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WELL COMPLETION CASING

ING. JOHN HARRY RAMIREZ UNIVERSIDAD SURCOLOMBIANA

OVERVIEW
Once the design well depth is reached, the formation must be tested and evaluated to determine whether the well will be completed for production, or plugged and abandoned. To complete the well production, casing is installed and cemented and the drilling rig is dismantled and moved to the next site. A service rig is brought in to perforate the production casing and run production tubing. If no further preproduction servicing is needed, the christmas tree is installed and production begins.

WELL COMPLETION

Well completion activities include: Conducting Drill Stem Test Setting Production Casing Installing Production Tubing Starting Production Flow Beam Pumping Units

PURPOSE
Casing is cemented in place aids the drilling process in several ways: Prevent contamination of fresh water well zones. Prevent unstable upper formations from caving-in and sticking the drill string or forming large caverns. Provides a strong upper foundation to use high-density drilling fluid to continue drilling deeper. Isolates different zones in the drilled formations from one another. Seals off high pressure zones from the surface, avoiding potential for a blowout Prevents fluid loss into or contamination of production zones. Provides a smooth internal bore for installing production equipment

DESIGN

In the planning stages of a well a drilling engineer, usually with input from geologists and others, will pick strategic depths at which the hole will need to be cased in order for drilling to reach the desired total depth. This decision is often based on subsurface data such as formation pressures, strengths, and makeup, and is balanced against the cost objectives and desired drilling strategy. With the casing set depths determined, hole sizes and casing sizes must follow. The hole drilled for each casing string must be large enough to easily fit the casing inside it, allowing room for cement between the outside of the casing and the hole. Also, the inside diameter of the first casing string must be large enough to fit the second bit that will continue drilling. Thus, each casing string will have a subsequently smaller diameter.

INTERVALS
Typically, a well contains multiple intervals of casing successively placed within the previous casing run. The following casing interval is typically used in an oil or gas well: Conductor casing Surface casing Intermediate casing (optional) Production casing Production liner

CEMENTING
Cementing is performed by circulating a cement slurry through the inside of the casing and out into the annulus through the casing shoe at the bottom of the casing string.

WELL COMPLETION
Well completion allows the flow of petroleum or natural gas out of the formation and up to the surface. It includes;

strengthening the well hole with casing, evaluating the pressure and temperature of the formation, installing the proper equipment to ensure an efficient flow of oil and natural gas out of the well.

WELL COMPLETION
Installing casing in the well is an important part of both the drilling and completion process.

Casing is used; -to strengthen the sides of the well hole,


-ensure that no oil or natural gas seeps out of the well hole as it is brought to the surface -to keep other fluids or gases from seeping into the formation through the well.

Cement is then forced into the annulus btw the


casing and the borehole wall to prevent fluid movement between formations.

WELL COMPLETION

Some of the casing


strings: Drive or Structural Casing Conductor Casing Surface Casing Intermediate Casing Liner String Production Casing

The production casing or oil string is the final casing for


most wells. It provides a conduit from the surface of the well to the petroleum producing formation.

PERFORATING

Casing must be perforated to allow liquids to flow into


the well. This is a perforated completion.

Perforations are simply holes through


the casing and cement, extending into the formation.

The most common method of


perforating is using shaped-charged explosives.

A perforating gun is lowered into the


well opposite the producing zone on a wire line& fired by electronic means from the surface. After perforations are made, the tool is retrieved.

WELL COMPLETION

The well is not produced through the casing. A small


diameter pipe, called tubing, is used to transmit oil or gas to the surface.

A device called packer that


fits around the tubing is lowered just above the producing zone. It expands and seals off the space between the tubing and the casing, forcing the produced fluids to enter the tubing to the surface.

WELL COMPLETION
When casing is set, cemented and perforated and
when the tubing string is run then a collection of valves, called Christmas tree is installed on the surface at the top of the casing.

It contains tubes and valves


that control the flow of hydrocarbons and other fluids out of the well.

Usually, once the Christmas


tree is installed, the well can truly be said to be complete.

Data Inputs to Formulating Design Criteria


Reservoir Parameters Rock Characteristics

Design Criteria

Well and Completion Evaluation

Fluid Characteristics

Production Constraints

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Design Criteria
Reservoir Parameters
Geological Structure Continuity Drive Mechanism Physical Characteristics

Structural Trap Stratigraphic Trap Unconformities Combinations Salt Domes

Permeability Barriers Permeability Contrasts Isotropy

Water Drive Gas Cap Solution Gas Combination

Size Shape Thickness Pressure Temperature Water Depth

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Geological Structure
Fault or Structural Trap
Impervious Shale (IMPERMEABLE)

Unconformity or StratigraphicTrap
Impervious Shale

Gas Oil Water Water


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Oil

Geological Structure
Anticline Salt Dome
Cap Rock Oil Oil

Water

Water

Salt

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Rock Characteristics
Lithological Description Physical Properties
Porosity Clastic Chemical Precipitate Permeability Consolidation Pore Size distribution Composition Contamination Clay Content

Chemical Composition

Biochemical Precipitate

Fluid Saturation's
Grain Size & Shape Wetability Moveable Fines

Cementaceous Material
Scale Forming Materials

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Fluid Characteristics
Physical Properties Chemical Properties

Oil Density Gas Gravity

Composition

Wax Content
Corrosive Agents Asphaltenes Toxic Materials

Viscosity
Pour Point G.O.R. W.O.R.

Scale

Surface Tension

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Production Constraints

Technical Factors

Legislative Considerations
Safety Standards Disposal of Gas & Water

Political System

Environmental

Taxation Investment Incentives Market Requirements

Ease of Access

Productivity Separator Capacity & Pressure Rating Export capacity Workover Considerations Operational Flexibility

Weather Conditions
Built-up Areas Local Industries

Company Objectives Cash Flow Preferred Payback period

Ultimate Recovery
Production profile

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Production Zone Preparation

Drilling Activities

Evaluation Activities

Completion Activities

Coring Hole Size Deviation Programme Formation Damage (Drilling fluids) Testing Logging Fluid Sampling

Casing Schemes Primary Cementation

Design Criteria

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Mechanical Completion
Completion Programme

Installation Procedure

Equipment Design & Selection

Completion Fluid Perforating Programme

Ancillary String Components

Space Out

Essential Production Equipment Wellhead S.S.S.V Packer

Improving Performance

Operational Flexibility

Flow Couplings

Nipples

Tubing Seals Circulating Devices ECAPETROL - ENGLISH COURSE Blast joints S.P.M.

Production Initiation Phase


Matrix Acidization Fracturing Surfactant Type of treatment Wellbore

Extent
Stimulation Function

Restore Permeability
Increase Permeability

Production Initiation
Inducing Flow Clean Up Programme Displace Fluid Cushion Gas lift Nitrogen Injection With Coil Tubing Initial Rate & Subsequent Rate of increase Well Test Evaluation

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Integration of Well Completion Phase

1 Establish Design Criteria. 2 Preparation of Production Zone. 3 Design and Installation of Completion String. 4 Production Initiation & Remedial Measures. Well Workover Update Design Criteria

5 Monitoring Well & Completion Performance.

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Properties of Drilling Muds - Viscosity - Specific Gravity - Filtrate Functions of Mud SKIN damage to formation in contact with mud
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Functions of Casing
1) Support the bore hole and prevent caving 2) Isolate shallow unconsolidated zones 3) Provide support for wellhead and BOP equipment and subsequent casing strings 4) Provide sufficient fracture gradient to allow drilling of next hole section

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Conductor Pipe Surface Casing

Intermediate Casing Production Casing

Production Liner

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Casing Depths
Depth 1 P1

D e p t h

F1

Fracture Pressure

Depth 2

P2

F
2

Pore Pressure

Depth 3

P3

Pressure
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Purpose of Cementing Strengthens (FORTALECER) and supports the casing Protects against corrosion Prevents fluid migration Seals around casing shoe to allow control of formation pressures while drilling ahead

1) 2) 3) 4)

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Liners

12 Reasons for running a liner shown on Page 27 Know 3-4 of these

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THANKS FOR LISTENING


ANY QUESTION SO FAR????

GLOSSARY

SHAPE: FORMA WAX: CERA CAVING: CAVERNA ISOLATE: SEPARAR

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