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Mollusca

Fluid-filled space within the mesoderm

Phylum Mollusca
Eucoelomate protostomes

One of the largest animal Phyla, next to Arthropods (over 90,000 species) - Includes chitons, snails, slugs, clams, oysters, squids, octopuses, among others - some almost microscopic, but range up to 20 meters long & ~1900 lbs. - Includes herbivores, predatory carnivores, filter feeders, & parasites - live in a broad range of habitats - marine, freshwater, even terrestrial - terrestrial forms (some slugs and snails) restricted in range by external factors - humidity, shelter, soils high in calcium - Exploited by humans for a variety of purposes - food (escargot [snails], oysters & scallops [bivalves], calamari [squid]) - pearls (bivalves) - Some are important pests that cause billions of dollars worth of damage - zebra mussels

Mollusc pests zebra mussel

Basic body plan


Despite their diversity, molluscs share a basic body plan: - As eucoelomates they have an internal body cavity (coelom), but is limited to a small cavity containing the heart, gonads, & part of the kidneys - Body composed of two regions - head-foot feeding, cephalic/sensory structures, locomotor organs - visceral mass digestive, circulatory, respiratory, & reproductive organs

Basic body plan


-In addition: - two folds of skin formed by a protective mantle enclose a space between the body and mantle, called the mantle cavity - within the mantle cavity are gills called ctenidia or a lung - in some the mantle secretes a shell over the visceral mass

Figure 16.03

Basic body plan


- In most, the mouth contains a specialized feeding structure (radula) - like a conveyer belt sharp tooth-like structures line the radula & scrape food and move it to digestive tract. - pattern & number of teeth are specific by species & related to type of food commonly eaten - radulae modified in some for boring through hard materials (rock) and as a venomous harpoon in others herbivorous carnivorous

Figure 16.04

Basic body plan


- Internal structures (visceral mass): - gas exchange occurs through specialized organs (ctenidia, secondary gills, or lungs) or through the mantle - Circulation is generally through an open circulatory system with heart, blood vessels, & blood sinuses - blood not entirely contained within blood vessels - flow through vessels in some parts of body and open sinuses in others - less efficient in supplying oxygen to tissues, common in slow moving animals - Cephalopods have a closed circ system - The digestive tract is complex & highly specialized - excretory system with pair of kidneys (metanephridia) each with an inner end that opens into the coelom by a nephrostome - Nervous system with several ganglia & connecting nerve cords - many sensory organs

General Reproduction
- Most are dioecious, but some hermaphroditic

- Life-cycle often includes a free-swimming larval stage called a trochophore


- In many the larval trochophore stage followed by a unique second larval stage called a veliger
trochophore veliger

General Reproduction
- Most are dioecious, but some hermaphroditic

- Life-cycle often includes a free-swimming larval stage called a trochophore


- In many the larval trochophore stage followed by a unique second larval stage called a veliger

Molluscs divided into 8 Classes we will discuss 4:


- Class Polyplacophera (Chitins)

- Class Gastropoda (slugs and snails)


- Class Bivalvia (clams, oysters, scallops) - Class Cephalopoda (Octopuses, Squids, Nautiluses)

Class Polyplacophera
~1000 species generally small (2-5 cm) but can be up to 30 cm generally live on rocky surfaces in the intertidal dorsal surface covered in 7 or 8 plates (or valves) often cryptic Head & cephalic sensory organs much reduced, but do have photo-receptive esthetes on plates mostly sedentary cling to surface using foot rolls up like armadillo for protection when detached

Class Polyplacophera
mantle girdle surrounds animal & can adhere to substrate opening only at ends cavity formed is the mantle cavity (pallial groove) containing gills blood flow generated by a 3-chambered heart blood reaches gills through aorta and sinuses metanephridia (kidney) carries waste from pericardial cavity through nephrostome REPRO: dioecious trochophore larva develops into juvenile (no veliger larva)

Figure 16.10

Class Gastropoda
By far the largest group of molluscs (> 70,000 living species) members include snails, slugs, conch, sea slugs, sea hares, etc. marine forms & terrestrial, air-breathing slugs and snails usually slow moving or sedentary (heavy shells) shells, when present, always one piece (univalve) and may be coiled or uncoiled often have operculum that covers the aperture when body is withdrawn microscopic to nearly 60 cm (giant marine snail)

operculum aperture

Class Gastropoda
FORM & FUNCTION: Protected by shell or sometimes by distasteful or toxic secretions some use cnidocytes & nematocysts sequestered from cnidarian prey for defense Protection from predation: - Shell size trade-off depending on predator type

Class Gastropoda
REPRODUCTION: some monoecious; some dioecious many perform courtship ceremonies terrestrial pulmonate gastropods (snails and slugs) eject dart from dart sac into partners body heightens excitement before copulation Life cycle includes both trochophore and veliger larvae

Class Gastropoda
FEEDING: feeding habits varied, but all include some specialization of radula Most herbivorous (rasp algae from substrate) some predatory carnivores Conus carnivorous gastropod, feeds on fish radula modified into harpoon-like structure (on proboscis); radular teeth have toxic venom venom from Conus called conotoxin, can be lethal to humans conotoxins specific to preferred prey type http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/episodes/the-venom-cure/video-cone-shellconotoxins/4416/

Class Gastropoda
RESPIRATION, EXCRETION, & SENSORY: Single ctenidium located in the mantle cavity some aquatic forms lack ctenidia altogether, respire through mantle Pulmonates: lack gills highly vascularized area in mantle that serves as a lung lung opens to outside by a pneumostome air fills mantle cavity through pneumostome by contraction of mantle floor

Class Gastropoda
RESPIRATION, EXCRETION, & SENSORY: Single ctenidium located in the mantle cavity some aquatic forms lack ctenidia altogether, respire through mantle Pulmonates: lack gills highly vascularized area in mantle that serves as a lung lung opens to outside by a pneumostome air fills mantle cavity through pneumostome by contraction of mantle floor Excretion through a single nephridium (kidney) Circulatory system well developed

May have eye-like sensory organs that contain a lens and protective cornea function in photoreception

Figure 16.18

Class Bivalvia
characterized by having 2 shells (valves) held together by hinge ligament on dorsal side shell opens ventrally members include mussels, clams, scallops, oysters both small (1-2 mm) and large (> 1 m & 500 lbs) members generally sedentary filter feeders no head, no radula, & very little cephalization Mostly marine, but found in brackish water, ponds, lakes, & streams

Class Bivalvia
FORM & FUNCTION: produce pearls as by-product of protective device. foreign object (e.g., sand, parasite) becomes lodged between shell and mantle mantle secretes layers of nacre that surround irritating object pearls form as many layers of nacre are laid down

Class Bivalvia
FORM & FUNCTION: Visceral mass suspended from dorsal midline Mantle folds on posterior modified into incurrent & excurrent apertures Ctenidia hang down each side modified for filter feeding gill filaments W-shaped & fused forming lamellae that contain water tubes water comes into incurrent aperture, enters water tubes through gill pores and moves dorsally to a common suprabranchial chamber & out through excurrent aperture vessels line gill filaments for gas exchange

Class Bivalvia
FORM & FUNCTION: In addition to gas exchange gills aid in filter feeding water current brings in food particles that are captured by mucus secretions on gills mucus-covered food particles move towards labial palps & into the mouth digestion is extracellular in stomach (digestive enzymes from digestive gland) & intracellular in intestine

Class Bivalvia
REPRODUCTION: usually dioecious gametes discharged into suprabranchial chamber & carried out with excurrent water flow fertilization generally external embryos develop into trochophore & veliger larvae third larval stage called a spat

Class Bivalvia
REPRODUCTION: In freshwater clams, fertilization is internal eggs drop into water tubes, fertilized by sperm entering through incurrent flow embryo develops into glochidium larva (specialized veliger) glochidia must attach to specific fish hosts & live parasitically for several weeks

Class Bivalvia
REPRODUCTION: In freshwater clams, fertilization is internal eggs drop into water tubes, fertilized by sperm entering through incurrent flow embryo develops into glochidium larva (specialized veliger) glochidia must attach to specific fish hosts & live parasitically for several weeks

In females of some, many glochidia are contained in a packet called a conglutinate

Class Bivalvia
REPRODUCTION: In freshwater clams, fertilization is internal eggs drop into water tubes, fertilized by sperm entering through incurrent flow embryo develops into glochidium larva (specialized veliger) glochidia must attach to specific fish hosts & live parasitically for several weeks

In females of some, many glochidia are contained in a packet called a conglutinate pocketbook mussel: conglutinate looks like small fish can be wiggled to attract nearby bass bass strikes and gets a mouthful of glochidia that attach to its gills

Class Cephalopoda
Characterized by modification of the foot concentrated in head region taking the form of a funnel or siphon for expelling water (Cephalopod means head-foot) anterior margin of foot modified into ring of tentacles or arms Includes squids, octopuses, nautiluses, & cuttlefish all active predators range in size from 2-3 cm to > 50 ft. & weighing nearly a ton

Class Cephalopoda
FORM & FUNCTION: most have shells, in squids its reduced to a thin dorsal layer called a pen, gone entirely in octopuses

Class Cephalopoda
FORM & FUNCTION: most have shells, in squids its reduced to a thin dorsal layer called a pen, gone entirely in octopuses Shell of the nautilus contains many gas chambers that allow animal to maintain neutral buoyancy

Class Cephalopoda
FORM & FUNCTION: most have shells, in squids its reduced to a thin dorsal layer called a pen, gone entirely in octopuses Shell of the nautilus contains many gas chambers that allow animal to maintain neutral buoyancy Swim by jet propulsion take water in through ventral funnel. Contraction of circular musculature pushes water out rapidly. Funnel can be pointed, allowing directed movement

Class Cephalopoda
FORM & FUNCTION: Have CLOSED circulatory system active habits make open circ system inefficient perfusion of tissues Elaborated Nervous System largest brain of any invertebrate, several lobes w/ millions of neurons well developed sensory organs most have complex eyes with cornea, lens, & retina octopods capable of observational learning communicate with visual signals (arm movements or fins, color changes)

Class Cephalopoda
FORM & FUNCTION: Except nautiloids, cephalopods have an ink sac containing an ink gland that secretes sepia (dark fluid ink) When disturbed or threatened, they expel a cloud of ink as a decoy allowing the animal to escape.

Class Cephalopoda
REPRODUCTION: dioecious In many, one arm of adult males is modified into an intromittent organ called a hectocotylus used to insert spermatophore (sperm packet) into mantle cavity of female

juveniles hatch from eggs, no free-swimming larval stage

http://www.ted.com/talks/david_gallo_show s_underwater_astonishments.html