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Guided By : Dr. Vishwa Prakash Shetty Dr. Aparna Dave Dr. Manpreet Arora Dr.

Bhuvnesh Yadav

Forensic is derived from the Latin word forum, which means court of law. Odontology literally implies the study of teeth.
Forensic odontology, therefore, has been defined by the Fdration Dentaire International (FDI) as that branch of dentistry which, in the interest of justice, deals with the proper handling and examination of dental evidence, and with the proper evaluation and presentation of dental findings.

Mass disasters

Why dentists
Deceased individuals requiring identification who sustained significant facial trauma precludes visual identification BECAUSE Soft tissues does not resist the ravages of time and environment.

The resistance nature of dental tissues to environmental assaults, such as incineration, immersion, trauma, mutilation and decomposition make teeth represent an excellent source of DNA material. When conventional dental identification methods fail, this biological material can provide the necessary link to prove identity through DNA profiling.

SAMPLE COLLECTION
DNA evidence collection must be performed carefully. -avoid contaminating the area where DNA might be present by not touching it with your bare hands, or sneezing and coughing over the evidence. -use clean latex gloves for collecting each item of evidence. Gloves should be changed between handling of different items of evidence. -each item must be packed separately.

-samples should be packed in paper envelopes or paper bags after drying. -all types of stains must be thoroughly air dried prior to sealing the package. -stains on immovable surfaces such as table or floor may be transferred with sterile cotton swabs and distilled water.

TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED FOR OBTAINING DENTAL DNA


Crush entire tooth. Conventional endodontic access. Horizontal section of tooth with partial extirpation of coronal and radicular half of tooth. Horizontal section of tooth with aggressive pulpectomy and crushing of radicular half of tooth.

The yield of DNA per gram of tooth powder is approx 18.4 g.

SALIVA
The objective of using saliva as a source is to analyze DNA from desquamated epithelial cells. Salivary deposits left behind as a result of bites can also be a potential source of DNA of a suspect.

A reliable method for saliva sampling from bite-mark sites in skin is the double swabbing techniques.

The swabs are completely air dried and transferred to micro centrifuge tubes.

Saliva may also be isolated from various sources in the crime scene, for example, postage stamps and envelopes, glasses, cigarettes, straws, food and chewing gum, toothbrushes and dental floss, and dental impressions.

Dried saliva may be difficult to detect, for confirmation

Amylase assay Fluorescent spectroscopy laser

The saliva thus collected can be dabbed onto specialized cards. The FTA cards (Flinders Technology Associates) are chemically treated filter papers designed for the collection and room temperature storage of biologic samples for molecular analyses.

Blood
Blood stains are also obtained using a swab an dabbed on to the FTA paper.

Reference Samples
from suspects or convicted felons and family reference samples are used in missing persons investigations, paternity testing and mass disaster victim identifications.

Buccal cell collection

Storage
Most biological evidence is best preserved when stored dry and cold. Inside the laboratory, DNA samples are either stored in a refrigerator at 4C or a freezer at 20C. For long periods of time, extracted DNA samples may even be stored at -70C.

DNA Amplification
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a biochemical technology in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence. Developed in 1983 by Kary Mullis.

The final DNA concentration should be in the range of 0.05-0.125ng/L, so that it will be added to the PCR reaction in a volume of 10 L.

PCR Thermocycler

Polymerase Chain Reaction

Gel electrophoresis
The different sized fragments are separated by a process called gel electrophoresis The separation takes place in a sheet of a firm but jelly-like substance (a gel) Samples of the DNA extracts are placed in shallow cavities (wells) cut into one end of the gel A voltage is applied to opposite ends of the gel

DNA has a negative charge and moves slowly towards the positive end
The shorter fragments travel through the gel faster than the longer fragments
Gel electrophoresis

Appearance of separated fragments on gel

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These bands will contain the shorter DNA fragments

These bands will contain the longer DNA fragments


Prof. Prof. E. Wood E.J.Wood

starting positions

Appearance of bands

S1

S2

S3

DNA profiles

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V Victim S Sample from crime scene S1 Suspect 1 S2 Suspect 2 S3 Suspect 3

More than 20 fragments from Suspect 1 match those taken from the crime scene

Genetic Analyser

Estimating size

Paternity test

19 mother father

position of restriction fragment

part of DNA strand

child

Child will receive one copy of the restriction fragment from the mother and one from the father. It could be any one of these combinations

20
Genetic fingerprint of

1 mother 2 child 3 possible father A 4 possible father B There is a match between one of the childs restriction fragments and one of the mothers. There is also a match between the childs other fragment and one from possible father A. Neither of the childs restriction fragments match those of possible father B
Paternity test

Starting position of sample

Conclusion
Forensic dentistry plays a major role in identification of those individuals who cannot be identified. Recent tragedies and past and present situations have increased awareness concerning the importance of forensic dentistry in identification of victims. The oral region is a rich source for simple and noninvasive methods of DNA sampling.

Whenever dental professionals are required or requested to provide such samples, knowledge of sampling and storage for the optimization of the DNA analysis procedure can greatly enhance the efficiency of the investigation. The dental expert needs to be aware of relevant legal and ethical issues and operate within the ambit of the law.

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Thank you
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