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―Life goes on!‖ © Harshal Ganpatrao Hayatnagarkar version 2013.12.21 <a href=CC BY-SA 3.0 " id="pdf-obj-0-2" src="pdf-obj-0-2.jpg">

―Life goes on!‖

© Harshal Ganpatrao Hayatnagarkar version 2013.12.21

 Why do we feel hungry?
Why do we feel hungry?
  • What keeps our body temperature around 98.6 ℉ or 37 ℃ ?

  • Why our wounds are healed, by themselves?

  • How does our body fight diseases?

  • Why certain variety of wheat is more productive?

  • Why certain computer software perform better than others, in impossible situations?

  • Are we alone in the Universe? Can there be Life elsewhere?

Although not apparently so,

these questions are connected and so are their answers.

The thread connecting them is

Theory of Evolution

What is Evolution? How to study evolution? History of Life as Evolution Summary What next?
What is Evolution?
What is
Evolution?
What is Evolution? How to study evolution? History of Life as Evolution Summary What next?
How to study evolution?
How to study
evolution?
History of Life as Evolution
History of Life
as Evolution
What is Evolution? How to study evolution? History of Life as Evolution Summary What next?
Summary
Summary
What is Evolution? How to study evolution? History of Life as Evolution Summary What next?
What next?
What next?
Credit: M. F. Bonnan

Credit: M. F. Bonnan

 ―History of changes‖  Passive process.  NOT limited to biology.  NOT synonymous to
―History of changes‖
Passive process.
NOT limited to biology.
NOT synonymous to progress.
  • NOT same as Origin of Life.

  • Essentially interplay of variations over time.

  • Explained by various theories (to be discussed later).

Origin of Life Evolution of Life time
Origin of
Life
Evolution of Life
time

This presentation is about

Evolution of Life,

which starts AFTER Origin of Life.

Because it is the study of history of Life, the only known phenomenon in the Universe.

Because it is the study of history of Life,

the only known phenomenon in the Universe.

Medicines Food Climate Education Technology Economics and finance Sociology Exobiology
Medicines Food Climate Education Technology Economics and finance Sociology Exobiology
Medicines Food Climate Education Technology Economics and finance Sociology Exobiology

Medicines

Medicines Food Climate Education Technology Economics and finance Sociology Exobiology

Food

Climate Education
Climate
Education
Medicines Food Climate Education Technology Economics and finance Sociology Exobiology

Technology

Medicines Food Climate Education Technology Economics and finance Sociology Exobiology

Economics and finance

Medicines Food Climate Education Technology Economics and finance Sociology Exobiology

Sociology

Medicines Food Climate Education Technology Economics and finance Sociology Exobiology

Exobiology

Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution

Theodosius Dobzhansky

― Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution ‖ – Theodosius Dobzhansky
(Evolution) is a general postulate to which all theories, all hypotheses, all systems must hence forward
(Evolution) is a general postulate to which all theories, all
hypotheses, all systems must hence forward bow and
which they must satisfy in order to be thinkable and true.
Evolution is a light which illuminates all facts, a trajectory
which all lines of thought must follow — this is what
evolution is.

Why study evolution?

This is a long story, so behold !
This is a long story, so behold !
Time Diversity Implications Evolution + one needs tools and techniques to study each of these aspects.
Time Diversity Implications Evolution
Time
Diversity
Implications
Evolution

+ one needs tools and techniques to study each of these aspects.

Time Diversity Implications Evolution
Time
Diversity
Implications
Evolution
To understand so much diversity, that once existed, exists today, including the Humans and probably would

To understand so much diversity, that once existed, exists today, including the Humans and probably would emerge,

and to which we are the witness.

To understand so much diversity, that once existed, exists today, including the Humans and probably would
To understand so much diversity, that once existed, exists today, including the Humans and probably would
 Literally means ‗Classification‘ in Latin. ◦ Grouping organisms in different classes (lets call them ‗buckets‘
  • Literally means ‗Classification‘ in Latin. Grouping organisms in different classes (lets call them ‗buckets‘ for simplicity). Well, putting buckets into bigger buckets. Deriving common properties for each bucket.

  • Linnaean Taxonomy

 Literally means ‗Classification‘ in Latin. ◦ Grouping organisms in different classes (lets call them ‗buckets‘

Originally defined by Carolos Linnaeus in

1735.

Based on morphology.

Grouped organisms into groups and subgroups.

Organisms were created by God and Carolos only classified and named them.

 Linnaean Nomenclature ◦ Binomial nomenclature  Naming organisms by dichotomous key  Meaning ‗two words‘.
  • Linnaean Nomenclature

Binomial nomenclature

  • Naming organisms by dichotomous key

  • Meaning ‗two words‘.

[Genus species].

For example

  • Humans Homo sapiens

  • Elephant Elephas maximu

  • Potato Solanum tuberosum

  • Groups (we called them buckets earlier)

Common features abstracted. Resulted in initial hierarchy.

  • Final hierarchical definition

With criteria E.g. Kingdoms

  • Plantae, Animalia, Fungi.

abstract class Phylum extends Kingdom abstract class Family extends Order abstract class Genus extends Family …

abstract class Phylum extends Kingdom abstract class Family extends Order abstract class Genus extends Family abstract class Homo extends Genus class Homo_Sapiens extends Homo

harshal = new Homo_Sapiens(“Harshal”);

*Java programming language

Only ‗Species‘ can be instantiated
Only ‗Species‘ can be
instantiated
 Taxonomy has raised more questions than it answered.  Organisms are similar to one another…
  • Taxonomy has raised more questions than it

answered.

  • Organisms are similar to one another…

How much similar? Why those similarities? For example, fox is similar to wolf.

  • As well as different…

How much different? Why those differences? Fox is not wolf.

 In wrong buckets - <a href=Whales were fishes once . ◦ Classification based on appearances. ◦ And whale is NOT a fish, only if one looks INSIDE. " id="pdf-obj-19-2" src="pdf-obj-19-2.jpg">
  • In wrong buckets - Whales were fishes once. Classification based on appearances. And whale is NOT a fish, only if one looks INSIDE.

 In wrong buckets - <a href=Whales were fishes once . ◦ Classification based on appearances. ◦ And whale is NOT a fish, only if one looks INSIDE. " id="pdf-obj-19-13" src="pdf-obj-19-13.jpg">
 In addition, there are hints from the development of embryos of various species.  Tail
  • In addition, there

are hints from the

development of embryos of various species.

  • Tail at origin tells tale of origin.

 In addition, there are hints from the development of embryos of various species.  Tail
 Correction of such mistakes did not leave taxonomy untouched of evolution, too.  Taxonomy has
  • Correction of such mistakes did not leave taxonomy untouched of evolution, too.

  • Taxonomy has itself been evolving since then.

Morphology Anatomy Physiology Microbiology 300 years of Proteomics Genomics Biochemistry journey
Morphology
Anatomy
Physiology
Microbiology
300
years of
Proteomics
Genomics
Biochemistry
journey

Wikipedia:Taxonomy

Linnaeus

1735

2

kingdoms

(not

treated))

Vegetabilia

Wikipedia:Taxonomy Linnaeus 1735 2 (not treated)) Vegetabilia Haeckel 1866 Chatton 1937 Copeland 1956 Whittaker 1969 Woese

Haeckel

1866

Chatton

1937

Copeland

1956

Whittaker

1969

Woese et al.

1977

Wikipedia:Taxonomy Linnaeus 1735 2 (not treated)) Vegetabilia Haeckel 1866 Chatton 1937 Copeland 1956 Whittaker 1969 Woese

3 kingdoms

2

empires

4

kingdoms

5 kingdoms

6

kingdoms

Wikipedia:Taxonomy Linnaeus 1735 2 (not treated)) Vegetabilia Haeckel 1866 Chatton 1937 Copeland 1956 Whittaker 1969 Woese

Protista

Wikipedia:Taxonomy Linnaeus 1735 2 (not treated)) Vegetabilia Haeckel 1866 Chatton 1937 Copeland 1956 Whittaker 1969 Woese

Plantae

Wikipedia:Taxonomy Linnaeus 1735 2 (not treated)) Vegetabilia Haeckel 1866 Chatton 1937 Copeland 1956 Whittaker 1969 Woese

Prokaryota

Monera

Monera

Eukaryota

Wikipedia:Taxonomy Linnaeus 1735 2 (not treated)) Vegetabilia Haeckel 1866 Chatton 1937 Copeland 1956 Whittaker 1969 Woese

Protista

Wikipedia:Taxonomy Linnaeus 1735 2 (not treated)) Vegetabilia Haeckel 1866 Chatton 1937 Copeland 1956 Whittaker 1969 Woese

Eubacteria

Wikipedia:Taxonomy Linnaeus 1735 2 (not treated)) Vegetabilia Haeckel 1866 Chatton 1937 Copeland 1956 Whittaker 1969 Woese

Archaebacteria

Wikipedia:Taxonomy Linnaeus 1735 2 (not treated)) Vegetabilia Haeckel 1866 Chatton 1937 Copeland 1956 Whittaker 1969 Woese

Protista

Protista

Wikipedia:Taxonomy Linnaeus 1735 2 (not treated)) Vegetabilia Haeckel 1866 Chatton 1937 Copeland 1956 Whittaker 1969 Woese

Fungi

Fungi

Wikipedia:Taxonomy Linnaeus 1735 2 (not treated)) Vegetabilia Haeckel 1866 Chatton 1937 Copeland 1956 Whittaker 1969 Woese

Plantae

Plantae

Plantae

Woese et al.

1990

3 domains

Bacteria

Archaea

Eukarya

Animalia

Animalia

Animalia

Animalia

Animalia

Time Diversity Implications Evolution
Time
Diversity
Implications
Evolution
If two objects are separating at rate of 1 inch per year Then After 1 million
If two objects are separating at rate of 1 inch per year Then After 1 million
If two objects are separating at rate of 1 inch per year Then After 1 million
If two objects are separating at rate of 1 inch per year Then After 1 million

If two objects are separating at rate of 1 inch per year Then After 1 million year, they would be 25.4 kilometers apart.

12 % of Geological time

12 % of Geological time First fishes. All major phyla.
12 % of Geological time First fishes. All major phyla.

First fishes.

All major phyla.

Prof. Carl Sagan  To give glimpse of events occurred in the history of the Universe

Prof. Carl

Sagan

Prof. Carl Sagan  To give glimpse of events occurred in the history of the Universe
  • To give glimpse of events occurred in the

history of the Universe to fit into the scale a

common person can understand

From Big Bang till today

Thirteen billion years of the Universe‘s history scaled into 365 days of a year

  • January 1 st , 00:00:00 AM Big Bang

Each month is roughly equivalent to a billion years
Each month is roughly
equivalent to a billion years

But from such a remote past, what could survive to tell us the story?

 Literally means ‗Obtained by digging‘ in Latin and studied under ‗Paleontology‘.    A

Literally means ‗Obtained by digging‘ in Latin and studied under ‗Paleontology‘.

A Fossil can be past impressions about the living

being (like a thumb impression).

Impression of a leaf on a then-wet mud.

An insect caught in a tree amber.

Petrified skeletons of animals.

All one gets from such an antiquity is a fossil. A

paleontologist must make sense out of them, such

as to ‗extract‘, preserve, connect and date the

specimen.

 Literally means ‗Obtained by digging‘ in Latin and studied under ‗Paleontology‘.    A
 Literally means ‗Obtained by digging‘ in Latin and studied under ‗Paleontology‘.    A
 Literally means ‗Obtained by digging‘ in Latin and studied under ‗Paleontology‘.    A

Fossils can still tell the story of the organism when it was dying.

Morphology

Anatomy

Physiology (possibly)

 Challenges
Challenges

Identifying if a specimen is a fossil.

Recovering a fossil as complete as possible.

Identifying parts and whole of a fossil.

Identifying organism of that fossil. Determining age of a fossil. Preserving for future study.

 Challenges ◦ Identifying if a specimen is a fossil. ◦ Recovering a fossil as complete
 Challenges ◦ Identifying if a specimen is a fossil. ◦ Recovering a fossil as complete
 Informally, an organism still alive representing a lone species whose other relatives are extinct. ◦
  • Informally, an organism still alive representing a lone species whose other relatives are extinct. Coined by Charles Darwin himself. To understand certain anomalous species that have survived evolutionary pressure for very long time.

  • For example, platypus or duck-bill.

 Informally, an organism still alive representing a lone species whose other relatives are extinct. ◦
 Theories have been evolving since last 200 years to answer these questions Darwin- Modern Lamarck‘s
  • Theories have been evolving since last 200 years to answer these questions

Darwin- Modern Lamarck‘s Mendel's Neo- Wallace‘s Evolutionary Theory Theory Darwinism Theory Synthesis
Darwin-
Modern
Lamarck‘s
Mendel's
Neo-
Wallace‘s
Evolutionary
Theory
Theory
Darwinism
Theory
Synthesis
 ‗Inheritance of acquired characteristics‘ ◦ For example, giraffes stretched neck and passed it to progeny
  • ‗Inheritance of acquired

characteristics‘

For example, giraffes stretched neck and passed it to progeny generations after generations.

 ‗Inheritance of acquired characteristics‘ ◦ For example, giraffes stretched neck and passed it to progeny

Jean-Baptiste

Lamarck

  • It does not hold good today. There is no known reverse path from phenotype to genotype.

 Explains origin of diversity over time i.e. Evolution  Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallacep he ◦ Human population tends to increase a lot faster than food supply, which may lead to catas trophic implications for entire planet. Charles Darwin Alfred Russell Wallace " id="pdf-obj-34-2" src="pdf-obj-34-2.jpg">
  • Explains origin of diversity over time i.e. Evolution

  • Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace

Independently and then together Popular as ‗Darwinism‘ or ‗Survival of Fittest‘

  • Darwin influenced by Malthusian Catastrophe

Human population tends to increase a lot faster than food supply, which may lead to catastrophic implications for entire planet.

 Explains origin of diversity over time i.e. Evolution  Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallacep he ◦ Human population tends to increase a lot faster than food supply, which may lead to catas trophic implications for entire planet. Charles Darwin Alfred Russell Wallace " id="pdf-obj-34-27" src="pdf-obj-34-27.jpg">

Charles Darwin

 Explains origin of diversity over time i.e. Evolution  Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallacep he ◦ Human population tends to increase a lot faster than food supply, which may lead to catas trophic implications for entire planet. Charles Darwin Alfred Russell Wallace " id="pdf-obj-34-31" src="pdf-obj-34-31.jpg">

Alfred Russell

Wallace

Variation Competition Multiplication
Variation
Competition
Multiplication
Variation Competition Multiplication Origin of species

Origin of species

Speciation Competition
Speciation
Competition
Multiplication
Multiplication

Theory of

Natural

Selection

Growth
Growth
Adaptation
Adaptation
Survival
Survival

To understand Theory of Natural Selection, we should understand role of diversity and ecological niche.

  • Kind of approximation of term ‗habitat‘.

  • Subset of Ecosystem.

  • Hyperspace of multiple dimensions.

  • Dimensions can be temperature, Humidity, salinity, language and so on.

  • For example

Salt water/fresh water. Arctic deep ocean water. Amazon rain forests. Highland forests.

Top and bottom of Maple trees.

Roof-tops in Manchester city.

Marathi-speaking regions in India.

Traffic signals in India .

and almost anyplace where life-forms exist.

 Kind of approximation of term ‗habitat‘.  Subset of Ecosystem.  Hyperspace of multiple dimensions.Marathi -speaking regions in India. ◦ Tra ff ic signals in India  . ◦ and almost anyplace where life-forms exist. Source: http://hhh.gavilan.edu/rmorales/EcologySpring200 8.htm Source: http://www.geol.umd.edu/~jmerck/GEOL388/lectures/06.html " id="pdf-obj-38-51" src="pdf-obj-38-51.jpg">

Source:

http://hhh.gavilan.edu/rmorales/EcologySpring200

8.htm

 Kind of approximation of term ‗habitat‘.  Subset of Ecosystem.  Hyperspace of multiple dimensions.Marathi -speaking regions in India. ◦ Tra ff ic signals in India  . ◦ and almost anyplace where life-forms exist. Source: http://hhh.gavilan.edu/rmorales/EcologySpring200 8.htm Source: http://www.geol.umd.edu/~jmerck/GEOL388/lectures/06.html " id="pdf-obj-38-59" src="pdf-obj-38-59.jpg">

Source: http://www.geol.umd.edu/~jmerck/GEOL388/lectures/06.html

 On Galapagos Islands Darwin observed variety of finches, adapted for respective habitats. ◦ High altitude
  • On Galapagos Islands Darwin observed variety of finches, adapted for respective habitats.

High altitude vegetation

Highland forests

Lowland forests

Bushes

Shoreline vegetation

  • Even various levels of the same habitat, for example, from top to bottom of tree trunk.

 On Galapagos Islands Darwin observed variety of finches, adapted for respective habitats. ◦ High altitude

Source - http://14yunhyu.wordpress.com/2013/08/31/d-2d-macroevolution/

 On Galapagos Islands Darwin observed variety of finches, adapted for respective habitats. ◦ High altitude

Source: http://www.geol.umd.edu/~jmerck/GEOL388/lectures/06.html

 On Galapagos Islands Darwin observed variety of finches, adapted for respective habitats. ◦ High altitude

Source -

http://hhh.gavilan.edu/rmorales/EcologySpring2008.htm

 Species adapt to suit to their habitat. Alternatively, only suitable species survive in a habitat.

Species adapt to suit to their habitat. Alternatively, only suitable species survive in a habitat.

Adaptation for food, safety, nursing and so on.

Competitive Exclusion Principle OR

Gause‘s Law

No two species can occupy the same niche in the same environment for a long time.

―Complete competitors cannot coexist‖.

Thus if two organisms occupy exactly same niche, then they are the same species.

 Species adapt to suit to their habitat. Alternatively, only suitable species survive in a habitat.

Source -

http://14yunhyu.wordpress.com/2013/08/31

/d-2d-macroevolution/

 Species adapt to suit to their habitat. Alternatively, only suitable species survive in a habitat.

Source - http://hhh.gavilan.edu/rmorales/EcologySpring2008.htm

 Life forms are food for others. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chesapeake_Waterbird_Food_Web.jpg ◦ Visually chains and webs/networks. ◦ Mostly
  • Life forms are food for others.

 Life forms are food for others. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chesapeake_Waterbird_Food_Web.jpg ◦ Visually chains and webs/networks. ◦ Mostly

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chesapeake_Waterbird_Food_Web.jpg

Visually chains and webs/networks.

Mostly undiscovered.

Delicate balance in ecologies.

  • Human interference.

Try removing few species here and there, the ecological collapse may happen (See Gaia

Hypothesis).

For example, cell towers and insecticides are killing bees, reducing crop output.

 Population/individual becomes better suited to its habitat.  Caused by variation through ◦ Mutation (random
  • Population/individual becomes better suited to its habitat.

  • Caused by variation through

Mutation (random variation in genes) Breeding (sexual reproduction)

Horizontal gene transfer (Asexual borrowing. Typically occurs in bacteria).

  • For example, in highland forests, those finches

will survive better which can crack nuts with hard

shells.

 Evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage. ◦ Starting with a
Evolution of ecological and phenotypic
diversity within a rapidly multiplying
lineage.
Starting with a recent ancestor, this process
results in an array of species with different traits
with which they can exploit a range of divergent
environments.
For example, over generations few finches moved
up the tree and few moved down.
Likely to trigger Evolutionary Radiation in
local ecosystem.
 Evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage. ◦ Starting with a

Source -

http://hhh.gavilan.edu/rmorales/EcologySpring2008.htm

Source - http://14yunhyu.wordpress.com/2013/08/31/d-2d- macroevolution/

 Emergence of new species. ◦ Species : A group of organisms capable of interbreeding and

Emergence of new species.

Species : A group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.

Consistent variation passed to offspring.

 Emergence of new species. ◦ Species : A group of organisms capable of interbreeding and
 An increase in taxonomic diversity or morphological disparity, due to adaptive change or the opening
  • An increase in taxonomic diversity or morphological disparity, due to adaptive change or the opening of ecospace.

Essentially adaptive radiation spread across species.

Essentially many branches in a phylogenic tree.

  • Evolutionary Explosion

A rapid radiation in a relatively short span of time.

For example, Cambrian Explosion, The Internet.

  • Cambrian Explosion

Span of 10 million years happened 425 million years before.

Blueprints of all known phyla emerged in this short span.

 Darwin postulated that species change gradually and continuously.  However, Stephen Jay Gould and others
Darwin postulated that species
change gradually and
continuously.
However, Stephen Jay Gould
and others observed stasis and
sudden speciation, called as
‗Punctuated Equilibria‘.
Species ‗accumulate‘ changes
and then ‗suddenly‘ radiate
into new species.
Introduced and reinforced idea
that species are Darwinian
individuals and not just
classes.
Reasons are unknown.
Source - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Punctuated-equilibrium.svg

All these variations do not survive over time.

In fact, 99.9% of species that have ever existed, are now extinct, including dinosaurs.

Predation Mating
Predation
Mating
Predation Mating Climate change Externalities (such asteroid impact)

Climate change

Predation Mating Climate change Externalities (such asteroid impact)
Predation Mating Climate change Externalities (such asteroid impact)

Externalities (such asteroid impact)

Predation Mating Climate change Externalities (such asteroid impact)

Genetically Modified Food/Organisms & Selective breeding

Conflicts and Wars

Genetically Modified Food/Organisms & Selective breeding Conflicts and Wars Markets Marriages Job interviews

Markets

Marriages

Genetically Modified Food/Organisms & Selective breeding Conflicts and Wars Markets Marriages Job interviews

Job interviews

Genetically Modified Food/Organisms & Selective breeding Conflicts and Wars Markets Marriages Job interviews
Genetically Modified Food/Organisms & Selective breeding Conflicts and Wars Markets Marriages Job interviews
Genetically Modified Food/Organisms & Selective breeding Conflicts and Wars Markets Marriages Job interviews
 Individuals survive due to useful variations survive and perish through harmful ones.  Units of
  • Individuals survive due to useful variations survive and perish through harmful ones.

  • Units of selection

Self-reproducing molecules Genes Cells Individuals Groups Species Societies Nations

Black soot from textile factories of Manchester  Ecological contrasts ◦ Snow ◦ Black soot deposited

Black soot from textile factories of Manchester

  • Ecological contrasts

Snow

Black soot deposited on roof tops.

  • Altered predator-prey pattern

Black soot was getting accumulated on roof-tops, in all seasons.

White moths were becoming visible even during winter, on accumulated black soot on roof-tops and predators could find and eat them.

Thus increasing black moths population over white ones.

Black moth White moth Black moth White moth Snow deposited in winter Black soot deposited by
Black moth
White moth
Black moth
White moth
Snow deposited in winter
Black soot deposited by textile
factories

Slow though the process of selection may be, if feeble man can do much by his powers of artificial selection, I can see no limit to the amount of change, to the beauty and infinite complexity of the co-adaptations between all organic beings, one with another and with their physical conditions of life, which may be effected in the long course of time by nature's power of selection.

― Slow though the process of selection may be, if feeble man can do much by

Probably origin of term ‗Natural Selection‘.

Charles Darwin

― Slow though the process of selection may be, if feeble man can do much by
― Slow though the process of selection may be, if feeble man can do much by
Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Life_cycle_of_a_sexually_reproducing_organism.svg
Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Life_cycle_of_a_sexually_reproducing_organism.svg

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Life_cycle_of_a_sexually_reproducing_organism.svg

 Fitness is NOT about being strong or healthy.  ―Ability to survive and to reproduce,
  • Fitness is NOT about being strong or healthy.

  • ―Ability to survive and to reproduce, both‖

Collective quality of a population of species.

Also thought in terms of average contribution to ‗Gene pool‘.

Simply, determines if a species would continue to survive.

 Fitness is NOT about being strong or healthy.  ―Ability to survive and to reproduce,
 Fitness is NOT about being strong or healthy.  ―Ability to survive and to reproduce,
 Fitness is NOT about being strong or healthy.  ―Ability to survive and to reproduce,
But what makes a baby elephant as strong as its parents? OR How traits are transferred

But what makes a baby elephant as strong as its parents?

OR

How traits are transferred from parents to children, in general?

 Mendel‘s Laws ◦ Law of Segregation ◦ Law of Independent Assortment.  Discovery-rejection-rediscovery Gregor Mendel
  • Mendel‘s Laws

Law of Segregation Law of Independent Assortment.

  • Discovery-rejection-rediscovery

Gregor Mendel

Work published in 1865-66. Initially rejected by scientific community of his time.

Later rediscovered in 1900 independently by Hugo de Vries and Carl Correns and was acknowledged.

  • A set of primary tenets relating to the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parent organisms to their offspring;

Units of heredity called as Factors

  • Today known as Genes

  • Basis of chromosomal inheritance and genetics.

 Law of Segregation ◦ When any individual produces gametes, the copies of a gene separate
  • Law of Segregation When any individual produces gametes, the copies of a gene separate so that each gamete receives only one copy.

  • Law of Independent Assortment Alleles of different genes assort independently of one another during gamete formation. Also known as "Inheritance Law" True only for ‗unrelated genes‘

 Discovery of nucleic acids DNA and RNA. ◦ Structure and role of nucleic acids in
  • Discovery of nucleic acids DNA and RNA. Structure and role of nucleic acids in inheritance. Analogous to Mendel‘s work.

  • Genes - Segments of DNA and RNA.

Functional units of inheritance.

For example, color of eye/hairs.

James Watson

Francis Creek

 Discovery of nucleic acids DNA and RNA. ◦ Structure and role of nucleic acids in
 What Mendel called ‗factors‘ then, are called as Allele today.  Allele ◦ Either of
  • What Mendel called ‗factors‘ then, are called

as Allele today.

  • Allele

Either of a pair (or series) of alternative forms of a gene that can occupy the same locus on a particular

chromosome and that control the same character; ―Some alleles are dominant over others‖

 What Mendel called ‗factors‘ then, are called as Allele today.  Allele ◦ Either of
 Darwinism + Chromosomal inheritance  ‗Gene - centered view‘ or ‗Selfish gene theor <a href=y ‘ ◦ Holds that evolution occurs through th e differen ti al survival of competing genes as if such genes are s elfish . ◦ Even further, altruistic behavior of organisms are in fact manifestations of selfish genes. ◦ Introduces concept of ‗replicator‘ and two instances of them – Genes and memes. ◦ What genes are for organisms, memes are for cultures. " id="pdf-obj-61-2" src="pdf-obj-61-2.jpg">
  • Darwinism + Chromosomal inheritance

  • ‗Gene-centered view‘ or ‗Selfish gene theory

Holds that evolution occurs through the differential

survival of competing genes as if such genes are selfish.

Even further, altruistic behavior of organisms are in fact manifestations of selfish genes.

Introduces concept of ‗replicator‘ and two instances of them Genes and memes.

What genes are for organisms, memes are for cultures.

 Darwinism + Chromosomal inheritance  ‗Gene - centered view‘ or ‗Selfish gene theor <a href=y ‘ ◦ Holds that evolution occurs through th e differen ti al survival of competing genes as if such genes are s elfish . ◦ Even further, altruistic behavior of organisms are in fact manifestations of selfish genes. ◦ Introduces concept of ‗replicator‘ and two instances of them – Genes and memes. ◦ What genes are for organisms, memes are for cultures. " id="pdf-obj-61-41" src="pdf-obj-61-41.jpg">
Phenotype Genotype •Observable trait •Genetic make-up •For example morphology, anatomy, behavior and so on. •For example,
Phenotype
Genotype
•Observable trait
•Genetic make-up
•For example morphology, anatomy,
behavior and so on.
•For example, chromosomes, nucleotide
sequences in some cell organelles.
•Expression of genes
•Extended Phenotype
•For example bird‘s nest.
•Extended expression of genes.
•Translates into phenotypes.
•Replication through extra-dimension of
time.
Phenotype Genotype •Observable trait •Genetic make-up •For example morphology, anatomy, behavior and so on. •For example,
Phenotype Genotype •Observable trait •Genetic make-up •For example morphology, anatomy, behavior and so on. •For example,
Phenotype Genotype •Observable trait •Genetic make-up •For example morphology, anatomy, behavior and so on. •For example,
Amino acids Proteins Nucleic acids (RNA & DNA) Chromosomes and organelles Individuals Organs Tissues Cells Groups,
Amino acids
Proteins
Nucleic acids
(RNA & DNA)
Chromosomes
and organelles
Individuals
Organs
Tissues
Cells
Groups, herds,
societies and
nations
Ecosystem
Planet
 Brings together fields that are separated ◦ From geology to paleontology. ◦ From molecular biology
  • Brings together fields that are separated From geology to paleontology. From molecular biology to ecology. From linguistics to political science.

  • Neo-Darwinism becomes subset.

  • It becomes possible to explain many phenomena due to borrowed learning.

Evolution A primer

Evolution – A primer  Evolution = Study of variation over time and space ◦ Space
Evolution – A primer  Evolution = Study of variation over time and space ◦ Space
  • Evolution = Study of variation over time and space

Space Variation across individuals at any given time.

Time Variation across individuals in past and

Evolution – A primer  Evolution = Study of variation over time and space ◦ Space

present.

  • Systematics

Study of the diversification of life on the planet Earth, both

past and present, and the

relationships among living things through time.

 ― The history of organismal evolution ‖ <a href= ◦ Evolution is regarded as a branching process , [whereby populations are altered over time and may speciate into sep arate branches, h ybridize together, or terminate by exti nction ] . Th i s may be visualized as a multidimensional character-space t h at a population moves t h roug h over time.  Basically family tree of species Further reading " id="pdf-obj-68-2" src="pdf-obj-68-2.jpg">
  • The history of organismal evolution1

Evolution is regarded as a branching process, [whereby

populations are altered over time and may speciate into separate branches, hybridize together, or terminate by extinction]. This may be visualized as a

multidimensional character-space that a population moves through over time.

 ― The history of organismal evolution ‖ <a href= ◦ Evolution is regarded as a branching process , [whereby populations are altered over time and may speciate into sep arate branches, h ybridize together, or terminate by exti nction ] . Th i s may be visualized as a multidimensional character-space t h at a population moves t h roug h over time.  Basically family tree of species Further reading " id="pdf-obj-68-47" src="pdf-obj-68-47.jpg">

Tree of Life from

Phylogeny

point of view

1. Single entry for all the animals

2. Common ancestor of animals

1. Single entry for all the animals 2. Common ancestor of animals and fungi No surprise
1. Single entry for all the animals 2. Common ancestor of animals and fungi No surprise

and fungi

1. Single entry for all the animals 2. Common ancestor of animals and fungi No surprise

No surprise that microbes account for more

than half biomass on Earth.

Tree of Life (by David Hillis, based on genome sequences)

Tree of Life (by David Hillis, based on genome sequences) Ex <a href=p lore more at http://onezoom.org " id="pdf-obj-71-4" src="pdf-obj-71-4.jpg">

Explore more at

Human Evolution
Human Evolution
Linux Evolution
Linux Evolution


Variation - An individual is different from others

Of same kind Attributes shared, values differ.

Of different kind Attributes differ, values differ.

 Variation - An individual is different from others ◦ Of same kind – Attributes shared,

Classification

One combines similar individuals

into a group, and then such groups into larger groups and so on, forming a hierarchy of groups called Taxonomy.

Shared attributes of groups in a taxonomy

In biology, species are loose groups of similar, compatible individuals, different from one another.

 Variation - An individual is different from others ◦ Of same kind – Attributes shared,
 Variation - An individual is different from others ◦ Of same kind – Attributes shared,
+ + + + Error in copying Borrowing/snatching Recombination Creativity information information Mutation Horizontal transfer Sexual
+ + + + Error in copying Borrowing/snatching Recombination Creativity information information Mutation Horizontal transfer Sexual
+ + + + Error in copying Borrowing/snatching Recombination Creativity information information Mutation Horizontal transfer Sexual
+ + + + Error in copying Borrowing/snatching Recombination Creativity information information Mutation Horizontal transfer Sexual
+ + + + Error in copying Borrowing/snatching Recombination Creativity information information Mutation Horizontal transfer Sexual
+ + + + Error in copying Borrowing/snatching Recombination Creativity information information Mutation Horizontal transfer Sexual
+ + + + Error in copying Borrowing/snatching Recombination Creativity information information Mutation Horizontal transfer Sexual
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Error in copying

 

Borrowing/snatching

 

Recombination

 

Creativity

information

information

 

Mutation

Horizontal transfer

Sexual reproduction

Creativity

time
time

time

time
Macroevolution •Meteorology •Economics •Sociology •Game theory •Ecology •Population genetics •Behavioral science Individual Microevolution •Anatomy •Physiology •Genetics
Macroevolution
•Meteorology
•Economics
•Sociology
•Game theory
•Ecology
•Population genetics
•Behavioral science
Individual
Microevolution
•Anatomy
•Physiology
•Genetics
•Microbiology
•Chemistry
•Quantum mechanics
Macroevolution •Meteorology •Economics •Sociology •Game theory •Ecology •Population genetics •Behavioral science Individual Microevolution •Anatomy •Physiology •Genetics
Macroevolution •Meteorology •Economics •Sociology •Game theory •Ecology •Population genetics •Behavioral science Individual Microevolution •Anatomy •Physiology •Genetics
4. Growth and multiplication •Mating 1. Variation 3. Selection •Useful •Survival •Harmful 2. Competition •In presence
4.
Growth
and
multiplication
•Mating
1. Variation
3. Selection
•Useful
•Survival
•Harmful
2.
Competition
•In presence of
limited
resources

Microevolution

3. Speciation 2. Radiation 1. Adaptation
3.
Speciation
2.
Radiation
1. Adaptation
DNA RNA Proteins Cellular Metabolism Physiology Structure and behavior
DNA
RNA
Proteins
Cellular
Metabolism
Physiology
Structure and
behavior
Individual Species Ecosystem
Individual Species Ecosystem
Individual
Species
Ecosystem
 Study of changes that occur at or above the level of species, in contrast with
  • Study of changes that occur at or above the level of species, in contrast with microevolution.

  • For example, a new species emerges or a group of species goes extinct.

  • Explosions and extinctions - Two recurring patterns in macroevolution .

 Study of changes that occur at or above the level of species, in contrast with

Source: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evoscales_01

  • Extinction = Death of a species Extinction of species is continuous process.

D E i v A B e C D r s i t y
D
E
i
v
A
B
e
C
D
r
s
i
t
y

Time (million years ago)

Sometimes, widespread and more destructive. Either due to evolutionary pressure or external events. Great evolutionary significance.

Major causes

Asteroid impact

 Extinction = Death of a species ◦ Extinction of species is continuous process. D E

Volcano

 Extinction = Death of a species ◦ Extinction of species is continuous process. D E

Fall in sea levels

 Extinction = Death of a species ◦ Extinction of species is continuous process. D E
(A) Ordovician- Silurian •450-440 Mya (million years ago) •60-70% of all species - 2 nd largest
(A) Ordovician-
Silurian
•450-440 Mya
(million years
ago)
•60-70% of all
species -
2 nd
largest of all.
D i v A B e r s i t y
D
i
v
A
B
e
r
s
i
t
y
C D
C
D

Time (million years ago)

(B) Devonian- Carboniferous •375-360 Mya •70% of all species. •Extinction pulses within this period.
(B) Devonian-
Carboniferous
•375-360 Mya
•70% of all species.
•Extinction pulses
within this period.
(C) Permian- Triassic •250 Mya •Deadliest of all, Known as ‗Great Dying‘. •Killed upto 95% of
(C) Permian-
Triassic
•250 Mya
•Deadliest of all,
Known as ‗Great
Dying‘.
•Killed upto 95% of
all species.
•End of Trilobites,
arguably longest
surviving
organisms.
E (D) Triassic- Jurassic •200 Mya •Killed 70-75% of all species.
E
(D) Triassic-
Jurassic
•200 Mya
•Killed 70-75% of all
species.
(E) Cretecious- Paleogene •65 Mya •Killed 75% species. •Known for end of dinosaurs.
(E) Cretecious-
Paleogene
•65 Mya
•Killed 75% species.
•Known for end of
dinosaurs.

It‘s not all that bad…as in creative destruction, creation follows destruction.

Sometimes, more creatively…

 Rise in speciation in relatively smaller time window.  Accelerated increase in diversity in geologically
  • Rise in speciation in relatively smaller time window.

  • Accelerated increase in diversity in geologically shorter time.

  • Usually, driven by rush to fill empty niches.

  • Could be triggered by an innovative trait and sustained by competition. For example development of

Photosynthesis. Oxygen-based metabolism. Aging. Sex. Eye. Endoskeleton and jaw. Endothermic mechanism.

 Approximately 540 million ago.  All major animal phyla emerged from this period.  Blueprints
  • Approximately 540 million ago.

  • All major animal phyla emerged from this period.

  • Blueprints for all vertebrates including fishes, dinosaurs and humans.

  • Triggered by

Innovation of ‗eye‘.

Increase in oxygen levels.

Snowball earth.

Sustained by arms race thereafter.

  • Rise of trilobites

Arguably longest lived organisms till date 300 million years.

Highest inter-species diversity.

 Approximately 540 million ago.  All major animal phyla emerged from this period.  Blueprints
 Approximately 540 million ago.  All major animal phyla emerged from this period.  Blueprints
Cambrian explosion •540 Mya. •All major animal phyla emerged from this period •Blueprints for vertebrates including
Cambrian explosion
•540 Mya.
•All major animal
phyla emerged from
this period
•Blueprints for
vertebrates
including humans.
•Triggered by –
•Innovation of ‗eye‘.
•Increase in oxygen
levels.
•Snowball earth.
•Sustained by arms
race thereafter.
Cambrian explosion •540 Mya. •All major animal phyla emerged from this period •Blueprints for vertebrates including
Cambrian explosion •540 Mya. •All major animal phyla emerged from this period •Blueprints for vertebrates including
Devonian explosion •440 Mya. •First major adaptive radiation of land- based life such as rise and
Devonian explosion
•440 Mya.
•First major adaptive
radiation of land-
based life such as
rise and spread of
free-spore vascular
plants.
•Rise of fishes, and
known as ‗age of
fishes‘.
Cambrian explosion •540 Mya. •All major animal phyla emerged from this period •Blueprints for vertebrates including
Cambrian explosion •540 Mya. •All major animal phyla emerged from this period •Blueprints for vertebrates including
Triassic explosion •240 Mya. •After the largest extinction event ‗P- T‘. •Rise of dinosaurs. •Rise of
Triassic explosion
•240 Mya.
•After the largest
extinction event ‗P-
T‘.
•Rise of dinosaurs.
•Rise of first true
mammals.
Cambrian explosion •540 Mya. •All major animal phyla emerged from this period •Blueprints for vertebrates including
Paleogene explosion •60 Mya. •Adaptive radiation of mammals, birds and reptiles.
Paleogene explosion
•60 Mya.
•Adaptive radiation of
mammals, birds and
reptiles.
Cambrian explosion •540 Mya. •All major animal phyla emerged from this period •Blueprints for vertebrates including
 When different organisms develop similar features to survive in a common niche.  For example,
  • When different organisms develop similar features to survive in a common niche.

  • For example, streamlined body for swimming swiftly in the

water.

Shark (Fish)

 When different organisms develop similar features to survive in a common niche.  For example,

Kronosaurus (Reptile/dinosaur)

 When different organisms develop similar features to survive in a common niche.  For example,

Penguin (Bird)

 When different organisms develop similar features to survive in a common niche.  For example,

Dolphin (Mammal)

Whale (Mammal)

 When different organisms develop similar features to survive in a common niche.  For example,

Okay, Evolution is a great story.

But, what if the tape is played again?

 For example (popular in sci-fi movies) ◦ Imagine you go on a jungle safari, albeit
  • For example (popular in sci-fi movies)

Imagine you go on a jungle safari, albeit of Jurassic age (150 Million years before present).

You make a simply change, say killing a butterfly and come back to present time.

Should there be any impact of that killing on future? Alternative History.

  • Chaos Effect (Butterfly Effect)

Small perturbation (at one place) may lead to large effects (at other places).

Observed by Edward Lorenz while modeling weather patterns that very small changes in values (such as a flap of butterfly‘s wings) lead to

dramatic changes in patterns (such as hurricane formation) over time.

Hence the name.

 For example (popular in sci-fi movies) ◦ Imagine you go on a jungle safari, albeit

Edward Lorenz

 Chaos is NOT same as randomness.  Randomness necessitates denial of any pattern or order.
  • Chaos is NOT same as randomness.

    • Randomness necessitates denial of any pattern or order.

    • Whereas chaos is often termed as Hidden Order.

  • ―Extreme sensitivity to initial conditions‖.

  • Vastly different outcomes over time due to slightly different initial conditions.

    Chaotic is property of all non-linear dynamical systems.

    Highlights significant path dependence. For example Weather, Stock market crashes, Epidemics, etc.

    • Always prevalent situation any point in space-time is an initial condition.

    Analogous to sliding rule, the window of study moves thus making any point on rule as start of the window. Interesting part is about emergence of the other end of this window.

     Emergence = property or behavior of a system demonstrated by none of its individual parts
    • Emergence = property or behavior of a system demonstrated by none of its individual parts but collectively by them.

    Changes in Individual Changes in Population Changes in Environment
    Changes in
    Individual
    Changes in
    Population
    Changes in
    Environment

    For example, intelligence is emergent property of brain, made from zillions of neurons, though none of them individually has this property.

    For example, locomotion is property of automobile, but none of its parts.

    • Natural selection makes it possible to achieve similar goals with different routes.

    For example, due to convergent evolution, vision, flight and streamlined body have been emerged in different species in the past.

    • Actually it may not matter in many cases whether we play the tape once or many times, due to phenomenon namely Self- organization.

     A special kind of emergent phenomenon – Spontaneous order arises out of local interactions of
    • A special kind of emergent phenomenon Spontaneous order arises out of local interactions of components.

    For example, crystallization, galaxy formation, flocks of birds, multicellular organisms, human societies and so on. Islands of predictability in the ocean of unpredictability.

    • Perhaps, it‘s an answer to every question regarding Life, or at least participatory.

    Life is because-of, is a and has Self-organization.

    Natural selection itself is a kind of Self-organization phenomenon.

    Helps achieve similar results from different initial conditions.

    Thus acts as opposite of chaos.

    Self- organization Chaos
    Self-
    organization
    Chaos

    Overview of Factors

    Populations Combinations Competitions Variations Evolution Generations
    Populations
    Combinations
    Competitions
    Variations
    Evolution
    Generations
    Time Diversity Implications Evolution
    Time
    Diversity
    Implications
    Evolution
    Highlights some important patterns in evolution Functional integration Functional differentiation Complexity trend Information aspect of evolution
    Highlights some important
    patterns in evolution
    Functional integration
    Functional differentiation
    Complexity trend
    Information aspect of evolution

    From

    To

    Notes

    "Populations" of molecules in compartments

    Can't observe

    Independent replicators (probably RNA)

    RNA as both genes and enzymes

    DNA as genes; proteins as enzymes

     

    Can observe

    Solitary individuals

    Colonies with non-reproductive castes

     

    Primate societies

    Human societies with language, enabling memes

    From To Notes <a href=Replicating molecules "Populations" of molecules in compartments Can't observe Independent re p licators (probably RNA ) Chromosomes RNA world hypothesis RNA as both g enes and enzymes DNA as genes; proteins as enzymes Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Can observe Asexual clones Sexual populations Evolution of sex Protists Multicellular or g anisms animals , plants , fungi Evolution of multicellularity Solitary individuals Colonies with non-reproductive castes Primate societies Human societies with language , enabling memes Sociocultural evolution " id="pdf-obj-99-109" src="pdf-obj-99-109.jpg">
     Increasing biocomplexity through Integration  Smaller entities often have come about together to form largerChromosomes , eukaryotes , sex multicellular colonies. " id="pdf-obj-100-2" src="pdf-obj-100-2.jpg">
    • Increasing biocomplexity through Integration

    • Smaller entities often have come about together to form larger entities.

    For example Chromosomes, eukaryotes, sex multicellular colonies.

     Increasing biocomplexity through Integration  Smaller entities often have come about together to form largerChromosomes , eukaryotes , sex multicellular colonies. " id="pdf-obj-100-18" src="pdf-obj-100-18.jpg">
     Often smaller entities ◦ Have become differentiated as part of a larger entity.  ForDNA & protein , organelles, anisogamy, tissues, castes ◦ Are unable to replicate in the absence of the larger entity. ◦ e.g. Organelles, tissues, castes ◦ Can sometimes disrupt the development of the larger entity. ◦ e.g. Meiotic drive (selfish non-Mendelian genes), parthenogenesis, cancers, coup d‘état  New ways of transmitting information have arisen. ◦ e.g. DNA -protein, cell heredity, epigenesis, universal grammar . " id="pdf-obj-101-2" src="pdf-obj-101-2.jpg">
    • Often smaller entities

    Have become differentiated as part of a larger entity.

    • For example DNA & protein, organelles, anisogamy, tissues, castes

    Are unable to replicate in the absence of the larger entity. e.g. Organelles, tissues, castes

    Can sometimes disrupt the development of the larger entity.

    e.g. Meiotic drive (selfish non-Mendelian genes), parthenogenesis, cancers, coup d‘état

    • New ways of transmitting information have arisen.

    e.g. DNA-protein, cell heredity, epigenesis, universal grammar.

     Complexity has been rising since origin of life.  Cambrian Explosion ◦ A tipping point.
     Complexity has been rising since origin of life.  Cambrian Explosion ◦ A tipping point.
    • Complexity has been

    rising since origin of

    life.

    • Cambrian Explosion

    A tipping point. Accelerated pace of increase in complexity.

    A pattern in evolution, typically preceded by

    an extinction

    event/span.

     Quasi-closed system/habitat, populations of species affect each other.  In predator-prey model, changes in demand
    • Quasi-closed system/habitat, populations of species affect each other.

    • In predator-prey model, changes in demand and supply.

     Quasi-closed system/habitat, populations of species affect each other.  In predator-prey model, changes in demand
    • Complex relationship in presence of multiple predator and prey species.

    • Such patterns affect environment.

    For example, if a grass consumed by rabbits will affect population of not only rabbits, but also wolfs.

    Bacteria Herb Wolf Single mutation in a bacterium can significantly affect an herb, which forms significant
    Bacteria Herb Wolf Single mutation in a bacterium can significantly affect an herb, which forms significant
    Bacteria Herb Wolf Single mutation in a bacterium can significantly affect an herb, which forms significant

    Bacteria

    Bacteria Herb Wolf Single mutation in a bacterium can significantly affect an herb, which forms significant

    Herb

    Bacteria Herb Wolf Single mutation in a bacterium can significantly affect an herb, which forms significant
    Bacteria Herb Wolf Single mutation in a bacterium can significantly affect an herb, which forms significant

    Rabbit

    Bacteria Herb Wolf Single mutation in a bacterium can significantly affect an herb, which forms significant
    Bacteria Herb Wolf Single mutation in a bacterium can significantly affect an herb, which forms significant

    Wolf

    Single mutation in a bacterium can significantly affect an herb,

    which forms significant diet of a species like rabbit

    and thus affecting population of wolves too, that feed upon rabbits.

     Life forms are food for others. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chesapeake_Waterbird_Food_Web.jpg ◦ Visually chains and webs/networks. ◦ Mostly
    • Life forms are food for others.

     Life forms are food for others. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chesapeake_Waterbird_Food_Web.jpg ◦ Visually chains and webs/networks. ◦ Mostly

    Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chesapeake_Waterbird_Food_Web.jpg

    Visually chains and webs/networks.

    Mostly undiscovered.

    Delicate balance in ecologies.

    • Human interference.

    Try removing few species here and there, the ecological collapse may happen (See Gaia

    Hypothesis).

    For example, cell towers and insecticides are killing bees, reducing crop output.

    Prof. James Lovelock  Biosphere is a self-regulating entity.  ― Abiota affects biota and vice

    Prof. James

    Lovelock

    • Biosphere is a self-regulating entity.

    • Abiota affects biota and vice versa‖.

    • Cycles in a Daisy World.

    • Model for climate change.

    Prof. James Lovelock  Biosphere is a self-regulating entity.  ― Abiota affects biota and vice
     Now a fact instead of fiction.  Major contribution by humans. ◦ By Gaia hypothesis,
    • Now a fact instead of fiction.

    • Major contribution by humans.

    By Gaia hypothesis, climate change in turn will affect humans. Rise in ocean levels, resulting into submerging of coastal cities. Frequent hurricanes and cyclones.

    • Changes in seasons to affect harvest.

    ‗Malthusian catastrophe‘

    • However, humans will affect humans too.

    ‗Behavioral sink‘

     Now a fact instead of fiction.  Major contribution by humans. ◦ By Gaia hypothesis,
     ―A condition or event by which a population returns to subsistence level conditions once Thomasp edia ◦ An Essay on the Principle of Population published in 1798 . ◦ Inspired Charles Darwin, to late discover Theory of Origin of Species.  Criticism ◦ New knowledge and technology can avert such crisis. For example, Green Revolution. ◦ Socio-economic aspects such as birth control and urbanization play their role too. " id="pdf-obj-108-2" src="pdf-obj-108-2.jpg">
    • ―A condition or event by which a population

    returns to subsistence level conditions once

     ―A condition or event by which a population returns to subsistence level conditions once Thomasp edia ◦ An Essay on the Principle of Population published in 1798 . ◦ Inspired Charles Darwin, to late discover Theory of Origin of Species.  Criticism ◦ New knowledge and technology can avert such crisis. For example, Green Revolution. ◦ Socio-economic aspects such as birth control and urbanization play their role too. " id="pdf-obj-108-9" src="pdf-obj-108-9.jpg">

    Thomas

    Malthus

    population growth outpaces agricultural growth‖ – Wikipedia

    1798.

    Inspired Charles Darwin, to late discover Theory of Origin of Species.

    • Criticism

    New knowledge and technology can avert such crisis. For example, Green Revolution.

    Socio-economic aspects such as birth control and urbanization play their role too.

     Increasing population has its impact on itself too.  An experiment to understand impact of
    • Increasing population has its impact on itself

    too.

    • An experiment to understand impact of overpopulation.

    From 1947 to 1972.

    Published initial result in Scientific American in

    1968.

    Though experiment involved rats, results are indicative to humans too.

     Increasing population has its impact on itself too.  An experiment to understand impact of

    John B. Calhoun

     Many rats placed in a relatively small area. ◦ Area divided into four rooms, with
    • Many rats placed in a relatively small area.

    Area divided into four rooms, with decreasing amenities such as food, water and protection.

    Rats in each room showed different behavior.

    • Least resourceful room was termed as Behavioral Sink.

    Rats showed destructive behavior, especially towards weaker rats such as females and babies.

    It resulted into inability of females to carry through pregnancy and mortality rates as

    high as 96 percent.

     Many rats placed in a relatively small area. ◦ Area divided into four rooms, with
    • Similar indicative behavior can be seen in patches of human societies too.

     Ecology crisis ◦ Mining, petroleum and heavy industries. ◦ Automobiles and livestock. ◦ Shrinking fisheries,
    • Ecology crisis

    Mining, petroleum and heavy industries. Automobiles and livestock.

    Shrinking fisheries, forests, glaciers and icecaps.

    • Economy crisis

    Faltering growth Booming and busting bubbles Unemployment Inequality

    • Energy crisis

    Depleting fossil fuel sources. No viable alternative in sight.

    Economy crisis Ecology Energy crisis crisis Humanity Crisis
    Economy
    crisis
    Ecology
    Energy
    crisis
    crisis
    Humanity
    Crisis
    Evolution has brought us here. It will guide us from here.

    Evolution has brought us here.

    It will guide us from here.

     Change is the only constant thing. ◦ Hence evolution is omnipresent and almighty.  Evolution
    • Change is the only constant thing.

    Hence evolution is omnipresent and almighty.

    • Evolution is interplay of scale and diversity over time.

    • Never underestimate power of small change. Butterfly effect An action sets the Universe on a new course, every time and all the time.

     Change is the only constant thing. ◦ Hence evolution is omnipresent and almighty.  Evolution

    (―Everything else is an illusion‖ – Bhagvadgeeta)

     Prof. N Swaminathan and other colleagues.  Wikipedia
    • Prof. N Swaminathan and other colleagues.

    • Wikipedia

    Being evolutionary is not a bad idea,

    perhaps because

    being survived as fittest is not bad idea.

    Being evolutionary is not a bad idea, perhaps because being survived as fittest is not bad
    Being evolutionary is not a bad idea, perhaps because being survived as fittest is not bad

    To be continued with Evolution: Understanding facts