KOREA Hanguk 한국

Geography
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Korea
From the early dynasty “Koryu” means “High and Clear” n Called as “Land of the morning calm” because of its temperate and tranquil morning. n Pero ngayon “Land of the broken calm” na lang siya. n North korea – Pyongyang n South korea – Seoul
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Geography
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Located on mountainous peninsula between China and Japan. Extends southward from eastern Manchuria to within 70 miles off Kyushu, Japans southern island. Its northern border extends along the border of China and touches the Russia to the northeast. Most of Korea’s nothern border is cut by two large rivers,
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The Yalu flows from westward into yellow sea, Tumen flows to the east sea.

Geography
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Has a total area of 85,269 square miles an area slightly less than Philippines. 3,000 offshore island and; 10,000 miles of coastline.

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North Korea

South Korea

Geography
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South Korea has richer farmlands than those in North Korea. Rice, cotton, barley, tobacco
and wheat.

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Its industrialize economy produce cosumer goods, like

textiles, electronic and computer products, automotive and home appliances.

People
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The Koreans belong to the yellow (Mongoloid) race. The Koreans are ussualy smaller than Europeans, but are taller than the Japanese, southern Chinese and average Filipinos. The total Korean population is more than 70 million, with more people found in South Korea.

Present Political System
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North Korea – “Democratic People’s Republic of Korea” is dictatorship state.
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President – dictatorial powers

Present Political System
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South Korea – “ Republic of South Korea” is a capitalist, but often times in recent years (before 1990’s) an authoritarian state.
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President – democratic powers

Early History of Korea
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According to tradition
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Founded in 2333 BC by a legendary hero named Tan-gun, who established Asadal( now Pyongyang) as 1st capital and called The kingdom of Choson ( Land of the morning calm)

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Official history Began in 1122 BC when Chinese immigrants established a kingdom in Pyonyang. The Chinese called the people of

Early History of Korea
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The chinese called the people of Choson, the “tung-I” or eastern Barbarian Bowmen” These people often fought against the tribes of Chou dynasty in China. The Chinese records show also that Wiman;
Chinese immigrant served in ancient Choson as military commander. n Turned against his hosts and capture
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Early History of Korea
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The chinese emperor of Han dynasty decided to subjugate the tribes of Choson. Within 2 years: The Choson armies destroyed, the Han emperor established four colonies to maintain peace and order in Choson and Manchuria. However on 1313 AD liberation from Chinese rule came when the horse-

The Three Kingdoms
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Shilla (57 BC)
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Last kingdom to fully develop and least influenced by Chinese

The Three Kingdoms
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Paekche (18 BC)
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More cultured than warlike koguryo Moved to south to avoid attacks from Koguryo and Chinese.

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Koguryo (37 BC)

The Shilla Period
(668-935)
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Marked by qualitative developments in the arts, trade and education. Intoduction of Buddhism and Confucianism.

The downfall of Shilla
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Numerous assassinations of prominent members of the royal family Rebellion against the Shilla class system. Finally 918 BC, rebels sacked the capital city of kyunju and murdered the king. Few years later the royal usurper abdicated and Shilla kingdom came to an end.

Koryo Kingdom
(918-1392)
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Wangkong assumed the title king Taejo. Successfully stopped the peasant revolt He made Buddhism and geomancy important in his court and Korean society. During Taejo’s reign the nomadic, Khitans had conquered most of Manchuria and Mongolia. Adopted the dynastic name of Liao Attempted to develop alliance with Koryo, but Koreans did not trust them. The Khitans attacked koryu but Koreans prepared for the attacks. And they were

Koryo Kingdom
(918-1392)
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Later, General Kand Cho killed the 7th king Mokchong in 1009 and placed Hyonjong on the throne. This promted the Khitans to lead a large army to punish the assassins of Mokchong.

Period of Peace and Stability
A long period of peace and prosperity followed the 30 years of war with the Khitan tribes, Songdo the capital of Koryo became the cultural and commercial center for kingdom. The foreign trade with neighboring countries flourished. Still Buddhism continue to be the dominant religion. Confucianism continued to influence the ethical and moral conduct of society.

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The Mongol Period
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Lead by Genghis Khan his hordes against the Chin dynasty and Peking fell in 1215 By 1231, Mongols attacked Koryo. Their required the Koreans nobles to adopt Mongol dress, hairstyle and language. Their rule korea however while Koryo rulers were in exile in the south, Buddhist craftsmen began to carve

Tripitaka (Buddhist scriptures)” on wooden blocks.

Yi Song-Gye (1392-1398)
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Choson Dynasty

Yi
From an obscure military family n One of Korea’s prominent historical figures. n He seized political powers and military power and overthrew the Koryo. n He inaugurated his own dynasty, Choson. n Under his rule, Korea was transformed into Confucian state.
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King Sejong
( 1418-1450)
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The 4th and the greatest ruler of Choson dynasty, 3rd son of Yi. Ruled Korea for 32 years Under his year nation entered a “Golden age” of Creativity” a remarkable scholar who had mastery of confucian classics, literature, linguistic and science. The creation of the Korean alphabet,

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In the 16th century, the shogun Hideyoshi of Japan invaded Korea. The Japanese soldiers with their firearms, with which the Koreans were not yet familiar, natural mas malakas sila kaya nacaptured nila yung ports of Pusan and reached the Seoul. Yi Sun Chin One of the countrys famous heroes, with the use of “Turtle-ships”. Pero

During the Japanese invasion of Korea, and mga mapagsamantalang Manchus attacked and conquered China tpos noong 1627 isinunod naman ang Korea.

The Spread of Western Ideas and Confucianism
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The 1st Europeans came in 1627 Three Dutch crewmen were taken as prisoners kasi naligaw sila, ayun bihag tuloy! Two of the were killed. Jan Janse Weltevree became the overseer of the government’s cannon foundry. Through the 17th and into 18th western ideas filtered in Korea via China, while the Koreans scholars took only an intellectual interest in

The Spread of Western Ideas and Confucianism
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It spread like wildfire among the peasants, the social inequality aggravated by the perennial factional conflicts in government. An alternative to either Buddhist or Confucian beliefs. Nung una una, eh di pinapansin ng mga authoridad and pagkalat ng Christianity, pero noong; 1785 during the reign of Chonjo Catholicism was officially banned as threath to Korea and culture.

The Spread of Western Ideas and Confucianism
Despite the religious persecutions, the Catholicism persisted in 1836, the 1st western missionary, a French Catholic priest; Pierre Maubant entered Seoul in disguise, followed by Father Jaques Chastan and Bishop Joseph Imbert in succeeding year. In 1839, renewed persecution broke out and 80 Catholics were executed including the priests. In 1845, the 1st Korean priest, Andrew Kim was executed too.

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The Spread of Western Ideas and Confucianism The severest persecution of Christianity occurred during the reign of King Taewon-gun, Nine priest were beheaded on the banks of Han-gang River, and 8,000 Catholics were executed.

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South Korea at Present Time

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Country Name: Republic of Korea Capital City: Seoul (10.1 million) National flower: Mugunghwa (Rose of Sharon) Currency: won Language: Korean (Written form: Hangeul)

Geography
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Location: Strategically located at the crossroads of Northeast Asia. Korea lies between Japan, the Russian Far East and China. Territory: 223,098km2 (South Korea: 99,678km2) Highest mountains: Baekdusan 2744m, Hallasan 1950m Longest rivers: Amnokgang 790km, Nakdonggang 521.5km, Dumangang 521km, Hangang 481.7km

Population
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Population: 48.46 million (2007) ¡Ø Foreign residents: 1.1 million Median Age: 36.1 years (2007) Economically active population  : 24.2 million (2007) Life Expectancy: Males 75.7 years, females 82.4 years (2006)

Religion
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Religion: A 2005 census showed half of the population actively practices religion. Among this group, Buddhism (43.0%), Protestantism (34.5%) and Catholicism (20.6%) comprise the three dominant religions.

Political System
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Political System: Democracy with president elected to a single 5-year term by direct popular vote. Division of power among the executive, legislature (unicameral National Assembly) and judiciary Elections - Presidential: every 5 years - National Assembly: every 4 years - Local Councils: every 4 years

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Political parties: Grand National Party, United Democratic Party, Liberal Forward Party, Democratic Labor Party, Pro-Park Geun-hye Alliance, Renewal of Korea Party

Economic status
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Gross Domestic Product: $969.9 billion (2007) Foreign Exchange Reserves: $262.2 billion (2007) Exports: $371.5 billion (2007) Imports: $356.8 billion (2007)

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Major Industrial Products: Semiconductors, automobiles, ships,

Yu, ikaw na pala magrereport kala mo ah…!!!!

FOREIGN RELATIONS
vIn 1873, King Kojong with the help of his ifluential wife, Queen Min, assumed full control of state powers vKojong relaxed its foreign policy of isolationism vTreaty of Kangwa (1876), a treaty of friendship and amity between Japan and Korea, it was modeled after the treaties that imperialist powers had earlier imposed upon Japan when its

vTreaty of Amity and Commerce or Shufelt Treaty between Korea and the United States on May 22,1882, aimed to open trading agreements of Korea with other states

JAPANESE IMPERIALISM
vDuring the Sino-Japanese War, Japan coerced Korea to expel China-oriented politicians from the government vKorean government hired Japanese officers as instructors during the re-organization of the military vTaking advantage of the Japanese-trained royal guards, the Japanese troops attacked Kyonbokkung Palace at dawn on October 8,1895 vThe Japanese murdered Queen Min and then

vKing Kojong sought refuge in the Russian Mission which was perceived as a sign of government weakness vA vigorous campaign for territorial integrity was launched through the newspaper the Tongnip Shinmun (The Great Independence) vKorea declared neutrality during the Russo-Japanese War, however, the Japanese troops entered Seoul

vKing Kojong was forced to sign an agreement allowing the Japanese to use Korea as a military base in its war with Russians vTaft-Katsura agreement, a secret deal between Japan and US in which the US recognized Japan’s rule in Korea and, in turn for Japan’s recognition of US sovereignty over the Philippines vAnglo-Japanese Treaty of Alliance, acknowledged Japan’s right to take

vTreaty of Portsmouth, Russia and the other imperialist powers recognized Japan’s interests in Korea and had the right to colonize Korea without interference from these powers

JAPANESE RULE
vProtectorate Treaty (1905), conducted under the auspices of Hirobumi Ito and forced upon King Kojong, it further increased Japanese control of Korea; created the office of a Japanese resident general with the absolute power to control domestic and foreign affairs; forced the abdication of the last reigning ruler, Emperor Sunjong

vGen. Terauchi Masatake, first Resident General in Korea
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name of the country was changed to Chosen. n Masatake’s man objective was the complete assimilation of Koreans into the Japanese mainstream. n he suppressed all forms of organized opposition

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newspapers were suspended, political organizations were disbanded and the right of assembly was prohibited Koreans were forced to adopt Japanese names Japanese officials operated schools for the purpose of molding the students into loyal Japanese subjects Korean children were forced to use only Niponggo in class; higher education was limited

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Japanese farmers and fishermen were encourage to settle in Korea lands that were arbitrarily confiscated from Koreans were given to the Japanese activities of the guerilla forces within Korea, independence movement outside of the country, the lobbying and diplomatic activities of Korean patriots who had taken asylum in other countries and other nationalists groups all helped to sustain the resistance

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MARCH 1 MOVEMENT
vUS president Woodrow Wilson proposed that the Versailles Peace Treaty be based on his famous “Fourteen Points” in which the doctrine of selfdetermination must be respected; that no people should be subjugated by others against their will vDeclaration of Korean Independence was publicly announced on March

v Japanese fired into the unarmed demonstrators that shouted Tonghip manse (Long Live Korean Independence) vKorean activists established the Provisional Government of Korea in Shanghai, China in 1919 vthe declaration of Korean independence on March 1,1919 came to be known as the March First Movement

RESISTANCE AND COLLABORATION
vunder the new Governor General, Saito Makoto, Japanese implemented Cultural Policy (Bunka Seiji) where the Koreans were given more freedom vthere were Koreans who collaborated with Japanese government to succeed during the colonial period vResistance was left to the guerilla fighters or to the political exiles

vKorean guerilla fronts were based in Manchuria and North China, whose leaders were Kim IL Sung and Choe Hyon vRighteous Brotherhood, communist underground forces in the peninsula and other patriotic forces continued to harass the Japanese vDr. Syngman Rhee used diplomatic and propaganda channels to advance

WORLD WAR II
vKorean Provisional Government established a European-American Liaison committee in Washington for the purpose of starting an aggressive diplomacy with American and European states vIn 1944, the Korean Provisional Government formally decided to contribute to the Allied war efforts

LIBERATION AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE
vCairo Conference of 1943, the Allied Powers agreed and declared that Korea would become free and an independent state vYalta Conference of 1945, Soviet Union agreed to enter the war against Japan on the condition that the Russians would be responsible in disarming the Japanese forces in North Korea and Manchuria and that the US would do so

vthe US proposed the 38th parallel as the demarcation line between the two Koreas and the Soviet Union agreed vUnited Nations General Assembly in 1947, passed a resolution providing for general elections to be held immediately to ensure unification and independence vRepublic of Korea (South), a democratic government with Dr. Syngman Rhee as

vDemocratic People’s Republic of Korea (North), a communist government proclaimed in Pyongyang with Kim-II Sung as its first premier

THE KOREAN WAR
von June 25, 1950, Communist North Koreans crossed the 38th parallel and invaded South Korea vCommunists overran and controlled almost all of South Korea except a territory in the southeast, known as the Pusan perimeter vThe UN security Council passed a resolution demanding the withdrawal of the Communist forces from the South Korean territory and called for the formation of a UN

vGen Douglas Mac Arthur, lead the UN forces and was successful in pushing back the Nokors vunexpected appearance and participation of massive Chinese troops compelled the Un forces to retreat on January 4,1951 va consolidated Un forces launched a counter-attack successfully retaking

vTruce of Panmunjon on July 27, 1953 ended the war, provided for the exchange of prisoners of war, and created a 151-mile long demilitarized zone (DMZ) along the 38th parallel between two Koreas

DMZ

vIn 1970, under President Park Chung Hee’s initiative, the South-North Red Cross started to hold preliminary dialogues at Panmunjon but failed vin 1984, President Chun Doo Hwan proposed trade and economic cooperation between South and North Korea but while preliminary negotiations were taking place, North

ATTEMPTS AT UNIFICATION

NORTH KOREA UNDER KIM IL SUNG
vKim Il Sung, also known as the “Greatest Leader of the Revolution” and the supreme leader of the People’s Republic of Korea since its establishment vhe was at first Premier, but under the new constitution in December 1972 he became the first president with Yi Chong Ok as the premier vOn February 24,1977, President Kim

Kim ilsung kim jong il

vCentral Committee of Korean Communist Party, led by Kim, controlled state powers vin 1968, President Park Chung Hee was the target of assassination attempts by North Korean agents vin 1974, Hee’s wife was killed vOctober 9,1983, the worst act of terrorism when a bomb exploded in Rangoon, killing 17 South Korean officials, 4 of them are cabinet members of President Chun Doo Hwan

vNovember 29 1987, a Korean Airlines jet from Baghdad en-route to Seoul exploded over the Andaman Sea near Burma killing all 115 people on board, one of the two Korean agents were captured and confessed that they were ordered to destroy the Airliner by Kim Jong Il, the son of Kim Il Sung vUS President George W. Bush included North Korea into the so-called Axis Of Evil, the list of countries which have

NORTH KOREA Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) Type of Gov.: Communist Capital: Pyongyang Language: korean

Total Area:120,540 2 km 46,528 sq mi  Population:

Touris min North Korea is Tourism
organized by the state owned Tourism Organisation ("Ryohaengsa"). Every group of travelers as well as individual tourist/visitors are permanently accompanied by one or two "guides" who normally speak the mother language of the tourist.

KOREA Hanguk 한국

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