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HISTORICAL RESEARCH
Presented By: Hazlin Aisha Binti Zainal Abidin Nor Syamimi ohd !hairi Asyra" Bin ohd Za#i

$HAT IS HISTORICAL RESEARCH%


The systematic collection of data to describe, explain and thereby understand actions or events that occured sometimes in the past.

No manipulation or control of variables - differ with experimental research.

Focuses primarily on the !"T.

P&RPOSES O' HISTORICAL RESEARCH

1. To ma$e people aware of what has happened in the past so they may learn from past failures and successes.

2. To learn how thin%s were done in the past to see if they mi%ht be applicable to present-day problems and concerns.

#. To assist in prediction.

'. To understand present educational practices and policies more fully.

&. To test hypothesis concerns relationships or trends.

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STEPS IN(OL(E) IN HISTORICAL RESEARCH


1. (efinin% the problem or )uestion to be investi%ated.
,esearcher aim to describe, clarify, explain or correct what has been conducted before.

2. *ocatin% relevant resources of historical information.

,esearcher searchin% for relevant source materials.

#. "ummari+in% and evaluatin% the information obtained from these sources.

,esearcher will summari+e and evaluate the sources that they able to locate.

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resentin% and interpretin% this information.

,esearcher interprate the evidence obtained and then drawin% the conclusions about the problem or hypothesis.

STEPS IN(OL(E) IN HISTORICAL RESEARCH


1. (efinin% the problem or )uestion to be investi%ated.

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,esearcher claim to describe, clarify, explain or correct what has been conducted before.
roblems should be clearly and concisely stated, be mana%eable, have a defensiable rationale, and investi%ate a hypotesi+ed relationship amon% variables.

-t is better to study in depth a well-defined problem that is perhaps more narrow than one would li$e than to pursue a more broadly stated problem that cannot be sharply defined or fully resolved.

2. *ocatin% relevant resources of historical information.

/ate%ories of "ources0 a* )o+,ments 1 2ritten or printed materials that have been produced in one form or another sometime in the past. 1 3xamples0 !nnual ,eports, !rtwor$, 4oo$s, (iaries, Newspaper, Noteboo$.

+* Oral statements 1 -nclude any form of statement spo$en by someone. 1 3xamples0 "tories, 5yths, Tales, *a%ends, "on%s. d* Reli+s 1 !ny ob6ect whose physical or visual characteristics can provide some information about the past. 1 3xamples0 Furniture, !rtwor$, /lothin%, 4uildin%s, 5onuments, 3)uipment.

b* N,meri+al re+ords 1 -nclude any type of numerical data in printed or handwritten form. 1 3xamples0 Test "cores, !ttendance Fi%ures, /ensus ,eports, "chool 4ud%ets.

Primary /s Se+ondary So,r+es:

a* Primary So,r+es 1 ! sources prepared by an individual who was participant in or a direct witness to the event that is bein% described.
E-am.les o" Primary So,r+es 1 ! photo%raph of convocation ceremony of 189&. 1 5inutes of a school board meetin% in 189:, ta$en by secretary of the board. 1 !n essay written durin% 2orld 2ar 2 by students.

b* Se+ondary So,r+es 1 ! document prepared by an individual who want a direct witness to an event but obtained description of the event from someone else.

E-am.les o" Se+ondary So,r+es 1 ! ma%a+ine article summari+in% !ristotle;s views on education. 1 ! boo$ describin% schoolin% in 3n%land durin% 17::s. 1 ! textboo$ on educational research.

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#. "ummari+in% and evaluatin% the information obtained from these sources.

1 (eterminin% the relevancy of the particular material to the )uestion or problem bein% investi%ated.

1 ,ecordin% the full biblio%raphic data of the source.

1 <r%ani+in% the data collected under cate%ories related to the problem bein% studied.

1 "ummari+in% pertinent information =important facts, )uotations, and )uestions>.

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&. resentin% and interpretin% this information.

Content Analysis 1 -s a primary method of data analysis in historical research. E-ternal Criti+ism 1 ,efers to the %enuiness of the documents a researcher uses in a historical study. 1 ?as to do with the authenticity of a document
1 2ho wrote this document@ 1 For what purpose was the document written@ 1 2hen was the socument written@ 1 -s the date on the document accurate@ 1 2here was the document written@ 1 (o different forms or versions of the document exist@

Internal Criti+ism 1 ,efer to the accuracy of the contents of a document. 1 -nternal criticism has to do with what the document says.
1 2as the author present at the event he or she is describin%@ 1 2as the author a participant in or an observer of the event@ 1 2as the author competent to describe the event@ 1 (oes the lan%ua%e of the documet su%%est a bias of any sort@ 1 (o other version of the event exist@

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A)(ANTA0ES 1 )ISA)(ANTA0ES O' HISTORICAL RESEARCH


Ad/anta2es 1 ermits the investi%ation of topics that could be studies in no other way. 1 The only research method that can study evidence from the past.

)isad/anta2es 1 /ontrollin% for many of the threats to internal validity is not possible in historical research. 1 5any of the treats to internal validity are li$ely to exist in historicla studies.