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Neurons

Supporting cells (Glial cells)

NEURONS

Morphology of Typical Motor Neuron


1. Nucleus 2. Perikaryon 3. Cell body 4. Axon 5. Dendrite 6. NISSL BODY 7. Axon hillock 8. Myelin sheath 9. Oligodendrocyte 10. SCHWANN CELL 11. Skeletal muscle cell 12. Neuromuscular junction

The Neuron
The Perikaryon: also called the soma or cell body is the portion of the neuron that contains the nucleus. It is the metabolic center of the neuron. * The nucleus of neurons is usually filled with euchromatin and typically contains a prominent nucleolus.

The Perikaryon
The cytoplasm of the perikaryon contains characteristic regions having high concentrations of rER and free ribosomes.

These areas therefore stain with basic dyes (basophilic) and are called Nissl substance, after their discoverer.

Cell Processes
The processes are of two types: 1). Dendrites 2). Axons

Dendrites

CELL PROCESSES

may be large or small diameter processes, containing some Nissl material, microtubules, neurofilaments and mitochondria. * Neurons may have one or more dendrites. * As a general rule, dendrites receive information from other cells or neurons and transport impulses toward the cell body.

CELL PROCESSES Axons are processes involved


in conveying information away from the cell body. Typically, axons are longer than dendrites (microns to more than a meter). Only one axon originates from each neuron (usually at a special region of the perikaryon known as the axon hillock).

CELL PROCESSES

Axons characteristically

contain microtubules, neurofilaments, microfilaments, mitochondria, but lack Nissl material and Golgi complexes.

Axon
Transport

anterograde axonal transport transports molecules (nutrients, neurotransmitters) and organelles (mitochondria, neurofilaments) from cell body to distal end of axon

Axon
Transport retrograde axonal transport occurs from distal end of axon to cell body returns used or worn out materials to cell body for restoration transports materials taken up by endocytosis (including toxins, viruses and markers used in neuroscience research)

Distinction between Axon and Dendrites


Axon Dendrite

Dimension number length diameter Branching pattern angle site Structural components Nissl substance dendritic spine myelin sheath

1 200 m 1 m constant throughout almost right angle distant from cell body absent absent could be associated

multiple (0, 1, or more) less than 700 m gradually tapered acute angle near cell body could be present could be present not associated

Distinction between Axon and Dendrites


Axon Dendrite

Functional direction of conduction

efferent (soma axon terminal)

afferent (dendrite soma)

exception: pseudounipolar neuron

Reduced silver method

Neuron Classification
Neuron classification is based partly upon the shape of the perikaryon and partly on the number and orientation of cell processes. Note that cell processes also affect the shape of the perikaryon.

Neuron Classification
Pseudounipolar neurons
are the principle cell found in sensory ganglia. Such a cell has one process emanating from the cell body that bifurcates forming a T-shape. One of the branches extends into the CNS and the other extends out to peripheral receptors.

Pseudounipolar neurons are located in sensory ganglia of spinal nerves and of some cranial nerves

Neuron Classification
Bipolar neurons have two processes extending from each perikaryon. Usually a dendrites extends from one end of the cell body and an axon extends from the other. Bipolar neurons are located in the retina, olfactory epithelium and form the ganglia of vestibulocochlear nerve

Neuron Classification
Multipolar neurons cells are the most common type of neuron.

These have one axon and multiple dendrites extending from the cell body.

Functional Classification of Neurons


afferent (sensory): carry information from peripheral receptors to the CNS

Functional Classification of Neurons


efferent (motor): carry impulses from the CNS to peripheral effectors (muscle, glands)

Functional Classification of Neurons


interneurons: reside entirely within the CNS

Functional Classification of Neurons


interneurons: establish neuronal circuits between sensory and motor neurons and other interneurons

Supporting cells of CNS

Neuroglia

Microglia oligodendrocyte
Astrocytes

Ependymal cells

Astrocytes
Fibrous astrocyte Protoplasmic astrocyte

Astrocytes

Functions

Ependymal cells

Microglia

Oligodendrocyte

Supporting cells of PNS


Schwann

Neuroglia

cells

Capsular

(satellite) cells

Schwann cells

Capsular (satellite) cells


Encapsulate and provide protection and support for the cell bodies of peripheral neurons

1: Molecular layer 2: External granular layer 3: External pyramidal layer 4: Internal granular layer 5: Internal pyramidal layer 6: Multiform layer

1 Molecular layer is composed mostly of nerve terminals originating in other areas of the brain, horizontal cells, and neuroglia. 2. External granular layer contains mostly granule (stellate) cells and neuroglial cells. 3 External pyramidal layer contains neuroglial cells and large pyramidal cells, which become increasingly larger from the external to the internal border of this layer.

4 Internal granular layer is a thin layer characterized by closely arranged, small granule cells (stellate cells), pyramidal cells, and neuroglia. This layer has the greatest cell density of the cerebral cortex.

5 Internal pyramidal layer contains the largest pyramidal cells and neuroglia. This layer has the lowest cell density of the cerebral cortex.
6 Multiform layer consists of cells of various shapes (Martinotti cells), and neuroglia

molecular layer Purkinje cell layer granular layer

Spinal ganglion ( Dorsal root or Parasympathetic)

Spinal ganglion ( Dorsal root or Parasympathetic)

Spinal ganglion

Spinal ganglion

Sympathetic ganglion

Sympathetic ganglion

Spinal ganglion

Sympathetic ganglion

Peripheral Nerve

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