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Schedule converts action plan into operating time table Basis for monitoring and controlling project Scheduling more important in projects than in production, because unique nature Sometimes customer specified/approved requirement-e.g: JKR projects Based on Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
Scheduling, PERT, Critical Path Analysis
PERT -Program Evaluation and Review Technique - developed by the US Navy with Booz Hamilton Lockheed - on the Polaris Missile/Submarine program 1958
Critical Path Method Developed by El Dupont for Chemical Plant Shutdown Project- about same time as PERT
Both use same calculations, almost similar Main difference is probabilistic and deterministic in time estimation Gantt Chart also used in scheduling
Chapter 8 Scheduling, PERT, Critical Path Analysis 3
Project scheduling by PERT-CPM consists of three basic phases: Planning • breaking down the project into distinct activities; • determining the time estimates for these activities; • constructing a network diagram with each arc representing the activity; Scheduling • constructing a time chart showing the start and the finish times for each activity as well as its relationship to other activities in the project; • pinpointing the critical (in view of time) activities that require special attention if the project is to be completed on time. • Showing the amount of slack (or float) times for the non-critical activities;
Scheduling, PERT, Critical Path Analysis
Chapter 8 Scheduling. Critical Path Analysis 5 . • updating the network. PERT.Controlling • Using the network diagram and the time chart for making periodic progress reports.
PERT. guides to monitor and controlling project Uses one value of activity time 2 Requires 3 estimates of activity time Calculates mean and variance of time Used where times cannot be estimated with confidence.Comparison Between CPM and PERT CPM PERT Same as CPM 1 Uses network. identify critical path and activities. Unfamiliar or new activities Meeting time target or estimating percent completion is more important Example: Involving new activities or products. building one off machines. calculate float or slack. ships. research and development etc 3 Used where times can be estimated with confidence. etc 4 5 Chapter 8 Scheduling. Critical Path Analysis 6 . familiar activities Minimizing cost is more important Example: construction projects.
Critical Path Analysis 7 . PERT.NETWORK Graphical portrayal of activities and event Shows dependency relationships between tasks/activities in a project Clearly shows tasks that must precede (precedence) or follow (succeeding) other tasks in a logical manner Clear representation of plan – a powerful tool for planning and controlling project Chapter 8 Scheduling.
Chapter 8 Scheduling. 2.Rules for constructing a network diagram: 1. Critical Path Analysis 8 . Each activity is represented by one and only one arrow in the network. No two activities can be identified by the same head and tail events (a dummy activity is introduced in such situations). PERT.
Example of Simple Network – Survey Chapter 8 Scheduling. Critical Path Analysis 9 . PERT.
Example of Network – More Complex Chapter 8 Scheduling. Critical Path Analysis 10 . PERT.
AON – Activity on Node beginning or ending points of one or more activities. Critical Path Analysis 11 . also called ‘nodes’ Combination of all project activities and the events SUCCESSOR ACTIVITY Network : PRECEEDING EVENT Chapter 8 Scheduling. contractual negotiations. uses up resource and consumes time – may involve labor. paper work. PERT.DEFINITION OF TERMS IN A NETWORK Activity : Event : any portions of project (tasks) which required by project. machinery operations Activity on Arrow (AOA) showed as arrow. instantaneous point in time.
Emphasis on Logic in Network Construction Construction of network should be based on logical or technical dependencies among activities Example . Critical Path Analysis 12 .before activity ‘Approve Drawing’ can be started the activity ‘Prepare Drawing’ must be completed Common error – build network on the basis of time logic (a feeling for proper sequence ) see example below WRONG !!! CORRECT Chapter 8 Scheduling. PERT.
enable the start of the activity in question.Example 1. Critical Path Analysis 13 . PERT. when completed.C Immediate predecessors for a particular activity are the activities that.A simple network Consider the list of four activities for making a simple product: Activity A B C Description Buy Plastic Body Design Component Make Component Immediate predecessors B D Assemble product A. Chapter 8 Scheduling.
PERT. since neither of these activities depends upon the completion of prior activities. Activity C cannot be started until activity B has been completed Activity D cannot be started until both activities A and C have been completed. Critical Path Analysis 14 .Sequence of activities Can start work on activities A and B anytime. The graphical representation (next slide) is referred to as the PERT/CPM network Chapter 8 Scheduling.
Critical Path Analysis 15 . PERT.Network of Four Activities Arcs indicate project activities 1 B A C 3 D 4 2 Nodes correspond to the beginning and ending of activities Chapter 8 Scheduling.
Critical Path Analysis 16 . PERT.EXAMPLES OF THE USE OF DUMMYACTIVITY Network concurrent activities a 1 b 2 1 b 3 a 2 Dummy WRONG!!! RIGHT Activity c not required for e a a b c c 1 e d 1 b d 2 e WRONG ! WRONG !!! RIGHT RIGHT Chapter 8 Scheduling.
C. C C F G C D.B.Example 2 Develop the network for a project with following activities and immediate predecessors: Activity A B Immediate predecessors - C D E B A.D.F Try to do for the first five (A. Critical Path Analysis 17 . PERT.E.E) activities Chapter 8 Scheduling.
Critical Path Analysis 18 . PERT.Network of first five activities 1 B C A 3 E D 4 5 We need to introduce a dummy activity 2 Chapter 8 Scheduling.
and F as the immediate predecessors for activity G. E.Network of Seven Activities 1 B C A 3 dummy D E F 4 G 7 5 2 6 •Note how the network correctly identifies D. •Dummy activities is used to identify precedence relationships correctly and to eliminate possible confusion of two or more activities having the same starting and ending nodes •Dummy activities have no resources (time. Critical Path Analysis 19 . labor. PERT. etc) – purpose is to PRESERVE LOGIC of the network Chapter 8 Scheduling. machinery.
b and c precede f (a does not precede f) Chapter 8 Scheduling.WRONG!!! RIGHT!!! a 1 d a 1 d b 2 e b 2 4 e c 3 f c 3 f a precedes d. Critical Path Analysis 20 . a and b precede e. PERT.
PERT.F B. Critical Path Analysis 21 .H Completion Time (week) 5 6 4 3 1 4 14 12 2 Total …… 51 This information indicates that the total time required to complete activities is 51 weeks. we can see from the network that several of the activities can be conducted simultaneously (A and B. for example). However.Scheduling with activity time Activity A B C D E F G H I Immediate predecessors A A A E D.C G. Chapter 8 Scheduling.
Earliest start & earliest finish time We are interested in the longest path through the network. for activity A.. PERT. we compute an earliest start (ES) and earliest finish (EF) time for each activity in the network.e. For example. The expression EF = ES + t can be used to find the earliest finish time for a given activity. i. the critical path. Critical Path Analysis 22 . Starting at the network’s origin (node 1) and using a starting time of 0. thus the earliest finish time for activity A is EF = 0 + 5 = 5 Chapter 8 Scheduling. ES = 0 and t = 5.
PERT.Arc with ES & EF time EF = earliest finish time ES = earliest start time Activity 2 1 t = expected activity time Chapter 8 Scheduling. Critical Path Analysis 23 .
Network with ES & EF time 2 D[5.8] 3 5 7 6 4 1 3 Earliest start time rule: The earliest start time for an activity leaving a particular node is equal to the largest of the earliest finish times for all activities entering the node. Critical Path Analysis 24 . PERT. Chapter 8 Scheduling.
duration. EF. LF EF = earliest finish time ES = earliest start time Activity 3 2 LS = latest start time LF = latest finish time Chapter 8 Scheduling. LS. Critical Path Analysis 25 . PERT.Activity. ES.
Latest start & latest finish time To find the critical path we need a backward pass calculation. we trace back through the network computing a latest start (LS) and latest finish time for each activity The expression LS = LF – t can be used to calculate latest start time for each activity. thus the latest start time for activity I is LS = 26 – 2 = 24 Chapter 8 Scheduling. PERT. Critical Path Analysis 26 . LF = 26 and t = 2. for activity I. For example. Starting at the completion point (node 7) and using a latest finish time (LF) of 26 for activity I.
Critical Path Analysis 27 .Network with LS & LF time 2 D[5.8] 3[7.10] 5 7 6 4 1 3 Latest finish time rule: The latest finish time for an activity entering a particular node is equal to the smallest of the latest start times for all activities leaving the node. Chapter 8 Scheduling. PERT.
e Activity C can be delayed up to 3 weeks 3 (start anywhere between weeks 5 and 8).Slack or Free Time or Float Slack is the length of time an activity can be delayed without affecting the completion date for the entire project. For example. Critical Path Analysis 28 . 2 ES 5 LS 8 EF 9 EF 12 LF-EF = 12 –9 =3 LS-ES = 8 – 5 = 3 LF-ES-t = 12-5-4 = 3 Chapter 8 Scheduling. i. PERT. slack for C = 3 weeks.
Activity schedule for our example Activity Earliest start (ES) Latest start (LS) Earliest finish (EF) Latest Slack finish (LF) (LS-ES) Critical path A B C D E F G H I Chapter 8 0 0 5 5 5 6 10 9 24 0 6 8 7 5 6 10 12 24 5 6 9 8 6 10 24 21 26 5 12 12 10 6 10 24 24 26 0 6 3 2 0 0 0 3 0 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 29 Scheduling. Critical Path Analysis . PERT.
How long can non-critical activities be delayed before they cause a delay in the project’s completion time Slack time available for all activities are given. G. LF are given for each activity. What activities are critical and must be completed as scheduled in order to keep the project on time? Critical path activities: A. Critical Path Analysis 30 . What are the scheduled start and completion times for each activity? ES.IMPORTANT QUESTIONS What is the total time to complete the project? 26 weeks if the individual activities are completed on schedule. E. LS. PERT. EF. and I. F. Chapter 8 Scheduling.
i. Critical path identifies the minimum time to complete project If any activity on the critical path is shortened or extended. Slack or Float shows how much allowance each activity has. PERT. project time will be shortened or extended accordingly 2. 3.Importance of Float (Slack) and Critical Path 1. 4. Chapter 8 Scheduling.e how long it can be delayed without affecting completion date of project Critical path is a sequence of activities from start to finish with zero slack. Critical Path Analysis 31 . Critical activities are activities on the critical path.
do so only for critical activities. be aware that project will not meet deadline and some action needs to be taken. it will not shorten the project time. a lot of effort should be put in trying to control activities along this path. up to limit of float. If can spend resources to speed up some activity. PERT. Total Float belongs to the path 6. so that project can meet due date.Importance of Float (Slack) and Critical Path (cont) 5. 7. 9. 8. Chapter 8 Scheduling. If resources can be saved by lengthening some activities. If any activity is lengthened. So. Don’t waste resources on non-critical activity. do so for non-critical activities. Critical Path Analysis 32 .
let us summarize the PERT/CPM critical path procedure. Critical Path Analysis 33 . these are the critical path activities. PERT. Step 2 Determine the immediate predecessor activities for each activity listed in the project. Step 7 Use the difference between the latest start time and the earliest start time for each activity to identify the slack time available for the activity. Step 8 Find the activities with zero slack. Step 5 Using the network and the activity time estimates. Step 6 Using the project completion time identified in Step 5 as the latest finish time for the last activity. Step 4 Draw a network depicting the activities and immediate predecessors listed in Steps 1&2. Chapter 8 Scheduling.Now. The earliest finish time for the last activity in the project identifies the total time required to complete the project. Step 3 Estimate the completion time for each activity. Step 1 Develop a list of activities that make up the project. determine the earliest start and finish times for each activity by making a forward pass through the network. make a backward pass through the network to identify the latest start and finish times for each activity. Step 9 Use the information from Steps 5&6 to develop the activity schedule for the project.
PERT. b = pessimistic time estimate. confidence For many situations this is not possible. times can be estimated with relative certainty. e.g Research. a = optimistic time estimate. development. Critical Path Analysis 34 . mode. Use 3 time estimates m= most likely time estimate. and Expected Value (TE) = (a + 4m + b) /6 Variance (V) = ( ( b – a) / 6 ) 2 Std Deviation (δ) = SQRT (V) Chapter 8 Scheduling. new products and projects etc.PERT For Dealing With Uncertainty So far.
h d.33 4 2 Chapter 8 Scheduling.c c g.Dev V 2 0 2 5 2 2 0 2.Precedences And Project Activity Times Immediate Activity Predecessor Optimistic Most Likely Pessimistic Time Time Time EXP TE Var S.4 5. PERT.e 10 20 4 2 8 8 4 2 6 2 22 20 10 14 8 14 4 12 16 8 22 20 16 32 20 20 4 16 38 14 20 20 10 15 10 14 4 11 18 8 4 0 4 25 4 4 0 5.c b.32 a b c d e f g h I j a b.c b. Critical Path Analysis 35 .4 28.
4) i (18.4) d (15.The complete network 2 a (20.4) f (14.4) 4 5 Chapter 8 Scheduling.25) 6 j (8.0) 3 g (4.4) e (10. PERT.5.0) h (11.28. Critical Path Analysis 36 .4) 7 c (10.4) 1 b (20.
4) a (20.4) b (20.0) 7 CRIT. TIME = 43 i (18.4) 43 20 1 c (10. Critical Path Analysis 37 .0) 2 6 j (8.25) e (10.28.Figure 8-13 The complete Network EF=20 35 d (15.5.4) 4 10 h (11. PERT.4) 5 24 Chapter 8 Scheduling.4) 3 g (4.4) f (14.
PERT. Critical Path Analysis 38 .Critical Path Analysis (PERT) Activity a b c d e f g h i j LS 0 1 4 20 25 29 21 14 25 35 ES 0 0 0 20 20 20 20 10 24 35 Slacks 0 1 4 0 5 9 1 4 1 0 Critical ? Yes Yes Yes Chapter 8 Scheduling.
S(Scheduled date) = 20+15+8 =43.22 standard deviations.745 = 1. V = (4+25+4) =33 1. What are the chances of meeting that deadline? Calculate Z. Z = (50 – 43) / 5. Critical Path Analysis 39 .22 Chapter 8 Scheduling. where Z = (D-S) / V Example.Assume. D = 50. PERT. PM promised to complete the project in the fifty days.
95 is 1.645) = 43 + 9.45 days Thus.45 = 52.45 days.What deadline are you 95% sure of meeting Z value associated with 0.745 (1. Chapter 8 Scheduling. PERT. there is a 95 percent chance of finishing the project by 52. Critical Path Analysis 40 .645 D = S + 5.
monitoring. PERT. • • • Identifies so-called critical activities. and work units. Critical Path Analysis 41 . Determines expected project completion date. Helps proper communications between departments and functions. • Shows interdependence of all tasks. work packages. and controlling project. scheduling. Chapter 8 Scheduling. which can delay the project completion time.BENEFITS OFCPM / PERT NETWORK Consistent framework for planning.
or from which resources may be temporarily borrowed Determines the dates on which tasks may be started or must be started if the project is to stay in schedule. PERT. Critical Path Analysis 42 • • • Chapter 8 .) • Identified activities with slacks that can be delayed for specified periods without penalty. Shows which tasks must be coordinated to avoid resource or timing conflicts.BENEFITS OFCPM / PERT NETWORK (cont. Shows which tasks may run in parallel to meet project completion date Scheduling.
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