Branding Elements

Course Instructor: Ms. Shyama Labh Email:

• Brand knowledge structures depend on: – The initial choices for the brand elements – The supporting marketing program and the manner by which the brand is integrated into it – Other associations indirectly transferred to the brand by linking it to some other entities

Criteria for Choosing Brand Elements
• • • • • • Memorability Meaningfulness Likability Transferability Adaptability Protectability
Marketer’s offensive strategy and build brand equity

Defensive role for leveraging and maintaining brand equity

• Brand elements should inherently be memorable and attention-getting, and therefore facilitate recall or recognition. • Easily recognizable • Easily recalled

• Brand elements may take on all kinds of meaning, with either descriptive or persuasive content. • Two particularly important criteria – General information about the nature of the product category – Specific information about particular attributes and benefits of the brand • The first dimension is an important determinant of brand awareness and salience; the second, of brand image and positioning.

• Do customers find the brand element aesthetically appealing? • Descriptive and persuasive elements reduce the burden on marketing communications to build awareness. • Rich visual and verbal imagery

• How useful is the brand element for line or category extensions? • To what extent does the brand element add to brand equity across geographic boundaries and market segments?

• The more adaptable and flexible the brand element, the easier it is to update it to changes in consumer values and opinions. • For example, logos and characters can be given a new look or a new design to make them appear more modern and relevant.


• Marketers should: 1. Choose brand elements that can be legally protected internationally. 2. Formally register chosen brand elements with the appropriate legal bodies. 3. Vigorously defend trademarks from unauthorized competitive infringement.

Tactics for Brand Elements
• A variety of brand elements can be chosen that inherently enhance brand awareness or facilitate the formation of strong, favorable, and unique brand associations.  Brand Names  URLs  Logo  Colors  Characters  Slogan/ Punch Line  Tagline/ Baseline  Jingle/ Signature Tune

Brand Names
• Like any brand element, brand names must be chosen with the six general criteria of memorability, meaningfulness, likability, transferability, adaptability, and protectability in mind.

The Linguistics of Brand Names
• Existing words (including proper names, compounds, foreign words) – Mercedes, Golf, Bounty, Slim Fast, Ja!Natürlich, Tempo, Nivea • Newly created names (coined names) with recognizable links to existing words – Rapso [rapeseed oil], clinique, Milka,whiskas • Artificial creations – Kodak, Twix, Twingo

Brand Naming Guidelines
• Brand awareness – Simplicity and ease of pronunciation and spelling – Familiarity and meaningfulness – Differentiated, distinctive, and uniqueness • Brand associations – The explicit and implicit meanings consumers extract from it are important. In particular, the brand name can reinforce an important attribute or benefit association that makes up its product positioning.

Brand Naming Procedures
• • • • • • Define objectives Generate names Screen initial candidates Study candidate names Research the final candidates Select the final name

Brand Names
 Core indicator of the brand.  Shorthand means  Great Research Brand Names should be: Easy to learn  Support a symbol or slogan  Familiar & meaningful  Support desired associations  Distinctive  Short  Easy to spell & pronounce  Should not have poor meanings in other languages and countries

• URLs (uniform resource locators) specify locations of pages on the web and are also commonly referred to as domain names. • A company can either sue the current owner of the URL for copyright infringement, buy the name from the current owner, or register all conceivable variations of its brand as domain names ahead of time.

     Significant impact on people’s emotional state. Specific mental associations. Soft/ Cool colors – Blue, Green, Violet …. Hard/ Warm Colors- Yellow, Red, Orange…. Examples: Blue text increases retention. Yellow evokes cheerfulness. Red and orange encourage diners to eat quickly. Most legible color combinations are black on yellow/ white and green on white.

• Means to indicate origin, ownership or association. • Range from corporate names or trademark to abstract logos. • Abstract logo like Mercedes' Star Mark, Nike’s Swoosh, Wipro’s Sunflower, SBI’s key hole etc.. • Non-verbal.
Examples: Lufthansa (Flying swan), Welcome Group of Hotels (Namaskar), LIC (Diya)…., Apollo Tyres.., SAIL…

Logo continue….

Abstract Logo

Corporate Names

Logo continue….

Trademarks ™/ Registered TM®
A brand that has been given legal protection (name and design) and has been granted solely to its owner. • A trademark protects a word, phrase, symbol or design or a combination of these, that identifies and distinguishes the goods or services of one person or company from those of others.


Copyright ©
• Copyrights are a form of protection for the authors of “original works of authorship,” including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. • Copyright does not cover intellectual property such as titles, names, short phrases, and slogans; familiar symbols or designs; or mere variations of typographic ornamentation, lettering, or coloring. This type of intangible property is often more appropriately protected by a trademark.

• Special type of brand symbol. • Can be like human or animated character. • Role in advertising & package design. Examples: • Some are animated like Pillsbury’s Poppin’ Fresh Doughboy, • Britannia Treat ‘Funtoon’….. • Others are live-action figures like Juan Valdez (Colombian coffee), the Maytag repairman, and Ronald McDonald. Notable newcomers include the AOL running man, the Budweiser frogs. • Amul Girl, Asian Paint Gattu, Onida Devil, Britannia Tiger…

Characters in BM

Slogans/Punch lines
• Short phrases communicate descriptive or persuasive information • Reinforce the name. • Summarised headlines. • Kept at least for one campaign. • Can be printed or sung. • Not more than 7-8 words. • Idea centered.
Examples:•Farex. “A tastier way to grow.” •Complan. “The complete planned food.” •Cadbury. “Kuch meetha ho jaye.” •Pepsi. “Yeh Pyaas Hai Badi”.

• Like a good neighbor, State Farm is there • Just do it • Nothing runs like a Deere • Help is just around the corner • Save 15% or more in 15 minutes or less • Thanda matlab Coca Cola • Public ka Naya transport • Baaki all bakwaas • Nothing official about it • • • • • • • • • • • We try harder We’ll pick you up Nextel – Done Zoom Zoom I’m lovin’ it Innovation at work This Bud’s for you Always low prices Yeh Dil Maange More Taste of India Cheeta bhi peeta hai

• A tagline is a variant of a branding slogan typically used in marketing materials and advertising. • The idea behind the concept is to create a memorable phrase that will sum up the tone and premise of a brand or product (like a film), or to reinforce the audience's memory of a product Examples:• Nike- Just Do It. • Wipro – Applying Thoughts. • Britannia – Eat Healthy, Think Better.

Jingle/Signature Tune
• Musical messages written around the brand. • Catchy • Most valuable in enhancing brand awareness. Examples: • Amul “Utterly Butterly Delicious”. • Cadbury Dairy Milk “Kya baat Jindagi ki”. • Titan Music • Nokia • Idea – 9818……

- Part of the actual product or wrapper of a brand/product. - Consists of a products physical container, label and/or insert. - Approximately 10% of product selling cost. - Can effect purchase decisions. Packaging Functions include: • Protect product and maintain functional form. • Aesthetically correct. • Offer convenience, Usage (dispersement) • Promote product by communicating features • Develop reusable package for alternative use.

• From the perspective of both the firm and consumers, packaging must achieve a number of objectives: – Identify the brand – Convey descriptive and persuasive information – Facilitate product transportation and protection – Assist at-home storage – Aid product consumption

Source: Susan B. Bassin, “Value-Added Packaging Cuts through Store Clutter Marketing News, 26 September 1988, 21.


Packaging Can Influence Taste
• Our sense of taste and touch is very suggestible, and what we see on a package can lead us to taste what we think we are going to taste.

Packaging Can Influence Value
• Long after we have bought a product, a package can still lead us to believe we bought it because it was a good value.

Packaging Can Influence Consumption
• Studies of 48 different types of foods and personal care products have shown that people pour and consume between 18% and 32% more of a product as the size of the container doubles.
Source: Valerie Folkes, Ingrid Martin and Kamal Gupta, “When to Say When: Effects of Supply on Usage,” Journal of Consumer Research, 20 December 1993, 467-477.

Packaging Can Influence How a Person Uses a Product
• One strategy to increase use of mature products has been to encourage people to use the brand in new situations, like soup for breakfast, or new uses, like baking soda as a refrigerator deodorizer. • An analysis of 26 products and 402 consumers showed that twice as many people learned about the new use from the package than from television ads.

Putting It All Together
• The entire set of brand elements makes up the brand identity, the contribution of all brand elements to awareness and image. • The cohesiveness of the brand identity depends on the extent to which the brand elements are consistent.


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