• Behaviors that influences guides, directs or controls a group. • A dynamic interaction between leaders, followers and context • The exercise of influence by one member of a group or organization over other members to help the group or organization achieve its goals.

• The ability or official capacity to exercise authority or influence others behavior. • The capacity to influence and make changes within the scope of the assigned responsibilities. • The ability that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B does something he or she would not ordinarily do





 Reward power.
--The extent to which a manager can use rewards to control other people.
– Success in accessing and utilizing rewards depends

on manager’s skills  Legitimate power. – Also known as formal hierarchical authority. – The extent to which a manager can use subordinates’ internalized (behavior) values or beliefs that the “boss” has a “right of command” to control their behavior.

 power that stems from the authority to punish or recommend

 right of fire or demote

– Personal characteristics of leader rather than title or

– Referent power is characteristics that command members'

identification with, attraction to, or respect for, the power

• Power that stems from special knowledge or skill in the task performed by subordinates. • Leader has superior knowledge of wok than subordinates.

• It is one in which the manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible. • The manager does not consult employees, nor are they allowed to give any input. • Employees are expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations. • The motivation environment is produced by creating a structured set of rewards and punishments


• These studies say that autocratic leaders: • --Rely on threats and punishment to influence employees • --Do not trust employees • WHEN TO USE: • --New, untrained employees who do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow • --Effective supervision can be provided only through detailed orders and instructions --There is limited time in which to make a decision • --The area was poorly managed • --Work needs to be coordinated with another department or organization • The autocratic leadership style should not be used when: • --Employees become tense, fearful, or resentful • --Employees expect to have their opinions heard • --Employees begin depending on their manager to make all their decisions

• The democratic leadership style is also called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the decision making. • The democratic manager keeps his or her employees informed about everything • This style requires the leader to be a coach who has the final say, but gathers information from staff members before making a decision. • Democratic leadership can produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time. Many employees like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit, and high morale.

• Typically the democratic leader:
• • • • --Develops plans to help employees evaluate their own performance --Allows employees to establish goals --Encourages employees to grow on the job and be promoted --Recognizes and encourages achievement.


• --The leader wants to keep employees informed about matters that affect them. • --The leader wants employees to share in decision-making and problem-solving duties. • --The leader wants to provide opportunities for employees to develop a high sense of personal growth and job satisfaction. . • --Changes must be made or problems solved that affect employees or groups of employees. • --You want to encourage team building and participation.

• Democratic leadership should not be used when:
• --There is not enough time to get everyone’s input. . • --The business can’t afford mistakes

• DEFINITION: “Personal characteristics, such as intelligence, values, and appearance.” • There are certain characteristics that leaders possess that make them leaders.


 Physical characteristics: Active, Energy  Social back ground: mobility (ready for action)

 Intelligence: judgment, knowledge,  Personality: alertness, self confidence  Social characteristics: cooperativeness, popularity, interpersonal skills

Early Theories
Early Theories – Great Man Theory Focus is on the greatness of the leader What made these people great? Researcher found weak relationship b/w Trait and Success – Can not be made – – – – – Born with specific characteristic

Behavioral Approaches
• Introduction
   It was hoped that the behavioral theories would provide more definitive answers. •  If behavioral studies were correct, we could train people to be leaders.


We shall briefly review the most popular studies: –  the Ohio State group. – the University of Michigan studies.

Behavioral Approaches
•  Describes leadership based on the basis
of behaviors • Suggests that an effective leader will manifest certain leadership behaviors at a particular time • If you believe in this theory – act like a leader – you become one

• Two major behaviors


Initiating structure refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define task and structure his/her role and direct subordinates towards goal attainment.   Consideration is defined as the extent to which a leader has job relationships characterized by mutual trust and respect for employees' ideas and feelings.

 Research found that a leader high in initiating structure and consideration achieved high employee performance and satisfaction more frequently than one who rated low.

 However, leader behavior characterized
as high on initiating structure led to greater rates of grievances, absenteeism, and turnover etc., for workers performing routine tasks.

Michigan Studies
1.Two dimensions of leadership behavior, employee-oriented and production-oriented.
– a) Employee-oriented

leaders emphasized

– interpersonal relations, – took a personal interest in employees’ needs, – accepted individual differences among members. Established high performance goal – display supportive behavior towards sub ordinates.

Michigan Studies
– b) The

production-oriented leaders emphasized

– the technical aspects of the job, – focused on accomplishing group tasks, – Less concerned with goal achievement and human need – Favor of meeting schedules – Keeping low cost • 2.       The Michigan researchers strongly favored leaders who were employee-oriented

• Two-dimensional view of leadership theory developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. • a)      Based on the styles of "concern for people" and "concern for production." • b)      Essentially represent the Ohio State dimensions of consideration and initiating structure and the Michigan dimensions of employee orientation and production orientation

• A model of leadership that describe the relationship b/w leadership style and specific organizational situations. • Predicting leadership success involved something more complex than isolating a few traits or preferable behaviors. • It was one thing to say that leadership effectiveness depended on the situation

• A questionnaire design to measure RELATIONSHIP ORIENTED versus TASK ORIENTED leadership style according to leader’s choice adjectives for describing “least” proffered coworker. The TASK-MOTIVATED leader (have low LPC scores) focuses on details and will be tough and autocratic to get any failing subordinates to just get the task done. Their self-esteem comes form completing tasks. They are only considerate when tasks are going well. RELATION-MOTIVATED leaders (have high LPC scores) get bored with details and focus instead on pleasing others, getting loyalty, and being accepting. Their self-esteem comes from interpersonal relationships.


• These leaderly types are more or less effective, depending upon three Sit Con (Situation Control) variables: • LMR - Leader-member relations can be good or bad. Subordinates trust, respect and have confidence in leader relation will be good or when distrust relation will be poor. • TS - Task Structure can be high or low. In high TS there is clarity of task, clear goals, clear procedures,, and outcomes are easy to measure.  In low TS, goals, procedures, paths, solutions, outcome-criteria are all unclear.  • PP - Position Power can be low or high. In high PP, leaders have official power and influence over hiring, firing, rewarding and punishing subordinates. In low PP, all influence and power is informal. 

FIEDLER’S CONTIINNGENCY THEORY • to evaluate the situation in terms of these three contingency variables.

– a)  The better the leader-member relations, the more highly structured the job, and the stronger the position power, the more control or influence the leader has – b)   Fiedler concluded that task oriented leaders perform best in situations that are very favorable or very unfavorable to them. – c)   A moderately favorable situation, however, is best handled through relationship-oriented leadership

Situational Theory (Paul Heresy & Kenneth Blanchard)

• A contingency approach to leadership that links that leader’s behavioral style with the task readiness of subordinates. • Subordinates vary in readiness level. • People in low readiness task because little ability or training. • High readiness good ability, skills willingness o work. • Model show b/w leader style and followers readiness.

• A contingency approach to leadership says that leader’s responsibility is to increase subordinates motivation by clarifying behaviors necessary for task accomplishment and rewards. • The essence of the theory: the leader's job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization



• Directive – • When task is unstructured, complex or novel or
subordinates lack skills, it include making schedules planning setting goals

• Supportive –
concern for subordinates' well being and personal needs. Treat subordinates as equal.

• Achievement Oriented –
• When leader sets challenging goals for subordinates followers so as to increase their self-confidence and satisfaction and increase performance

• Participative –
• When leader consult with his subordinates about decision. making opinion and suggestions

• a situation variable that makes a leadership style redundant or unnecessary. • Subordinates know how to do the work and do nor need leaders. • If subordinates are highly professional and know how to do the work do not need a leader. and style is less important.


• A leader who clarifies subordinates role and task, initiates structure, provides rewards and display consideration for subordinates. • They are hard working tolerant and fair minded. • Social systems work best with a clear chain of command • Transactional leaders guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. • Transformational leaders provide individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, and possess charisma.

• A leader who has the ability to motivate subordinates to transced (greater) their expected performance. • Power to inspire or attract others. • Charismatic Leaders pay a great deal of attention in scanning and reading their environment, and are good at picking up the moods and concerns of both individuals and larger audiences • Many politicians use a charismatic style, as they need to gather a large number of followers • They create atmosphere of change by visionary ideas that excite , stimulate people to work hard.

• A leader distinguished by a special ability to bring about innovation and change. • Transformational Leadership starts with the development of a vision, a view of the future that will excite and convert potential followers. • Bring strategic change. • Change mission structure and HRM. • Instead of taking control on rules direction ,focus on intangible qualities such as vision ideas building relation ship .

• INTERACTIVE LEADERS • A leader who has concern with consensus
• Most women share these qualities.

(opinion) building and encourages participation.

• Leader willing to share power and information to empower their employees. • Similar to transactional style and use position power in dealing with subordinates.


• A leader who work to fulfill subordinates needs a nd goal as well as to achieve to achieve organization’s larger mission. • The servant leader serves others, rather than others serving the leader. Serving others thus comes by helping them to achieve and improve. • The people served grow as individuals, becoming 'healthier, wiser, more autonomous (independent) and more likely themselves to become servants' • The purpose of servant leaders is to bring the followers higher motivation of work and connect them to organization mission and goal.

• • • • •

Leadership is the ability to influence others. Trait theory on leadership focuses on an individual’s personal attributes, which suggest a particular leadership style. Behavioral theory considers the interaction of the leader with the follower (task & relationship) Contingency theory adds situational factors The Managerial Grid created by Blake and Mouton is an instrument that may be used to evaluate the strength of an individual’s concern for people in relationship to the concern for production or task. Using this knowledge, one may implement training to improve on the weaknesses.


• •

Contingency Theories
The theory of leadership effectiveness by Fred Fiedler studied the interaction of leader style and the leader-follower situation. The situational leadership theory by Ken Blanchard and Paul Hersey focuses on the follower. According to their theory, the leadership style used will be determined by the follower’s ability and readiness (willingness) to accomplish a task. The leader may use one of four styles: Directive/Telling, Coaching/Selling, Participating/Supporting or Delegating.

• •

Contemporary Approaches The attribution theory looks for a cause and effect relationship as a means to determine the proper leadership style. Charismatic and visionary leadership focuses on the unique characteristics that set the leader apart from the follower. Transactional leadership provides a foundation of exchange of something of value between the leader and the follower as a means to generate action. Transformational leadership provides a foundation to move the follower beyond expectations.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.