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Auxiliary Power Consumption Reduction in Thermal Power Stations

Ramesh Bhatia Schneider Electric

APC Reduction In Thermal Power Stations

> APC - Scenario of

Indian Thermal Power Stations > APC - Facts > System-wise Opportunities
and results

Indian Power Sector

Total Thermal Coal Gas Oil Hydro (Renewable) Nuclear Renewable Energy Sources** (MNRE)

(as on 31-07-2010 by CEA)

105646.98 87,093.38 17,353.85 1,199.75 37,033.40 4,560.00 16,429.42



**include Small Hydro Project, Biomass Gasifier, Biomass Power, Urban & Industrial Waste Power, Wind Energy

APC - Indian Scenario

(Source: CEA -Performance Review of Thermal Power Stations 2007-2008)

APC - Capacity wise

Capacity Group in MW
250 210 195-200 100-150 <100

SHR - Region wise (2007-2008)

Region Weighted Average Design SHR (kcal/kWh)
2371.6 2400.6 2391.4

Auxiliary Power consumption in %

8.80 8.77 7.67 10.32 10.31

Weighted average Operating SHR (kcal/kWh)

2787.0 2653.2 2738.5

Western Southern Eastern

National Level APC -


Best Acheived Sipat STPS of NTPC

National Level SHR Design 2376.8 kcal/kWh

(Source: CEA -Performance Review of Thermal Power Stations 2008-2009)



APC Reduction In Thermal Power Stations

> APC - Scenario of

Power Stations

Indian Thermal

> APC - Facts

and results

> System-wise Opportunities

APC - Elements
Draft System (ID,FD,PA /SA, HGR Fans

Others (Air washer, AC plant etc)

Feed Water System ( BFP, CEP)


Auxiliary Power Consumption

Cooling water system (ACW, MCW, CT)

Water Treatment System

Coal Handling & Grinding Plant

mpressed Air System

Ash handling System

APC Break-up
Gross Generation Vs APC Typical APC Breakup
Cooling water system , 1.20% APC, 8.32%

Net Generation , 91.68%

Coal Handling & Grinding , 0.58% Ash Handling , 0.72%

Compressed Air System, 0.04% Feed water System , 3.22% Water treatment System, 0.27% Lighiting , 0.07% Draft System, 2.20%


HT Motors (6.6 KV)

LT Motors (415 V)

Total Connected Load

43 Nos

510 Nos


Auxiliary Consumption as % of total generation

Auxiliary Power Consumption

Factors affecting APC
Operating the equipment at maximum efficiency

Plant load factor


Energy Conservation in Power Stations

Reduction of auxiliary Power consumption

Operational efficiency of equipments Startup & shutdown Age of the plant

Low High*
Moderate to High
*Depends on R & M

Coal Quality

Reduction of 0.2 - 0.3 % in APC with retrofits and system optimisation techniques could be achieved. Major retrofits can result into higher APC reduction


Therefore, 12% of total generation Reduction of even 0.5 - 1.0 % can result in huge savings and

may consume upto

additional output of a few Megawatts


APC is measured only from difference of generated and transmitted power, but no direct measure

APC calculation is approximate and efficiency of each

equipment is unavailable ascertained and isolated

Loss of efficiency due to technical/maintenance reasons cannot be

APC Reduction In Thermal Power Stations

> APC - Scenario of
Power Stations > APC - Facts

Indian Thermal

> S ystem-wise
Opportunities and results

Auxiliary Power Consumption

Process System Equipment

Requirement Analysis

Pressure drop analysis Flow requirement, sizing And layout

Actual requirement corrections

Effectiveness analysis Break-even in terms of power consumption and process gain Multi level / element Control

Corrections due to Performance deterioration Equipment control and retrofits Internals replacement and retrofits Energy Efficient Equipments

System level control

System retrofits for full / partial load requirement

Process Upgrades

System retrofits for abnormal And normal conditions

System Configuration for Energy Management System in a Power Plant


eLAN Client Software- 1

eLAN Server Software

eLAN Redundant Software


eLAN Client Software-2

eLAN Client Software-3

8 Port Ethernet Switch

12 Port LIU

12 Port LIU

12 Port LIU

12 Port LIU

Dept. A

12 Port LIU

Dept. B

12 Port LIU

Dept. C

8 Port Ethernet Switch

8 Port Ethernet Switch

8 Port Ethernet Switch

RS 485-1

RS 485-2

RS 485-1

RS 485-2

RS 485-1

RS 485-2







EM 6400

EM 6400

EM 6400

EM 6400

EM 6400

EM 6400

EM 6400

EM 6400

EM 6400

EM 6400

EM 6400

EM 6400

10/ 100 Mbps Single Mode Media Convertor

Cat6 Patch chord

RS 485 Cable

Fibre patch

6 core Single

Cat6 Cable

ION 7550 RTU

APC Reduction Measures

Boiler Feed Water System

Speed control in place of valve control
Variable speed drive (BFP, CEP) Variable speed Hydraulic coupling (BFP)

BFP scoop operation in three element mode instead of DP mode Avoid Recirculation
Faulty valve

BFP Cartridge Replacement CEP Pressure reduction by Stage removal

Scoop operation in Direct Mode

BFP re-circulation through bypass valve leakage was established through study in one of the plant (manual valve closed for 1 hour) and 45 kW (3%) power reduction in BFP was observed Operation of BFP with lower DP (14 bar to 6 bar ) in a 2 x 125 MW plant resulted in to reduction 1.8 MU

APC Reduction Measures

Draft System
FD, PA & ID Fans
Arresting Air in-leaks in draft system (by O2 measurement)
Excess Air for combustion - Increase in FD, PA & ID fan power

Excess Air
Flow increase in ID fan
Pulverized Coal

Air ingress

Leakage in APH - increase in FD, PA & ID fan power consumption

Leakage in Duct & ESP body - increase in ID fan power consumption

Comparative analysis of fan performance with respect to design

Identification of the gaps by investigation & Observation Inlet/outlet Duct connection Fan body - for holes/cracks Deposits formation in impellers/casings Erosion of impeller blades

Type of Furnace or Burners

Completely water-cooled Furnace or slagtap or dry-ash removal Partially water-cooled Furnace or dry-ash Removal

Excess Air (%by wt)


Maintain Primary Air to Secondary Air ratio to reduce the PA fan power consumption

15 -40

14% air ingress between APH and ID Fan was indentified in one of the plants and it was rectified to 4% , this resulted in 17% reduction in ID Fan power consumption

APC Reduction Measures

Draft System
Elimination of damper/Inlet Guide vane based capacity control with variable speed control system Variable speed drive Variable speed hydraulic coupling Use of energy efficient fans Change of impeller with energy efficient / appropriately sized impeller

Fan Curve at Const. Speed 700

Fan Efficiency 77%

Partially closed valve

Oversize Fan


420 Static Pressure System Curves

Full open valve

Required Fan

Operating Points 30000 50000

Flow (m3/hr)

Efficiency improvement by replacing fans and impellers of FD, PA and ID Fan results in Energy Saving of 14.5 MU at an investment of Rs. 20 MINR

APC Reduction Measures

Coal Handling Plant

Coal Handling Plant
Proper Capacity utilization/under loading of system Idle running of conveyors/crushers Consumes 15 to 20% of full load power Auto Star-Delta- Star in place of DOL/StarDelta Minimization of motor losses for under loaded motors (<40%) Control of transfer point dust extraction fans and dust suppression pumps Adequate and constant loading of crushers (often seen loading <50%)

Optimisation of crusher loading has resulted in reduction 25% of operating time and 16% in energy consumption i.e. 0.5 MU per annum

APC Reduction Measures

Coal Milling
Coal Milling/Grinding System
Maintain proper air fuel ratio Periodic testing of coal particle size To minimize fines (less than minimum required size) Optimized Mill parameters Ball loading in Ball/ tube mill Roller pressure with respect to grindability of coal Mill internals replacement with regression analysis of previous and present consumption pattern (including particle distribution)

Ball Load Power

Roller Pressure

Break-even point for replacement must be identified so as to avoid excess energy consumption in coal mill

Replacement Analysis
Grinding Roll Run Hours Vs Specific Power Consumption
10 9.5 9 8.5 8 7.5 7 6.5 6 5.5 5 0 500

y = 2E-07x2 - 0.0004x + 6.9991 R2 = 0.9685 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
Run Hours

APC Reduction Measures

Cooling Water System

Cooling Water Pumps Suction related issues Mis-match of required head and rated head Number of pumps operation based on vacuum during favorable condition (careful analysis to be made between power gain and pump consumption)
Auxiliary Cooling water Pumps Avoid circulation of cooling in standby systems (i.e. oil coolers etc) Used ACW water to condenser

Cooling tower
Nozzles to give better distribution over the fill Follow Manufacturers recommended clearances around cooling towers and relocate or modify structures that interfere with exhaust or air intake Optimize cooling tower fan blade angle on a seasonal and/ or load basis Correct excessive and/ or uneven fan blade tip clearance Replace splash bars with self extinguishing PVC cellular film fills Periodically clean plugged cooling tower distribution nozzles Maintain the Optimum L/G ratio 1.4 to 1.6 ( Rectify distribution problems)

Old cooling water pumps operating at 52% efficiency and developing only 70% of the rated head has been replaced and saved 0.8 MU per annum Detailed study of cooling tower capability, L/G ratio, gas exit velocity, air flow and recirculation to operate 7 CTs instead of 8 CTs has resulted in to energy saving of 0.43 MU per annum

Water Treatment Plant and Water Pumping

Avoid over sizing and improper selection of pump Using start stop control
Eg: filling the tank with level based control

APC Reduction Measures

Variable speed drives with feedback control Impeller Trimming to permanently reduce the capacity Proper maintenance
Periodic checking of valves Cavitation Leakage in gland sealing Deposits on impeller/casing

Change the RO discharge Pressure setting with respect to raw water TDS Multiple pumps in parallel operation as per flow requirement

Detailed study of entire system from intake to make-up water has potential in optimisation complete system (intermittent operation of additional pump, avoiding recirculation, installation of VFDs (raw water make-up, cooling tower make-up, ash water make-up, service water make-up, drinking water make-up). Estimated annual savings of these measures is 1.38 MU with investment payback of 20 months

APC Reduction Measures

Compressed air System

Air Compressor Air Optimizing discharge air pressure Instrument air application - 6 bar(g) Ash Conveying - 3 bar(g) Open ended cleaning houses- 2 bar(g) Optimum capacity utilization Loading > 80% Capacity control Cascading operation Cylinder cut off Variable speed Energy efficient compressors Screw in place of reciprocation Other Steps Take cool, Dry & clean air

Reduction of generation pressure (identified areas), additional piping to reduce pressure drop, improvement of Volumetric efficiency, separation of cleaning air network with PRV and cleaning nozzles has potential to save 1.2 MU (8 x 120 MW )

APC Reduction Measures

Supply Side: Compressor Control

Internal Control: Most common foun Load/Unload control

Our benchmarking values: High Efficiency: Bad Efficiency:

Unloading rate < 20%

Average Efficiency: 50% >Unloading rate > 20% 70% >Unloading rate > 50% Very Bad Efficiency: Unloading rate >70%

APC Reduction Measures

Compressed air System

Distribution System Reduce the compressed air leakage Low pressure drop network
Maximum Pr drop 0.6 to 1.0 bar

Driers Use of heat of compression air dryer instead of electrically heated air dryer User End Open ended usage - use nozzles & pressure regulator

Separation of cleaning air network and reduction of service air generation pressure in a PP resulted in stopping of one air compressor 0.35 MU

APC Reduction Measures

Power Distribution
Loading < 30% - Stat Delta Star connection to minimize motor losses Example: CHP conveyor Motors Energy Efficient Motors

Power Factor Improvement

(Applicable only on selected areas)

reduced kVA drawn , KVAR & current reduction of transformer load reduction of cable losses, reduction of switch gear rating Enhanced life of equipment Fixed capacitor banks (Shunt Connected) at major load ends

Optimizing Voltage level of distribution Transformer Loading Optimization Optimum loading 50 to 60% Shifting of loads to under loaded Transformers

15 - 20 years old rewound and under load (<40% loading) motors are Candidates for replacement with Energy Efficient Motors BoP area distribution transformers BoP area, ESP, AHP transformers could be considered for PF Improvement

Yesterday, we operated plant processes, systems and equipments manually Today, we are operating these with localised controls and partial integrated control

Tomorrow, we will have to operate with full integrated and intelligent controls with innovative solutions where we do more than we can imagine today, with less than we used yesterday!
The key to success is changing our behaviour

Make the most of your energy