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MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE

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BABUR(1526-56) HUMAYAN(1531-56) SHER SHAH SUR(1450-55) AKBAR(1556-1605) JAHANGIR (1605-27) SHAH JAHAN(1627-58) AURANGAZEB(1658-1707)

Features: Building art in northern India attained its most sumptuous form. Muslim art and architecture reached its peak during the mughal rule. A form of the building art emerged expressive of this ruling dynasty
Mughal Empire

Factors: Wealth and power of the empire. Relatively settled condition that prevailed in most parts of the country. Pronounced aesthetic nature of the mughal rulers culture. Mughal style resolves itself into two main features: PHASES 1 buildings of red sandstone (akbar) 2 buildings of white marble (Jahangir and shahjahan)

BABUR(1526-1531)
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BUILDINGS Kabuli Bagh- Panipat Jami Masjid-Panipat (large brick structure does not show distinct quality)

KABULI BAGH-PANIPAT,PUNJAB

Main facade

Entrance Gate
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KABULI BAGH-PANIPAT,PUNJAB

Mihrab
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HUMAYUN(1531-1556)

Laid foundation-new city at Delhi-ASYLUM OF FAITH Purana Qila or Old Fort Completed boundaries. Defeated not by Rajput Kings but by Afghan Ruler SHER SHAH

SHER SHAH SUR

Built city of shergarh-Remains only Lal Darwaza,Khuni Darwaza SASARAM (1530-40) and DELHI (1540-45) No Building type Example 1 Mosques 2 Tombs tomb of hasan khan tomb at chainpur tomb of sher shah, sasaram Sher Mandal tomb of salim (sher shahs son) PHASE II: BUILDINGS AT DELHI No Building type 1 Mosques 2 Tombs 3 Gateways

Examples qila-i-kuhna masjid bara darwaza,

4 fort

Others

purana qila or old

TOMB OF HASAN KHAN

master builderALIWAL KHANmanaged to produce undistinguished replica of the Lodi tomb Mausouleum building contained within a walled enclosure. Building stands level with the ground with no plinth. Middle storey is merely a bare wall of little interst. 9 Octogonal type

TOMB OF SHER SHAH SUR

Whole structure stands in the middle of a great lake.


Access by means of a causeway on the northern side of the lake
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Lotus finial Dome


Plain wall+pillared Kiosks parapet Arched verandah Stepped basement Causeway

250 wide 3 storeys thus producing an immense pyramidal pile in 5 distinct stages upto 150 Whole structure stands in the middle of a great lake. Access by means of a causeway on the northern side of the lake. Two stories comprise the foundation of this island tomb. Stepped basement rising out of the water and tall terrace above which is square in plan with an octagonal tomb in three stages.

TOMB OF SHER SHAH

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Surmounted by a dome Lowest storey is in the form of a verandah, having triple arches in each of its eight sides with a projecting eaves above over which rises a high crenulated parapet. Second stage is a screened wall with a projecting window openings between. Third stage is the drum of the dome. Tomb chamber is entered through the encircling verandah by doorways. Single vaulted hall.

TOMB OF SHER SHAH

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QILA KUNHA MASJID Gem of architectural


design. Royal chapel of the sur rules.-158x45 Feet,66high Faade consists of an arrangement of five archways. Centre arch sunk in an arched recess contained within a pronounced rectangular frontage. Large single lodi dome. Interior is formed of one large hall divided into 5 bays by lateral arches.

-PURANA QILA OR OLD FORT-the sixth capital city of delhi. Liwan faade- arches framed within one another in different planes Central bay squinch arch employed. Next bay stalactites used. The last bay-semi-vault of unusual design. Mihrab Archway-rich Foliation Circular Turreted buttresses Sanctuary measures 158x 45 and rising to a height of 66

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SHER MANDAL Another solitary structure built inside


the masjid This is the SHER MANDAL

Within the PURANA QILA OR OLD FORT


Octagonal structure. Three storeyed pavilion.

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HUMAYUN(1531-1556)
Return of Mughals
Humayun recaptured Purana Qila/Old Fort in 1565.
Did not built, but infact enjoyed the exisisting structures.

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TOMB OF HUMAYUN-1564 AD

Constructed 8 years after the emperors death, unusual as it was customary for these monuments to be erected during the emperors life time. Built by his wife haji bagum. Architect- mirak mirza ghiyas. Indian interpretation of a Persian conception.
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HUMAYUNS TOMB
In the middle of each of the four sides an imposing gateway was introduced west being the main entrance. Occupying the middle of the upper surface is the tomb structure 156 feet in side and square in plan
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PLAN
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140 White Marble Pillared Kiosks Red Sandstone 22 Arcaded Chamber HUMAYUNS TOMB
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Mughal garden

Tomb chamber

Double dome : Composed of two seperate shells an outer and inner with appreciable space between. Outer shell supports the marble case of the exterior. Inner shell forms the vaulted ceiling of the interiors main hall.

This central building stands on a wide and lofty sandstone terrace 22 inches in height with arcaded sides Passing through the entrance gateway into the garden its larger area is seen to be laid out in a formal arrangement of square and rectangular components with flowered beds.

HUMAYUNS TOMB

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Mughal garden

Garden is carefully designed and proportioned so as to form an integral part of architectural composition.
The tomb stands in the centre of a grand symmetrical-Char-bagh ( four gardens) Organised natural elements within a refined framework of geometrical patterns. Rigid channels of water laid along the cardinal axes of the building with fountains at regular intervals. Rows of flowers formed decorative borders for the grass contained within square quadrangles. The Mughal garden antithesis of both japanese and indian garden.

HUMAYUNS TOMB

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The Tomb
The arched entrances

Arches within arches


The West gate

HUMAYUNS TOMB

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TOMB OF ATGAH KHAN (known as Khan Khanans tomb)(1562) : Situated near Humayuns tomb. Character of the tomb reduced and refined to accord with its smaller side. Sandstone casing Detailed treatment of the faade with its inlaid coloured marble and low relief carving. Application of fine embellishment to the wall surfaces Simpler plan form and outer formations appealed to the builders of the Taj Mahal.
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AKBAR (1556-1605)
Features:
Chief buildings executed in red sandstone with insertions of white marble. Style was TRABEATE ORDER of construction; although the tudor arch was commonly used. ARCH was used primarily for decoration. DOME : lodi dome sometimes built hollow but never technically of the true double order. PILLAR SHAFTS were many sided and capitals were in the form of bracket supports. Ornamentation: Carved or boldly inlaid patterns. Painted designs were introduced on the interior walls and ceiling
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AKBAR (1556-1605)
Shifted to Agra Agra Fort-500 buildings constructed- Bengal and Gujarat StyleNothing survives. Exisisting Structures- Delhi Gate And Palace inside (Jahangir Mahal). Fatehpur Sikhri
HOUSE OF MIRIAM BIRBAL HOUSE DIWAN I-KHAS DIWAN I-AM BULAND DARWAZA The Jami Masjid of Sikri PANCH MAHAL

Massive fort- Allahabad Fort demolished by British Army.


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2700

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BUILDINGS IN AGRA FORT Anguri Bagh - 85 square, geometrically arranged gardens Diwan-i-Am (Hall of Public Audience) - was used to speak to the
people and listen to petitioners and once housed the Peacock Throne Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audience) - was used to receive kings and dignitary, features black throne of Jehangir Golden Pavilions - beautiful pavilions with roofs shaped like the roofs of Bengali huts Jahangiri Mahal - built by Akbar for his son Jehangir Khas Mahal - white marble palace, one of the best examples of painting on marble Macchi Bhawan (Fish Enclosure) - grand enclosure for harem functions, once had pools and fountains Mina Masjid (Heavenly Mosque)- a tiny mosque; closed to the public

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Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque) - a private mosque of Shah Jahan Musamman Burj - a large, octagonal tower with a balcony facing the
Taj Mahal Nagina Masjid (Gem Mosque) - mosque designed for the ladies of the court, featuring the Zenana Mina Bazaar (Ladies Bazaar) right next to the balcony, where only female merchants sold wares Naubat Khana (Drum House) - a place where the king's musicians played Rang Mahal - where the king's wives and mistresses lived Shahi Burj - Shah Jahan's private work area Shah Jahani Mahal - Shah Jahan's first attempt at modification of the red sandstone palace Sheesh Mahal (Glass Palace) or Shish Mahal - royal dressing room featuring tiny mirror-like glass-mosaic decorations on the walls

Shish Mahal's glass works.

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Entrance to the Agra fort-delhi gate

The palace of the royal household

Along the Moat The Inner Courtyard

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JAHANGIRI MAHAL in Agra Fort


Use of colored glazed tiles and domed canopies on the exterior Persian origin. Interior courts and halls Hindu style. The Jahangiri Mahal is a configuration of rooms and chapels dispersed around two courts,aligned along central axis. The Zenana court-overlooking the yamuna river. Two storeyed front faade with central arcade opening, deep horizontal chajjas. Arches flanked by octagonal domed turrets Jain toranas, richly carved stone piers and brackets,Chajjas-Evocative of the palace of the man singh.
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Fatehpur Sikri Palace Complex Variant Names Fatehpur-Sikri Palace Complex

Location
Date Style/Period Century Building Types Building Usage

Fatehpur Sikri, India


1569-1574 Mughal 16th landscape, palatial garden, palace

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2. NEW CAPITAL CITY OF FATEPUR SIKRI: NO BUIDING TYPE EXAMPLE 1 gateways agra gate naubat khana or drum house 2 secular buildings palace at jodh bai house of Miriam house of the sultana birbals house 3 religious buidings jami masjid buland darwaza or triumphal gateway tomb of salim chisti tomb of islam khan 4. administrative diwan-i-khas or hall of public audience building panch mahal or palace of five stories khwabgah or house of drums astrologers seat department of records

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Most notable achievement of the Mughals

26 miles west of agra


A great complex of residential, official and religious buildings Rectangular area of 2 miles and 1 mile braod. Habitation lasted only for one generation
Departed from the conventional idea of building isolated structures linked together by streets, due to the limited space. City with no streets ,but an

arrangement of braod terraces and stately courtyard around which are grouped pavillions and palaces
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FATEHPUR SIKRI- Design Guidelines First and foremost, the interior function of an individual building determined. Its overall function, determined its location in the layout plan. Service areas, such as the waterworks, guards quarters, were located on the outskirts. The King and Queens residences, located at the heart, astride the top of the ridge. Public areas like the courts, the Diwan-i-Am, and the Jami Masjid formed a ring around the King and Queens residences,

Orientation-All important structures located along the cardinal axes.


Secular buildings were installed along the north-south axis, The Jami Masjid was symmetrically erected as required around the east-west axis. The aesthetics of a building were left to the craftsmen employed in a particular structure, overall visual unity was ensured through use of building material for floors, walls, roofs, lintels, beams, etc.

The rich, red sandstone offsetted here and there by bands of expensive white

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FATEHPUR SIKRI- Design Guidelines Each structure geometrical related to its adjoining structures.

Diwan-i-khas Daftar Khana Diwan-i-Am Sultana garden

Pavilion of the Turkish Sultana


Maryams house

Char chaman court.


Khwab gah (Two storeyed pavilion)
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FATEHPUR SIKRI PALACE COMPLEX

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AGRA GATE

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High and plain outside wall Principal buildings are attached to the inner side all facing the courtyard Entrance only through a guarded gatehouse having staggered doorways Strict seclusion Within this enclosure, every portion is self contained with a private chapel for devotions and roof terraces screened by the parapet for promenades Each part is readily accessible for the convenience of its occupants and for the purpose of service Palace is nearly square 320x215 Walls -32 high
East wall-gatehouse North wall- hanging pavilion or hawa mahall South wall- service and bathing apartment Interiors consists of an almost symmetrical range of buildings surrounding a square quadrangle (2 storied) Carved decoration similar to the temple architecture

PALACE OF JODH BAI

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Simple and unpretentious structure Display of much elegant workmanship Arrangment of rooms in two stories but with no external courtyard or extraneous amenities Double- height living room Two floors of bedroom overlooking the double height hall below. Mural paintings

WEST FACADE

FRONT FACADE

AERIAL VIEW

HOUSE OF MIRIAM

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Similar to Miriam house Arrangment is a little more complex and elaborate 2 storied building with four rooms and two porches forming the ground floor upper storey has two rooms and the the remainder consists of open terraces enclosed by screens there are cupolas over the upper rooms and pyramidal roofs over the porches double dome construction of an inner and outer shell with a void in the centre hence interior was kept cool Exterior treatmentChajjas, brackets and

SOUTH FACADE

ARCADED CHAMBER

BIRBAL HOUSE

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SIDE FACADE

BIRBAL HOUSE

QUEENS PALACE

WEST VIEW

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DIWAN I-AM

EAST FACADE

CORNER DETAIL
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DIWAN I-KHAS
Diwani-i-Khas or a hall for theological discussions (unique Interiors) From the centre of the chamber rises a carved pillar which mushrooms into a gigantic capital made up of a series of Jaina vaulted brackets that support a circular stone platform From this central platform four aerial bridges radiate along each diagonal of the hall to connect the hanging balconies The Emperor, sat in the centre of the corbelled capital, while ministers occupied each of the angles.

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The Jami Masjid of Sikrimassive mosque measuring a 515 ft x 432 ft (157m x 132m) undoubtedly This makes it the largest mosque in India. Liwan faade consists of a central arched fronton which dwarfs the dome behind in the old Tughlaq tradition.

The central framed arch is completely out of proportion with the rather lowslung side wings.
The side wings, consists of arches as many as three different spans and heights shaded by small sloping chajja. Interior with the central dome decorated on the inside to given an appearance of a stone. The parapets of the cloisters and liwan are marked by a row of exquisitely designed domed chattris that held lighted torches at night during festival seasons.
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BULAND DARWAZA or GATE OF MAGNIFICENCE

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Southern entrance to the Jami Masjid. Imposing structure 134 high approached by a flight of steps 42 high. Presents itself as a masonry of immense proportions dwarfing every other building. There is little doubt that of all the architectural productions of the Mughals, their gateways were the most successful achievements; whether they were Bold entrances to fortresses. Humble doorways to sarais. Elegant portals to tombs Porticos to palaces Civic archways of the city etc

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BULAND DARWAZA

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The entire structure may be resolved into two aspects: The frontal and highest aspect, forming the faade with its portal. Back with its faade embowed by means of three planes comprising a large central face and a lesser one on each side receding at an angle. Central plane is 86 across, rectangular in shape; the great part is occupied by an arched and Most important feature is the decorative treatment of the outer faade with the domed recess. The narrower faces on the wings rectangular formation & wide border. are in three stories which varied openings in each stage. Crowning the whole of this faade is a parapet behind which 45 rises a range of kiosks with

BULAND DARWAZA

PANCH MAHAL

Pavillion of 5 stories The rectangular ground floor being built over 84 columns each different in design The 5 stories above diminish gradually from the northern and western sides while the eastern and the southern sides rise vertically upto it culminates into a domed canopy supported over the four 46 pillars.

PANCH MAHAL
Palace was designed for Akbars more than 300 wives, to enjoy their leisure hours during the hot summers Exterior treatment is remarkable for its wide eaves and deep shadows of pillars & brackets. Horizontal lines of the parapet. Pleasing proportions of the interior pillars with pendant brackets, balconies, alcoves, murals.

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TOMB OF SALIM CHISTI


Part of site Variant Names Street Address Location Date Style/Period Century Friday Mosque of Fatehpur Sikri Shaik Salim Chishti Tomb Friday Mosque Complex Fatehpur Sikri, India 1571-80 Mughal 16th

Building Type Building Usage

funerary tomb
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TOMB OF SALIM CHISTI

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TOMB OF SALIM CHISTI

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TOMB OF SALIM CHISTI

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JAHANGIR(1605-1627)

TRANSITION FROM STONE TO MARBLE TOMB OF AKBAR TOMB OF JAHANGIR Gateway to Sarai at Jullundur Noor Mahal MAUSOLEUM OF I'TIMAD AL-DAULA

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TOMB OF AKBAR
Variant Names Location Date Mausoleum of Akbar, Akbar ka Makbara Sikandra, India 1612

Style/Period
Century Building Types Building Usage

Mughal
17th funerary, religious tomb, mosque

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The tomb of Akbar has a tall sandstone clad gate with ornate marble inlay carvings and inscriptions. It consists of a colossal arched niche flanked on either side by double-stacked balconies. Surmounting the gate pavilion are four towering white marble minarets, one at each corner Beyond the lofty gate lies the charbagh divided into quadrants by watercourses designed to evoke the rivers of paradise. Hence, the mausoleum itself is physically and metaphorically located at the center of a heavenly garden, Behistan.

The mausoleum complex is square in plan and aligned on the cardinal axis, with the tomb at its center and four gates, one along each wall. Based on a charbagh, or walled square garden composition much like his father Humayun's (1530-1540, 1555-1556) tomb,

TOMB OF AKBAR

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The gallery space is rhythmically arranged with massive pillars supporting arches roughly 6.7 meters apart. Outside, the second story has an arcaded verandah on each side, which is composed of twenty three bays. The arcades are repeated on the subsequent floors forming peripheral walkways at each level and chattris at the corners. The top floor has no superstructure but consists on an open terrace enclosed with marble screen parapets. This five-tiered structure with its pillared terraces and numerous chattris also bears a striking resemblance to the Panch Mahal at 55 Fatehpur Sikri.

The central bay of each side is marked by a high pishtaq surmounted by a rectangular chattri, or roof kiosks. Only the southern pishtaq gives access to the burial chamber, a small square room at the end of long corridor at the heart of the building domed at eighteen meters. the four pishtaqs, the southern one is the most elaborate in ornamentation. The burial chamber also houses the tombs of the emperor's daughters, Shakrul Nisha Begam and Aram Bano
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TOMB OF JAHANGIR
Variant Names Street Address Jihangir, Jehangir Tomb Shahdara

Location
Client Date Style/Period

Lahore, Pakistan
Shah Jahan 1627-8 Mughal

Century
Building Types Building Usage

17th
funerary, religious tomb, mosque

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The mausoleum itself in red sandstone and floral marble inlay, and consists of an arcaded platform, or takhgah, 84 meters square. On each corner is an octagonal minaret rising in five segments. The shaft is decorated in chevrons of pink and white marble, and a domed kiosk crowns each minaret. Openings on each of the four sides of the platform lead through long corridors to a central, octagonal crypt containing the marble cenotaph resting on a platform, the chabutra. The marble cenotaph is considered one of the finest in India. It is inlaid precious stones set in naturalistic floral patterns, and black calligraphy inscribing the date of Jahangir's death, and the ninety-nine 58 names of God.

TOMB OF JAHANGIR

Originally, the crypt had a second floor; a platform still exists, built on top of the large square one. Remnants of a marble screen show that it was once enclosed, and traces indicate where a second cenotaph may have stood. It is, however, believed that the second story remained unroofed: before his death, Jahangir, like his ancestor Babur, had requested that his tomb be left open to the sky. To the west of the charbagh tomb garden, there is a related, rectangular enclosure known as the Akbari Seria, which served as the forecourt, or chowk-i jilo khana, for the mausoleum. A small mosque stands at its western wall.

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MAUSOLEUM OF I'TIMAD AL-DAULA


Variant Names Tomb of Itimad al-Dawla, Mausoleum of Itimad al Daula Agra, India

Location

Client Date Style/Period Century Building Type Building Usage

Nur Jahan 1622-1628 Mughal 17th funerary mausoleum


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The mausoleum is like a jewel box, built entirely of pure marble, it marks the transitional phase from the grand and massive red sandstone architecture of Akbar to the softer and sensual architectural style that marked the reign of Shah Jahan. The I'timad al-Daula was the first Mughal structure to be completely encased in marble and extensively use pietra dura, the marble inlay work that is associated with the Taj Mahal The tomb is of a modest MAUSOLEUM OF I'TIMAD AL-DAULA scale, built on a low platform 4' (1.22m) high. It has a square plan measuring 68'-10" (21m), subdivided into nine chambers, with four corner octagonal towers in the form of minarets. The minarets frame the central roof pavilion that marks the tomb chamber below.).

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The kiosks of the minarets consist of small hemispherical copulas resting on small arches supported by eight pilasters. The roof pavilion imparts a distinct Hindu feel in its use of Bengali roof, completed by a wide overhangs or eaves (chhajja

MAUSOLEUM OF I'TIMAD AL-DAULA

Red sandstone gateway-East


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The mausoleum is set within a garden surrounded by walls forming a perimeter of 541'-4" (165m) on each side. The approach is from the east through a red sandstone gateway that is decorated with rich marble mosaics. Sandstone pathways lead up to the main tomb. Each of the faade has a central arched entrance, flanked by two recessed arches that are closed by beautiful marble screens (jali). Fine corbels support the cornice, which has a marble tracery (jali) balustrade running along the length of it. The platform and tomb is embellished with mosaics and pietra dura inlay work of semiprecious stones. The art of inlay marble had been practiced for many years, but this was the first attempt to imitate Persian pottery decoration and tile work. The interior is a series of rooms and corridors arranged around a verandah that surrounds the central chamber containing the cenotaph. The square roof pavilion above the central chamber allows the light to filter down through its perforated marble 64 screens (jalis) to gently wash over the two porphyry yellow

SHAH JAHAN
GENERAL CHARACTER OF THIS STYLE The forms of this style are essentially marble forms,
while the decoration is only occasionally plastic this was done by means of inlaid patterns in coloured stones. The curves of the arch which were now often foliated. Usually in each instance by means of cusps called cusp arch. The dome assumed another form as the Persian type. Bulbous in outline and constructed at its neck. The adoption of which brought with it the system of true double dome.

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GENERAL FEATURES
Introduction of pillars with
tapering or baluster shafts, voluted bracket capitals and foliated buses. Structural ornamental elements of curvilinear order, the fluidity of line from and sinuousness generally reflecting those exalted conditions that not uncommonly prevail when a ruling power has attained its greatest elevation.

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IMPORTANT EXAMPLES:
First structure court Red Fort ,Agra. DIWAN-I-AM AT AGRA FORT in 1627 A.D.(Flat roof hall held by row of Marble encased Columns). Other structures at Red fort, Agra: Khas Mahal/Diwani-i-Khas Shish Mahal TAJ MAHAL AT AGRA. RANG MAHAL CITY OF SHAHJAHANABAD JAMI MASJID AT DELHI Wazir Khan Mosque at Lahore.
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TAJ MAHAL
Variant Names Location Date Style/Period Century Taj Mahall, Taj Mehel Agra 1632-1648 Mughal 17th

Building Types
Building Usage

funerary, landscape, religious mausoleum, garden, mosque

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The Taj Mahal is a mausoleum complex built by Shah Jahan (reg. 1628 - 1658) in memory of his favorite wife, Arjumand Banu Begam (d.1631), better known by her title "Mumtaz Mahal," or "the exalted one of the palace.
The construction of the complex began shortly after Mumtaz's death.

TAJ MAHAL

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The Taj Mahal complex is organized in a rectangle, measuring approximately 310 x 550 meters.
It comprises a number of buildings and structures, all functioning together as the funerary monument for Mumtaz Mahal. From the south, the first part of the complex consists of a (former) bazaar, the forecourt and entry gates; the second part consists of a large garden and garden pavilions, axially arranged along a riverfront terrace with the three main structures: the mosque, the mausoleum and the mihmankhana (literally, "guest house," probably used as an assembly hall).
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Mihman Khanah

1900 by 1000

Entry gate

Mosque

1000

Garden

Forecourt

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effect a minaret in three stages and crowned by kiosk rises from each corner of the Plinth to a height of 137 186 on a plinth 220 high It is square in plan and 186 side with its angles chamfered. to form a building 108 in height and having a marble cupola above each corner while over the centre towering to a complete height of totally 187 is the great bulbous dome LOWER STOREY PLAN

UPPER STOREY PLAN

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. Its proportions are all very simple. ROOF PLAN The crowning glory of its elevation lies in the shape and volume of the dome, which supported by a lofty drum. The large dome being derived from a Persian source and the smaller domes at the foot of the bigger unconstricted at their base are indigenous.
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Detail view of mausoleum showing the right half of the central pishtaq, engaged column with herringbone pattern, and thuluth inscription on the frame

Detail view of mausoleum showing upper corner of central pishtaq with thuluth script in the frame and arabesque decoration in precious 76 stones in the sprandels

Detail view of the jaliwork that surrounds Mumtaz's and Shah Jahan's cenotaphs inside the mausoleum Thuluth script in the frame and arabesque decoration in precious stones on the parapet and sprandels

Detail view of mausoleum, looking up into the entrance iwan

Detail view of the mausoleu m, showing the central pishtaq, a secondstory

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INTERIORS

The arrangement of the compartments in the interior of Taj was manifestly copied from that in Humayns tomb at Delhi as there is the same octagonal central hall with subsidiary chambers in the angles and are connected by radiating passage The main hall is also in two stories of arcades over which is a semicircular vault forming the inner shell of the double dome as here is also a large void store above this ceiling equal in area to the hall itself.

Except for some carving on the dados and the exquisite treatment of the perforated screen enclosing the cenotaphs most of the mural enrichment consists of inlaid patterns distributed with considerable restraint over the flat surfaces. The marble from Markrana is of such a nature that it takes on incredibly subtle variations of tint and tone, according to the changes in light The disposal of the other rooms within the building although appearing at first sight rather intricate is in reality comparatively simple and consistent as each apartment is contrived in an angle with a similar upper story room immediately above it
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View of the mausoleum looking northwest from the plinth of the riverfront terrace, showing the southwestern minaret and and its projecting balconies

Detail view of the western part of the mausoleum's south elevation, showing the paneled plinth, arched 79 niches, marble cladding and pietra

Shahjahanabad Citadel,Delhi

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Shahjahanabad Citadel,Delhi

Shahjahanabad-The last of the great citadels representative of Muslim power in India. The plan of Shahjahanabad seems to have been executed in a rather dry and systematic manner.

The Shahjahanabad citadel consists of a series of garden courts and palaces dispersed on both sides of a central axis composed of the Diwan-i-Am, Diwani-i-Khas and the kings private palace.
The whole plan of palaces, courts, hall and gardens is contained within a fortified wall forming an oblong of 3,100 ft (945.1m) x 1650ft (503 m ) with the military ancillaries located along and just inside the fortified walls. Almost all structures within the royal Delhi fort were in the form of open pavilions in one storey, their facades of engrailed arches shaded by wide eaves of chajjas above which was built a parapet. From each corner of the building arose a graceful domed kiosk. The architecture of Shajahanabad has been referred to as marble tent architecture.
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WAZIR KHAN MOSQUE


Variant Names Location Client Date Style/Period Century Building Types Building Usage Wazir Khan Mosque, Vazir Khan, Jami Mosque Lahore, Pakistan Wazir Khan 1634-5 Mughal 17th baths, commercial, religious hammam, market, mosque

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WAZIR KHAN MOSQUE


Arcaded Faade- Brick and glazed tiles. Large gateway and four octagonal minarets.

Overhanging balconies supported on brackets.


Octagonal tower finished with pillared pavilion, topped by a domical roof.
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LAHORE FORT COMPLEX


Variant Names Location Client Date Shahi Qila Lahore, Pakistan Akbar, Jehangir, Shah Jahan, Aurengzeb 1580 (Akbar), 1628,1634,1645 (Shah Jahan) Mughal 16th, 17th military fort
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Fatehpur sikhri

Style/Perio d Centuries Building Type Building Usage

LAHORE FORT COMPLEX PLAN

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