• GEORGE GERBNER • Started research in the 70s; third most frequently used theory • The mean world syndrome • “world is a dangerous place, as shown on TV” • Calvin and Hobbes on violence in the media (p. 378) • • Heavy TV viewing (4+ hours per day, but variable) cultivates a

sense of the world as a violent space (more than it actually is) – mediated sources can shape a person’s sense of reality
• The Violence Index – media shapes a person’s sense of reality

especially w.r.t. violence

Cultivation Theory
• Application in contemporary life • Media: The Electronic Storyteller •

• Jean Kilbourne: Killing Us Softly 4 •
• Tough Guise by Jonathan Katz • Impact of Bollywood and Indian TV content • Examples? • Chulbul Pandey and Chikni Chameli

Cultivation Analysis
• Cultivation Analysis: Four-step process 1. Message system analysis 2. Formulation of questions about viewers’ social realities 3. Surveying the audience 4. Comparing the social realities of light and heavy viewers (cultivation differential) • The Mean World Index • Most people are just looking out for themselves • You can’t be too careful in dealing with people • Most people would take advantage of you if they got the chance

Cultivation Theory
• Mainstreaming

• Resonance
• First Order Effects • Second Order Effects • Cultivation Analysis as Critical Theory • Critique of Cultivation Analysis • Logical consistency • Utility • Heurism • Test of time

• Marshall McLuhan • Technological Determinism • Technology affects communication through emerging technologies • Society has evolved driven by evolution or changes in technology. • Medium IS the message • Society cannot escape the influence of technology • Technology will remain central to virtually all walks of life • Globalization, Technology and Media = Global Village • Hot Media (high-def, little involvement) and Cool Media

(low-def, active involvement)

• Elihu Katz, Jay Blumler, Michael Gurevitch • Limited effects of media – limited by aspects of the

audience’s personal and social lives
• Individual Differences Perspective • Social Categories Model

• Extension of Maslow’s needs and motivation theory • people are driven by their individual needs and motivation to select the media content that they watch • people make choices based on their reasons for media use (p. 395)

• TYPOLOGIES – reasons for use: • Women are attracted to radio soap operas – emotional release, engage in wishful thinking/ vicarious satisfaction, learn something that could be applied to their own lives! • Diversion • Personal relationships • Personal identity • Surveillance • Parasocial interaction = the relationship we feel we have

with people we know only through the media

Assumptions of UGT (p. 397)
• Audience is active and its media use is goal oriented

• Initiative in linking need gratification to a specific medium
• •

• •

choice rests with the audience member Media compete with other sources for need satisfaction People have enough self-awareness of their media use, interests and motives to be able to provide researchers with an accurate picture of that use Value judgments of media content can only be assessed by the audience ACTIVE AUDIENCE -- these assumptions provide the springboard for audience research

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