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WIND TUNNEL TESTING

Wind Tunnels
Objective
Accurately simulate the fluid flow about atmospheric vehicles Measure -Forces, moments, pressure, shear stress, heat transfer, flow field
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Working of wind tunnel

WIND TUNNEL LAYOUTS


Closed Return Open Return Double Return Annular Return

Closed Return(Open Test Section)

Open Return(Closed Section)

Exhaust

Louvers for Speed Adjustment

15 Hp. Dual Centrifugal Blower


Exhaust

Test Section 18 inch Diameter 25 to 1 Contraction Screens High Contraction Wind Tunnel Top View

Diffuser

Double Return

Annular Wind Tunnel

TYPES OF WIND TUNNELS


Subsonic Transonic Supersonic Hypersonic Specialty (Automobiles)

SUBSONIC TUNNELS
Low speed wind tunnels are used for

operations at very low mach number(M<0.5), with speeds in the test section up to 480 km/h They may be of open-return type with air moved by a propulsion system.

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80X120 NASA AMES

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80x120 Wind Tunnel NASA Ames

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12 Foot Pressure Tunnel

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TRANSONIC WIND TUNNELS


High subsonic wind tunnels (0.4 < M < 0.75)

or transonic wind tunnels (0.75 < M < 1.2) are designed on the same principles as the subsonic wind tunnels.

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TRANSONIC WIND TUNNEL


Testing at transonic speeds presents

additional problems, mainly due to the reflection of the shock waves from the walls of the test section

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8x6 Functions & Capabilities The 8x6 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel provides customers with a Facility capable of testing large scale aero propulsion hardware Relative altitude 1000 - 35000 ft Dynamic Pressure 3.6 - 4.8 x 106/f Temperature 60 - 250oF

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8X6 AT NASA LEWIS

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SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNELS


A supersonic wind tunnel is a wind tunnel

that produces supersonic speeds (1.2<M<5) The Mach number and flow are determined by the nozzle geometry.

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HYPERSONIC WIND TUNNELS


A hypersonic wind tunnel is designed to

generate a hypersonic flow field in the working section. The speed of these tunnels vary from Mach 5 to 15.

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AUTOMOBILE WIND TUNNELS


External flow tunnels - Used to study the external flow through the chassis Climatic tunnels - Used to evaluate the performance of door systems, braking systems etc. under various climatic conditions.

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TYPES OF WIND TUNNEL TESTING


Force Test
Force measurement requires a force to be

exerted (lift & drag forces so termed force test) The balance can measure only two forces: lift & drag

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TYPES OF WIND TUNNEL TESTING


Pressure Tests
Insert tiny tubes into the model surface or

airstream and connect them to a pressure measuring device

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Pressure Test: Lowered pressure over the wing surface

reduced the pressure in the manometer tubes and draws the water level up to a high level The lower the pressure, the higher the water level goes

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TYPES OF WIND TUNNEL TESTING


Flow Patterns
Allow the streamlines of air flow to look at

the bodys aerodynamic properties Tufting allows for the flow pattern visualization

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Flow Patterns

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INSTRUMENTS USED IN WIND TUNNELS


1.Force Balance 2.Static Pressure Measurement 3.Strain gauge 4.Spring Gauge 5.Laser Doppler Velocimetry 6.Laser Sheet
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FORCE BALANCE

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STATIC PRESSURE MEASUREMNT

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STRAIN GAUGE

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SPRING GAUGE

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LASER DOPPLER VELOCIMETRY

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LASER SHEET

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HOW ARE CARS TESTED IN WIND TUNNELS??


It is used to quantify and validate what is going

on aerodynamically to the vehicle by measuring forces exerted on the body through a 6 component balance.

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HOW ARE CARS TESTED IN WIND TUNNELS??


Adding a rear wing to your car might gain you

down force, but a wind tunnel will tell you in fact if it is, how much, and how it affected the overall front to rear balance of your car.

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HOW ARE CARS TESTED IN WIND TUNNELS??


Each test will output the drag, down force

(front & rear), and side force (front & rear), yaw/pitch/roll moments, in order to see the big picture of what is really happening for any given configuration.

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Few Examples

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COST OF A WIND TUNNEL


A high quality portable vertical wind tunnel

will cost you anywhere from 1.6crores to 4.1crores. This type of tunnel can accommodate skydivers as well as tourists.

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WIND TUNNELS IN THE WORLD


1.Altitude Icing Wind Tunnel(Ontario Canada) 2.Wright Brothers Wind Tunnel(MIT Massachusetts USA)

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WIND TUNNELS IN THE WORLD


3.Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames (Worlds

Largest USA) 4.Langley Low Pressure Turbulence Wind Tunnel(NASA Virginia USA)

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REFERENCES
www.wikipedia.com www.nasa.org

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THANK YOU

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