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NNN as Standardized Nursing language

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Mengapa NNN??

NNN integrated into nursing process

Nursing process has changed over time (Pesut & Herman,1998): 1st generation (1950 1970)problems & process 2nd generation ( 1970 1990)nursing diagnoses and diagnostic reasoning 3rd generation ( 1990 2010)outcome-drivens model supported by critical thinking and clinical reasoning.

4th generation (2010 2020)knowledge building from the analysis of the pattern and relationship among nursing diagnoses, interventions and outcomes 5th generation (2020 2035) models of care which are the archetypes of care being empirically based. 6th generation (2035 2050) predictive care using tested prototypes of care

Components of Nursing Language

NANDA: Nursing Diagnosis: Definitions and Classification NIC: Nursing Interventions Classification NOC: Nursing Outcomes Classification

Variations of Nursing Diagnosis:

1. Actual diagnosis: describes health conditions that exist and supported by defining characteristics 2. Risk diagnosis: those which describe disease or other conditions that may develop and are supported by risk factors 3. Wellness diagnosis: describe levels of wellness and potential for enhancement to a higher level of functioning
(NANDA, 2009) and (Denehy & Poulton, 1999)

Components of a Nursing Diagnosis

1. Label or Name and definition 2. Related Factors OR Risk Factors 3. Defining Characteristics


Case study
Woman (30 years old) who smoked 1 2 packs of cigarettes/day for more than 12 years. She asked the nurse for assistance to quit and stated,I know it is not good for me and I want to stay healthy.

Diagnosis of human response :

Health seeking behavior : smoking cessation Definition : active seeking (by a person in stable health ) of ways to alter personal health habits and/or the environment in order to move toward a higher level of health.

The nursing outcomes classification (NOC) is a classification of nurse sensitive outcomes NOC outcomes and indicators allow for measurement of the patient, family, or community outcome at any point on a continuum from most negative to most positive and at different points in time. ( Iowa Outcome Project, 2008)

A neutral label or name used to characterize the behavior or patient status A list of indicators that describe client behavior or patient status. A five point scale to rate the patients status for each of the indicators

Each nursing Diagnosis is followed by a list of suggested outcomes to measure whether the chosen interventions are helping the identified problem Each outcome can be individualized to the patient or family by choosing the appropriate indicators or adding additional indicators as necessary

NOC examples: Linked with health seeking behavior : smoking cessation

Risk control : tobacco use (1906) Definition :Actions to eliminate or reduce tobacco use

Outcome status prior to nursing interventions

Indicators based on case study : Monitors environment for encouraging tobacco use (2)-rarely demonstrated Monitor personal behavior for tobacco use (2) Develops strategies to eliminate tobacco use (3) Commits to tobacco use control strategies(3)sometimes demons Uses support group to eliminate tobacco use (1) Eliminates tobacco use (1)-never.dem

Extremely compromised 1 Substantially compromised 2 Moderately compromised 3 Mildly compromised 4 Not compromised 5 _____________________________________________________ Severe 1 Substantial 2 Moderate 3 Mild 4 None 5

The nursing interventions classification (NIC) is a comprehensive, standardized language describing treatments that nurses perform in all settings and in all specialties. (Iowa Intervention Project, 2008)

Definition: any treatment based upon clinical judgment and knowledge, that a nurse performs to enhance patient/client outcomes. (Iowa Intervention Project, 2000,p.3)

Name or label A definition A set of activities the nurse does to carry out the intervention

Each NANDA diagnosis is followed by a list of suggested interventions for resolving the identified problem Interventions and activities should be chosen to meet the individual clients needs Activities can be further individualized by adding client specific information Additional activities may be added if appropriate

NIC Examples: Linked with Risk for Infection

Smoking cessation assistance (4490) Activities : Give advice to quit consistently Assist the woman in choosing strategies Motivate her to set a quit date Refer to group programs or individual therapy Inform her of possible symptoms Help coping strategies and resolve problems

Case Study
4 year old boy with ALL Admitted one week after chemo with a fever of 102.5F WBC is 0.3,absolute neutrophil count is zero New central line placed 10 days ago C/O nausea & vomiting Cries and hides behind mother when approach by nursing staff

Sample Care Plan using Case Study

NANDA Nursing Diagnoses Risk for infection related to immunosuppression secondary to chemotherapy, inadequate primary defenses (central venous catheter), chronic disease (ALL) and developmental level. NOC Outcomes and Indicators 0702Immune Status Definition: Natural and acquired appropriately targeted resistance to internal and external antigens. 1=severely compromised thru 5= not compromised Absolute WBC values WNL(within normal limits) 1 2 3 4 5 Differential WBC values WNL(within normal limits) 1 2 3 4 5 Skin integrity 1 2 3 4 5 Mucosa integrity 1 2 3 4 5 Body temperature IER( in expected range) 1 2 3 4 5 Gastrointestinal function 1 2 3 4 5 Respiratory Function 1 2 3 4 5 Genitourinary Function 1 2 3 4 5 1= severe thru 5= None Recurrent Infections 1 2 3 4 5 Weight Loss 1 2 3 4 5 Tumors (Immature WBCs) 1 2 3 4 5 (NOC, 2008 p.399) NIC Intervention Label and select nursing activities 6550 infection protection Definition: Prevention and early detection of infection in a patient at risk Activities: Monitor for systemic and localized signs & symptoms of infection (central line site check every 4 hours.) Monitor WBC, and differential results (qod) Follow neutropenic precautions Provide a private room Limit number of visitors Screen all visitors for communicable disease Maintain asepsis Inspect skin and mucous membranes for redness, extreme warmth or drainage (q4 hours) Inspect condition of surgical incision (central line insertion site q 4 hours) Obtain cultures, as needed (Blood cultures prn T>38.3 C q 24 hours) (Drainage @ Central line site) Promote Nutritional intake (1500 kcal per day, Pt likes cereal) Encourage fluid intake (1225 cc per day, Pt likes orange Gatorade) Encourage rest (naps daily 1-3 PM, bedtime t 8:30 PM) Monitor for change in energy level/malaise Instruct patient to take anti-infective as prescribed (Bactrim po BID; Nystatin 5cc,swish & swallow, TID) Teach Family about s & symptoms of infection and when to report them to HCP -Teach patient and family how to avoid infections (NIC, 2008)

Sample Blank Careplan

Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions: Choose the highest priority Nursing Diagnosis as indicated on the clinical reasoning web.
Include problem statement (NANDA), related to or risk factors (etiology), and defining characteristics (as evidenced by or AEB) as appropriate. List all of the appropriate NOC Outcome labels and indicators and NIC intervention labels and nursing activities which will best help your client achieve those outcomes. List the rationale for each and determine where your client falls on the outcome indicator scale (1-5) at the specified time intervals. In the final column summarize why you gave your client the indicator scores that were given and any changes in your care plan that should be made. Briefly describe how the plan of care is helping the patient meet the desired outcomes and any changes that need to be made:
Nanda Nursing Diagnosis NOC Outcome Label(s) and indicators Rationale for NOC chosen and indictor score NIC Intervention label(s) and nursing activities Rationale for NIC Chosen

Complete NANDA Nursing Dx Statement including related or risk factors and defining characteristics

NOC label and appropriate indicators and rating on scale with date (s)

Describe your rationale for choosing this NOC label and the indicator ratings that you chose for this patient.

NIC label and appropriate activities with individualized information added.

Describe your rationale for choosing this NIC label

Denehy,J. & Poulton,S. (1999) Journal of School Nursing, 15 (1), 38-45. Iowa Intervention Project (2008). Nursing interventions and Classification (NIC). (4th ed.) St. Louis: Mosby, Inc. Iowa Outcomes Project (2008). Nursing outcomes classification (NOC). (3rd ed.) St. Louis: Mosby, Inc. NANDA Nursing Diagnosis: Definitions and Classifications 2009-2011. (2009). Indianapolis, IN: Wiley-Blackwell. Lunney.M.(2006) JONA,36(3),118-125.

References (cont.)
Pesut, D. & Herman, J. (1999) Clinical Reasoning: The Art & Science of Critical and Creative Thinking. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers. Schoenfelder, Deborah (2004). Nursing outcomes classification (NOC). Appendix F. (2004) St. Louis: Mosby, Inc. Van De Castle, B. (2003) Comparisons of Nanda/NIC/NOC linkages between experts and nursing students. International Journal of Terminologies and Classifications 14(4)