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Evgueni Smirnov

Overview

• Association Rule Problem

• Applications

• The Apriori Algorithm

• Discovering Association Rules

• Techniques to Improve Efficiency of

Association Rule Mining

• Measures for Association Rules

Association Rule Problem

• Given a database of transactions:

• Find all the association rules:

Applications

• Market Basket Analysis: given a database of customer

transactions, where each transaction is a set of items the goal is

to find groups of items which are frequently purchased

together.

• Telecommunication (each customer is a transaction

containing the set of phone calls)

• Credit Cards/ Banking Services (each card/account is a

transaction containing the set of customer’s payments)

• Medical Treatments (each patient is represented as a

transaction containing the ordered set of diseases)

• Basketball-Game Analysis (each game is represented as a

transaction containing the ordered set of ball passes)

- I={i

1

, i

2

, ..., i

n

}: a set of all the items

- Transaction T: a set of items such that T_ I

- Transaction Database D: a set of transactions

- A transaction T _ I contains a set X _ I of some

items, if X _ T

- An Association Rule: is an implication of the

form X ¬ Y, where X, Y _ I

Association Rule Definitions

- A set of items is referred as an itemset. A itemset that

contains k items is a k-itemset.

- The support s of an itemset X is the percentage of

transactions in the transaction database D that

contain X.

- The support of the rule X ¬ Y in the transaction

database D is the support of the items set X Y in D.

- The confidence of the rule X ¬ Y in the transaction

database D is the ratio of the number of transactions

in D that contain X Y to the number of

transactions that contain X in D.

Association Rule Definitions

• Given a database of transactions:

• Find all the association rules:

Example

Association Rule Problem

• Given:

― a set I of all the items;

― a database D of transactions;

― minimum support s;

― minimum confidence c;

• Find:

― all association rules X ¬ Y with a minimum

support s and confidence c.

1. Find all sets of items that have minimum

support (frequent itemsets)

2. Use the frequent itemsets to generate the

desired rules

Problem Decomposition

Problem Decomposition

Transaction ID Items Bought

1 Shoes, Shirt, Jacket

2 Shoes,Jacket

3 Shoes, Jeans

4 Shirt, Sweatshirt

If the minimum support is 50%, then {Shoes,Jacket} is the only 2-

itemset that satisfies the minimum support.

Frequent Itemset Support

{Shoes} 75%

{Shirt} 50%

{Jacket} 50%

{Shoes, Jacket} 50%

If the minimum confidence is 50%, then the only two rules generated

from this 2-itemset, that have confidence greater than 50%, are:

Shoes ¬ Jacket Support=50%, Confidence=66%

Jacket ¬ Shoes Support=50%, Confidence=100%

The Apriori Algorithm

• Frequent I temset Property:

Any subset of a frequent itemset is frequent.

• Contrapositive:

If an itemset is not frequent, none of its

supersets are frequent.

Frequent Itemset Property

The Apriori Algorithm

• L

k

: Set of frequent itemsets of size k (with min support)

• C

k

: Set of candidate itemset of size k (potentially frequent

itemsets)

L

1

= {frequent items};

for (k = 1; L

k

!=C; k++) do

C

k+1

= candidates generated from L

k

;

for each transaction t in database do

increment the count of all candidates in

C

k+1

that are contained in t

L

k+1

= candidates in C

k+1

with min_support

return

k

L

k

;

The Apriori Algorithm — Example

Scan D

itemset sup.

{1} 2

{2} 3

{3} 3

{4} 1

{5} 3

C

1

itemset sup.

{1} 2

{2} 3

{3} 3

{5} 3

L

1

itemset sup

{1 3} 2

{2 3} 2

{2 5} 3

{3 5} 2

L

2

itemset sup

{1 2} 1

{1 3} 2

{1 5} 1

{2 3} 2

{2 5} 3

{3 5} 2

C

2

itemset

{1 2}

{1 3}

{1 5}

{2 3}

{2 5}

{3 5}

C

2

Scan D

C

3

itemset

{2 3 5}

Scan D

L

3

itemset sup

{2 3 5} 2

TID Items

100 1 3 4

200 2 3 5

300 1 2 3 5

400 2 5

Database D

Min support =50%

How to Generate Candidates

Input: L

i-1

: set of frequent itemsets of size i-1

Output: C

i

: set of candidate itemsets of size i

C

i

= empty set;

for each itemset J in L

i-1

do

for each itemset K in L

i-1

s.t. K<> J do

if i-2 of the elements in J and K are equal then

if all subsets of {K J} are in L

i-1

then

C

i

= C

i

{K J}

return C

i

;

• L

3

={abc, abd, acd, ace, bcd}

• Generating C

4

from L

3

– abcd from abc and abd

– acde from acd and ace

• Pruning:

– acde is removed because ade is not in L

3

• C

4

={abcd}

Example of Generating Candidates

Example of Discovering Rules

Let use consider the 3-itemset {I1, I2, I5}:

I1 . I2 ¬ I5

I1 . I5 ¬ I2

I2 . I5 ¬ I1

I1 ¬ I2 . I5

I2 ¬ I1 . I5

I5 ¬ I1 . I2

Discovering Rules

for each frequent itemset I do

for each subset C of I do

if (support(I) / support(I - C) >= minconf) then

output the rule (I - C) ¬ C,

with confidence = support(I) / support (I - C)

and support = support(I)

Example of Discovering Rules

TID List of

Item_IDs

T100 I1, I2, I5

T200 I2, I4

T300 I2, I3

T400 I1, I2, I4

T500 I1, I3

T600 I2, I3

T700 I1, I3

T800 I1, I2, I3, I5

T900 I1, I2, I3

Let use consider the 3-itemset {I1, I2, I5}

with support of 0.22(2)%. Let generate all

the association rules from this itemset:

I1 . I2 ¬ I5 confidence= 2/4 = 50%

I1 . I5 ¬ I2 confidence= 2/2 = 100%

I2 . I5 ¬ I1 confidence= 2/2 = 100%

I1 ¬ I2 . I5 confidence= 2/6 = 33%

I2 ¬ I1 . I5 confidence= 2/7 = 29%

I5 ¬ I1 . I2 confidence= 2/2 = 100%

Apriori Advantages/Disadvantages

• Advantages:

– Uses large itemset property.

– Easily parallelized

– Easy to implement.

• Disadvantages:

– Assumes transaction database is memory

resident.

– Requires many database scans.

A transaction that does not contain any frequent

k-itemset will not contain frequent l-itemset for

l >k! Thus, it is useless in subsequent scans!

Transaction reduction

Partitioning

Sampling

Mining on a subset of given data, lower

support threshold + a method to determine the

completeness

Alternative Measures for Association

Rules

- The confidence of X ¬ Y in database D is the ratio of the

number of transactions containing X Y to the number of

transactions that contain X. In other words the confidence is:

- But, when Y is independent of X: p(Y) = p(Y | X). In this case if

p(Y) is high we’ll have a rule with high confidence that

associate independent itemsets! For example, if p(―buy milk‖) =

80% and ―buy milk‖ is independent from ―buy salmon‖, then the

rule ―buy salmon‖ ¬ ―buy milk‖ will have confidence 80%!

) | (

) (

) (

| |

) (

| |

) (

) ( X Y p

X p

Y X p

D

X numTrans

D

Y X numTrans

Y X conf =

.

=

= ÷

Alternative Measures for Association

Rules

• The lift measure indicates the departure from independence of X

and Y. The lift of X ¬ Y is :

• But, the lift measure is symmetric; i.e., it does not take into

account the direction of implications!

) ( ) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

Y p X p

Y X p

Y p

X p

Y X p

Y p

Y X conf

Y X lift

.

=

.

=

÷

= ÷

Alternative Measures for Association

Rules

• The conviction measure indicates the departure from

independence of X and Y taking into account the

implication direction. The conviction of X ¬ Y is :

) (

) ( ) (

) (

Y X p

Y p X p

Y X conv

÷ .

÷

= ÷

Summary

1. Association Rules form an very applied data mining

approach.

2. Association Rules are derived from frequent itemsets.

3. The Apriori algorithm is an efficient algorithm for

finding all frequent itemsets.

4. The Apriori algorithm implements level-wise search

using frequent irem property.

5. The Apriori algorithm can be additionally optimised.

6. There are many measures for association rules.

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