44-0.33 0.47-0.34 0.48-0.35

MINOR HEAD LOSS DUE TO GRADUAL CONTRACTION H= K x( V^2 - V2^2 ) / 2 x g DESCRIPTION Ordinary Bell mouth Streamlined VALUE OF K 0.5 0.1 0.04

LOSS AT ENTRANCE = K X V^2/ 2 X g

DESCTIPTION
Bell mouth Slightly rounded Sharp edged

VALUE OF K
0.04 0.23 0.5

Re-entrant pipe( Pipe protected into tank) Strainer with foot valve

1 2.5

LOSS AT ELBOWS=K x V^2 / 2 x g DESCRIPTION Flanged regular Flanged long radius Screwed regular Elbow 90% Flanged regular Flanged long radius Interconnection of two cylinder pipes welded but not rounded Screwed short radius 0.21-0.3 0.18-0.2 VALUE OF K Elbow 45% 0.2-0.3 0.18-0.2 0.3-0.42

1.25-1.8 0.9

0.75
0.6

FRICTION LOSSES IN BENDS

LOSS AT BEND=K x V^2 / 2 x g Angle of bend 5% 10% 15% 22.50% 30% Value of K 0.116-0.024 0.034-0.044 0.042-0.062 0.066-0.154 0.13-0.165

45%
60% 90%

0.236-0.32
0.685 1.265

LOSS AT TEE=K x V^2 / 2 x g
DESCTIPTION Standard bifurcating Standard 90% turn Reducing run of tee ( In terms of velocity at smaller end) 2:1 4:1 LOSS AT OBSTRUCTION=K x V^2 / 2 x g PIPE AREA : FLOW AREA 1.1 1.4 1.6 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 VALUE OF K 0.21 1.15 2.4 5.55 15 27.3 32 57 72.5 121 0.9 0.75 VALUE OF K 1.5-1.8 1.8

LOSS AT WATER METERS =K x V^2 / 2 x g
VENTUREMETER Value of K Throat to Inlet dia. ratio 1:3 1:2 2:3 3:4 Orifice to pipe dia ratio 1:4 1:3 1:2 2:3 3:4 Long tube 1-1.2 0.44-0.52 1.25-0.3 0.2-0.23 ORIFICE METER Value of K 4.8 2.5 1 0.4 0.24 Short tube 2.43 0.72 0.32 0.24

EQUIVALENT PIPE LENGTH Description
Sudden enlargement D:D1=3:4 D:D1=1:2 D:D1=1:4 Sudden contraction D:D1= 2:1 Entrance sharp edge Elbow 45 degree Flanged regular Flanged long radius Elbow 90 degree Flanged regular Flanged long radius Welded Bend radius/ pipe dia. ration 0.5 1 1.5 2 3 Return bend 180 degree regular Return bend 180 degree large radius Tee line flow Tee branch flow Gate valve Full open 3/4 open 1/2 open 1/4 open 6.7 39 190 300 38 17 12 10 9 73 39 60 300 24 18 6 4 7 22 31 12 18

Equivalent length

CALCULATION OF TOTAL PRESSURE ON BODY OF VALVES ON REDUCED SECTION OF PIPE LINE
CASE STUDY OF NARMADA PIPE LINE NC-10 DIAMETER OF PIPE LINE DIAMETER OF BUTTERFLY VALVE CARRYING CAPACITY OF LINE PEAKING FACTOR HENCE HOURS OF FLOW VELOCITY CALCULATIONS V=200*1000/(20*60*60*0.785*1.8*1.8) Velocity at reduced section V=200*1000/(20*60*60*0.785*1.2*1.2) Pressure on line P1 Pressure on reduced section Considering on same ground level hence Z is nullified from equation P2= P1 - ( V2^2- V1^2)/( 2*9.81) P2= 10 - ( 2.46^2- 1.09^2)/( 2*9.81) Say 9.75 kg/sqcm 9.752115189 2.46 mt/second 10 Kg/sqcm P2 1.09 mt/second 1800 MM 1200 MM 200 MLD 1.2 20 HRS 180 cm 120 cm

EQUATING FORCE ( PIPE LINE IN RUNNING CONDITION) F=P1*A1-P2*A2 F=10*(0.785*180*180)9.75*(0.785*120*120) F= Force intensity f= F/area f=144126/ 0.785*120*120 Summing of p+f 9.75+12.75 kg/sqc 22.5 m 12.75 14412 6 14412 6 Kg

Which is greater than 20 kg/sqcm body pressure
Hence many butterfly valves on the line failed from the body

CASE STUDY
250 mm dia connection at Varsamedi  Bypass arrangement of Rambagh filter  Ajapar connection for first time Narmada water supplied through Tappar filter  Bypassing water where pump is of capacity more than capacity of pipe design discharge