13/08/2009

NA ME SUBJEC T TOPIC PA KIST AN SEM/ BRAN CH COLL EGE CHI NTAM AN I. EMA IL ID

: PR ASHA NT H.T : ISAP L AB. :P AR TIT IO N O F I NDI A AN D :5
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SEM C IVIL ENGIN EER IN G.

: GO VER NMENT P OLY TEC HNIC :pras hanthcmy@g mai l.co m

IN 1940
In 1940 at the Lahore conference a lawyer gave a call for separate Muslim nation , he none other than Mohammed Ali Jinnah . Mohammed Ali Jinnah was initially working with Indian National Congress (INC).

AFTER JINNAH’S STATEMENT
• Although many freedom fighters like Nehru , Gandhi and many politicians and also many political parties like Mahasabha , including muslim parties like Khasar of Allama Mashriqu also strictly opposed the partition of India . • After 1940 the relation between the hindus and muslims became weak . • Many muslim activists began major exit from Indian National Congress in 1940 after the Jinnah’s statements.

All India Muslim League
• All India Muslim League founded in 1906, was a only Muslim political party in India. • Mohammed Ali Jinnah was the president of All India Muslim League in 1940. • In 1942 muslim league gaining more power from northwest provinces and greater influence in Punjab ,Bengal and many.

IN 1943
• In 1943 the Indian national Congress was calling for Britain to quit India . • But the All Indian Muslim League demanded for partition of India . • Later All Indian Muslim League passed a resolution for British to divide India and quit.

IN 1944
In 1944 mahatma Gandhi and Jinnah were held a meeting regaurding the partition of India but,this was unsuccessful .

AFTER 1945
• As soon as the world war 2 ended in early 1945 the British has decided that it was time to quit India officially .They also started drafting plans for independent India by transporting their wealth and materials to their motherland.

• In later1945 transportation of materials from India to Britain were started mainly due to big failure of Britain in Worldwar2 hit the Britain’s prestige . • But most of the muslim league and India political parties and also Gandhi , Nehru said that it is not the right time to quit India .

• As the partition of India was the hard issue which can only handled by british government.

“CABINET MISSION INDIA “
In 1946 March “Cabinet Mission to India” was held by British in India.

CABINET MISSION INDIA
• Prime Minister of UK ,Viceroy of India and many scholars , historians were involved in this Cabinet Mission. • The mission was held with Indian National Congress and All Indian Muslim league as they are two largest political parties in India.

TH E MA IN AIM OF CABIN ET MIS SIO N IND IA IS

• Discuss and plan for the transfer of power from British government to Indian leadership. • Setting up of ferm constitution body in India. • Setting up a good executive council.

Transfer of power to Congress League
Lord Wavell the viceroy of India in the cabinet mission began organizating to transfer power to Congress League in june 16th of 1946. But All Indian Muslim league president Jinnah didn’t approve the plans.

“DIRECT ACTION DAY”
• In July 1946 Jinnah announced a press conference at his home in Bombay for the creation of Pakistan and also the Muslim league was preparing to launch a struggle. The Jinnah said that 16th august would be the “DIRECT ACTION DAY” in Calcutta for the purpose of showing support for a separate Muslim state and warned congress.

“DIRECT ACTION DAY” 16th AUG 1946
The Direct Action Day is also known as The Great Calcutta Killings. Rally started on the morning of the 16th August 1946 even before 10’o clock. The shops were being forced to close and there were many reports of throwing stones and brickbats.

“DIRECT ACTION DAY” 16th AUG 1946 • The meeting began around 4pm through processions of Muslims from all parts of Calcutta had started assembling. As the majority of population in Bengal are Muslims.

“DIRECT ACTION DAY” 16th AUG 1946
• By raising this issue a political party called “Hindu Mahasabha” gave a call to INC for the partition of India and saving the Hindus by doing a long rally and procession around the Calcutta on that day. • A hard rumour spread around the state that the Muslims were attacking on Hindus. Opposing this “Hindu Mahasabha” attacked on Muslims around Calcutta continuously for many hours. Hence this day is also known as the “The Great Calcutta Killings”.

• Result for this clash is 4000people lost their lives and more than 1lakh people lost their residents in the city of Calcutta and were left homeless.

After “The Great Calcutta Killings , Gandhi had tried to convinces the Hindus and Muslims but the leaders who were along with Gandhi were apposed this meetings”.

Lord MountBatten
• The British government appoint a new viceroy as Lord Mountbatten for India in 1947 February and also to transport the power and come back Britain

New Viceroy

BEFORE PARTITION
• A hard rumour spread along the country that the Punjab is going to mix with Pakistan after partition. The Sikhs who were opposed muslims from many years and they doesn't want to make partner with Muslims . Therefore all the Sikhs took the training for fighting against the Muslims. They brought the harmful weapons and started attacking the Muslims in Punjab, and an opposite for this attack Muslims made many attacks on the Sikh women in Punjab.

Finally observing all these situations Jawaharlal Nehru also recommended the partition of India. According to a deal by lord Mount Batten the states having more population is considered as Pakistan and left states as India. But Jawaharlal Nehru stated that in both Punjab and Bengal the Indians are in much quantity therefore the two states should be divided into two parts each.

• According to the treaty in 1945 the British government should be in India until June 1948, but after the meeting in Calcutta ,viceroy Lord Mountbatten officially stated that after 17th august 1947 India and Pakistan would be independent nations and after that day the British government is not responsible for any incidents and deals with both India and Pakistan.

3 J UNE PL AN
• The actual division between the two dominoes were done according to 3 june plan or Mount batten plan. • The actual border between India and Pakistan was determined by Sir Cyril Radcliff, he was professionally a lawyer in England . • Two parts of India were divided , Bengal became East Pakistan and Western part of Punjab formed West Pakistan.

INDEPENDENCE FOR PAKISTAN
• Sir Cyril Radcliff finished a plan of partitioned India three days before i.e. on 14th August 1947. • British announced 14th August 1947 as Independence for Pakistan. • It included main cities like Karachi, Peshawar and Lahore as capital to Pakistan.

AFTER INDEPENDENCE

Mohammed Ali Jinnah became the first governor general of Pakistan.

ON 15TH AUGUST 1947

AFTER INDEPENDENCE
• Jawaharlal Nehru became the first prime minister of newly formed democratic country India

Once the line of partition were established , about 14.5 million people crossed the borders to seek shelter in religious majority.

• Based on 1951 Census of displayed 72.2lakh Muslims went to Pakistan from India. • 72.5lakh Hindus and Sikhs moved to India from Pakistan after partition. • Estimates that number of deaths range more 5lakh. • The constitution declares India to be a socialist democratic republic. • India has remained as the largest democratic country in the world.

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