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IEEM 215: Manufacturing Processes

Traditional Manufacturing Processes

Casting Forming Sheet metal processing Powder- and Ceramics Processing Plastics processing Cutting Joining Surface treatment


Refractory mold pour liquid metal solidify, remove finish

!RS"#$%!& comple' geometry, internal cavities, hollow sections !RS"#$%!& small ()*+ grams, very large parts ()*+++ -g, !C./.0$C"%& little wastage (e'tra metal is re-used, $S.#R.P$C& cast parts have same properties along all directions

Different Casting Processes

Process Sand Shell mold !'penda3le pattern Plaster mold Ceramic mold $nvestment Permanent mold 7ie Centrifugal Advantages many metals, si1es, shapes, cheap 3etter accuracy, finish, higher production rate 5ide range of metals, si1es, shapes comple' shapes, good surface finish comple' shapes, high accuracy, good finish comple' shapes, e'cellent finish good finish, low porosity, high production rate !'cellent dimensional accuracy, high production rate %arge cylindrical parts, good quality Disadvantages poor finish 2 tolerance limited part si1e patterns have low strength non-ferrous metals, low production rate small si1es small parts, e'pensive Costly mold, simpler shapes only costly dies, small parts, non-ferrous metals !'pensive, few shapes Examples engine 3loc4s, cylinder heads connecting rods, gear housings cylinder heads, 3ra4e components prototypes of mechanical parts impellers, in6ection mold tooling 6ewellery gears, gear housings gears, camera 3odies, car wheels pipes, 3oilers, flywheels

and Casting

and Casting
cope: top half drag: 3ottom half core: for internal cavities pattern& positive funnel sprue runners gate cavit! "risers# vents$

and Casting Considerations (a, 8ow do we ma4e the pattern9 :cut, carve, machine; (3, 5hy is the pattern not e'actly identical to the part shape9 - pattern outer surfaces< (inner surfaces& core, - shrin4age, post-processing (c, parting line - how to determine9

and Casting Considerations%% (d, taper - do we need it 9 (e, core prints# c&aplets - hold the core in position - chaplet is metal (why9,

(f, cut'off# finis&ing

&ell mold casting

- metal, =-piece pattern, *>?C-@>+C - coated with a lu3ricant (silicone, - mi'ture of sand, thermoset resinAepo'y - cure (3a4ing, - remove patterns, 6oin half-shells mold - pour metal - solidify (cooling, - 3rea4 shell part

Expenda(le Mold Casting

- Styrofoam pattern - dipped in refractory slurry dried - sand (support, - pour liquid metal - foam evaporates, metal fills the shell - cool, solidify - 3rea4 shell part

Plaster'mold# Ceramic'mold casting

Plaster-mold slurry& plaster of paris (CaS.B,, talc, silica flour Ceramic-mold slurry& silica, powdered Circon (CrSi.B, - #he slurry forms a shell over the pattern - 7ried in a low temperature oven - Remove pattern - Dac4ed 3y clay (strength,, 3a4ed (3urn-off volatiles, - cast the metal - 3rea4 mold part Plaster-mold& good finish (Why ?) plaster: low conductivity => low warpage, residual stress low mp metal (Zn, Al, u, !g) good finish high mp metals (steel, E, FG impeller 3lades, tur3ines, E


Investment casting )lost *ax casting+

(a, 5a' pattern (in6ection molding, (3, 0ultiple patterns assem3led to wa' sprue

(d, dry ceramic melt out the wa' fire ceramic (3urn wa',

(c, Shell 3uilt immerse into ceramic slurry immerse into fine sand (few layers,

(e, Pour molten metal (gravity, cool, solidify :8ollow casting& pouring e'cess metal 3efore solidification

(f, Drea4 ceramic shell (vi3ration or water 3lasting,

(g, Cut off parts (high-speed friction saw, finishing (polish,

,acuum casting
Similar to investment casting, e'cept& fill mold 3y reverse gravity

!asier to ma4e hollow casting& early pour out

Permanent mold casting

0.%7& made of metal (cast iron, steel, refractory alloys, C.R!& (hollow parts, - metal& core can 3e e'tracted from the part - sand-3onded& core must 3e destroyed to remove 0old-surface& coated with refractory material - Spray with lu3ricant (graphite, silica, - improve flow, increase life - good tolerance, good surface finish - low mp metals (Cu, Dron1e, "l, 0g,

Die casting
- a type of permanent mold casting - common uses& components for rice coo4ers, stoves, fans, washing-, drying machines, fridges, motors, toys, hand-tools, car wheels, E
8.# C8"0D!R& (low mp eHgH Cn, P3< non-alloying, (i, die is closed, goosenec4 cylinder is filled with molten metal (ii, plunger pushes molten metal through goosenec4 into cavity (iii, metal is held under pressure until it solidifies (iv, die opens, cores retracted< plunger returns (v, e6ector pins push casting out of e6ector die

C.%7 C8"0D!R& (high mp eHgH Cu, "l, (i, die closed, molten metal is ladled into cylinder (ii, plunger pushes molten metal into die cavity (iii, metal is held under high pressure until it solidifies (iv, die opens, plunger pushes solidified slug from the cylinder (v, cores retracted (iv, e6ector pins push casting off e6ector die

Centrifugal casting
- permanent mold - rotated a3out its a'is at @++ ) @+++ rpm - molten metal is poured

- Surface finish& 3etter along outer diameter than inner, - $mpurities, inclusions, closer to the inner diameter (why 9,

Casting Design: #ypical casting defects

Casting Design: 7efects and "ssociated Pro3lems

- Surface defects& finish, stress concentration - $nterior holes, inclusions& stress concentrations

0 max

max = 0(1 + 2b/a)


Casting Design: guidelines

(a, avoid sharp corners (3, use fillets to 3lend section changes smoothly (c*, avoid rapid changes in cross-section areas

Casting Design: guidelines

(c*, avoid rapid changes in cross-section areas (c=, if unavoida3le, design mold to ensure - easy metal flow - uniform, rapid cooling (use chills, fluid-cooled tu3es,

Casting Design: guidelines

(d, avoid large, flat areas - warpage due to residual stresses (why9,

Casting Design: guidelines

(e, provide drafts and tapers - easy removal, avoid damage - along what direction should we taper 9

Casting Design: guidelines

(f, account for shrin4age - geometry - shrin4age cavities

Casting Design: guidelines

(g, proper design of parting line - IflattestJ parting line is 3est

Traditional Manufacturing Processes

Casting Forming Sheet metal processing Powder- and Ceramics Processing Plastics processing Cutting Joining Surface treatment


"ny process that changes the shape of a raw stoc4 without changing its phase

!'ample products& "lASteel frame of doors and windows, coins, springs, !levator doors, ca3les and wires, sheet-metal, sheet-metal partsE

.olling Hot-rolling Cold-rolling


$mportant "pplications& Steel Plants, Raw stoc4 production (sheets, tu3es, Rods, etcH, Screw manufacture

.olling /asics
Sheets are rolled in multiple stages (why 9,

to Vo






Screw manufacture&

:8eated; metal is 3eaten with a heavy hammer to give it the required shape

8ot forging, open-die

tages in 0pen'Die -orging

(a, forge hot 3illet to ma' diameter

(3, Ifuller& tool to mar4 step-locations

(c, forge right side

(d, reverse part, forge left side

(e, finish (dimension control,


tages in Closed'Die -orging

:source&-alpa46ian 2 Schmid;

1ualit! of forged parts

Surface finishA7imensional control& Detter than casting (typically, StrongerAtougher than castAmachined parts of same material



0etal forcedAsquee1ed out through a hole (die,


#ypical use& ductile metals (Cu, Steel, "l, 0g,, Plastics, Ru33ers

Common products& "l frames of white-3oards, doors, windows, E

Extrusion: c&ematic# Dies

!'ercise& how can we get hollow parts9


Similar to e'trusion, e'cept& pulling force is applied

Commonly used to ma4e wires from round 3ars

"K7$ engine 3loc4

L engine 3loc4

D05 cylinder head

Dra4e assem3ly


Cran4 Shaft

"lso see& http&AAautoHhowstuffwor4sHcomAengine>Hhtm

Traditional Manufacturing Processes

Casting Forming Sheet metal processing Powder- and Ceramics Processing Plastics processing Cutting Joining Surface treatment

&eet Metal Processes

Raw material& sheets of metal, rectangular, large Raw material Processing& Rolling (anisotropic properties,

Processes& Shearing Punching Dending 7eep drawing


" large scissors action, cutting the sheet along a straight line

0ain use& to cut large sheet into smaller si1es for ma4ing partsH

Cutting tool is a roundArectangular punch, that goes through a hole, or die of same shape

F t X edge-length of punch X shear strength

crac" (fa!lure !n shear)


p!ece cut a#a$% or slug





0ain uses& cutting holes in sheets< cutting sheet to required shape

nesting of parts

typical punched part

Exercise: &o* to determine optimal nesting2


Dody of .lympus !-@++ camera

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component with multiple 3ending operations

component with punching, 3ending, drawing operations

T!pical (ending operations and s&apes



&eet metal (ending

Planning pro3lem& what is the sequence in which we do the 3ending operations9

"void& part-tool, part-part, part-machine interference

/ending mec&anics
Dending Planning what is the length of 3lan4 we must use9

$deal case& 4 F +H?

Real cases& 4 F +H@@ ( R M =#, )) 4 F +H? (R G =#,

/ending: crac3ing# anisotropic effects# Poisson effect

Dending plastic deformation

!ngineering strain in 3ending F e F *A( * O =RA#,

Dending disallow failure (crac4ing, limits on corner radius& 3end radius N @# effect of anisotropic stoc4 Poisson effect

Exercise: &o* does anisotropic (e&avior affect planning2

/ending: spring(ac3


R Rf $nitial

i f

8ow to handle spring3ac4&

% %$ %$ (a, Compensation& the metal is 3ent 3y a larger angle i = B i @ i + * %f "# "#

(3, Coining the 3end& at end of 3end cycle, tool e'erts large force, dwells

coining& press down hard, wait, release

Deep Dra*ing
#ooling& similar to punching operation, 0echanics& similar to 3ending operation

Common applications& coo4ing pots, containers, E

&eet metal parts *it& com(ination of operations

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component with multiple 3ending operations

component with punching, 3ending, drawing operations


#hese notes covered Casting, Forming and Sheet metal processing Case study on planning of operations (3ending,

Further reading& Chapters *+-*L, -alpa46ian 2 Schmid