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PROTECTION OF 60MW TURBO GENERATOR IN VSP

POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION


The

word 'protection' is generally used to

describe the whole concept of protecting a power


system.

Power

system protection is the process of

making the production, transmission, and

consumption of electrical energy as safe as


possible from the effects of failures and events that place the power system at risk.

NECESSITY OF PROTECTION
Three main effects of fault, that state the necessity of

protection:

It

is likely to cause the individual generators in a

power station, or groups of

generators in different

stations, to lose synchronism and fall out of step with consequent splitting of the system;
A risk A risk

of damage to the affected plant; and

of damage to healthy plant.

BASIC REQUIRMENTS OF PROTECTION:


Speed Selectivity

Sensitivity
Reliability

Simplicity
Economy

BASIC COMPONENTS OF PROTECTION


Relays Instrument Transformers Circuit breakers Tripping Batteries

PROTETIVE RELAYCIRCUIT BREAKER COMBINATION

TYPES OF PROTECTIONS:

Main

Protection

Back-up Protection

Auxiliary

Protection

GENERATOR FAULTS
Stator Rotor

Faults Faults Due To Mechanical Condition Faults

Faults

External

GENERATOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

For protection of stator windings against earth faults and phase to phase makes use of circulating current principle In this scheme of protection currents at the two ends of protected sections are compared

STATOR INTERTURN FAULT PROTECTION


Interturn faults

occur in the stator slots, they quickly develop into faults to earth and are cleared by the stator earth fault protection
There is,however,the possibility

that they may occur at the winding ends and so cause extensive damage to the generator before the fault evolves to one detectable by other protection.

REVERSE POWER PROTECTION


The

motoring of the turbine output can be detected by

reverse power protection relay which is powered by both


C.T and P.Ts.

To

avoid false tripping due to power swings a time delay

is incorporated before tripping signal is generated. If the

unit trips on reverse power protection, the input power to


the turbine is increased as quickly as possible.

AUTOMATIC FIELD SUPPRESSION


In the event of fault on the turbo generator winding even if the generator C.B is tripped, the fault continues to be fed as long as long as excitation will exist because emf is induced in the generator itself.

For the quick removal of fault during emergency, it is necessary to disconnect the field simultaneously with the disconnection of the generator

LOCAL BREAKER BACK UP PROTECTION


The

LBB protection is energized when the breaker trip

is initiated after a suitable time interval if conformation of


the breaker tripping from 3poles is not received

The

energized tripping signal from local breaker back up

protection will trip all 220kv generator breakers and all

220kv feeder breakers through bus bar protection.

STATOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION


If a faulty phase winding connected to ground, the normal low neutral voltage could rise as high as line-toneutral voltage depending on the fault location
The

usual method of detection fault is by measuring the voltage across the secondary of neutral grounding transformer (NGT).

NEGATIVE SEQUENCE OR CURRENT UNBALANCE PROTECTION


When

the machine delivering the equal currents in three phases, no unbalance are negative phase sequence current is produced
An

alarm will annunciate at annunciation panel it negative sequence currents exceed a normal level

ROTOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION


The

rotor earth fault may be caused due to insulation failure of winding or inter-turn fault followed by local heat. The protection scheme consists of a high resistance connected across the rotor circuit and its mid point is grounded through a sensitive relay

OVER FLUX OR OVER EXCITATION PROTECTION


This

problem may occur in turbo generators that are connected to the grid if they experience generating voltage regulation problems
It

may also occur for units during start-up or resynchronizing following a trip.
A

specialized volts/hertz relay is used to detect this condition, and will trip the generator if excessive volts/hertz conditions are detected

OVER VOLTAGE PROTECTION

Generator voltage is at preset value under normal operating conditions as selected by operator in AVR
The

over voltage protection is provided with an over voltage relay which has two units one instantaneous relay set for pick up at about 130-150% of rated voltage and the another IDMT relay set for pick up at about 110% of rated voltage
If

the generator trips for over voltage then raise the generator voltage slowly with manual mode in AVR

STATOR FRAME OVER HEATING PROTECTION


For

the protection of the turbo generator against any

possible fire accident twelve fire detector relays are provided on either side of the stator winding
The

set of contacts will close when the temperature

surrounding the fire relay exceeds 80O C. The other relay


one when the temperature exceeds 100O C
These

contacts are wired to CO2 fire extinguishing

system

ABNORMAL FREQUENCY PROTECTION


The

abnormal over frequency on the machine may be

due to improper speed control adjustment or disoperation


of the speed controller or severe grid disturbance or sudden load thrown off.

If

the unit trips due to abnormal frequency protection

then change the governor speed until machine reaches full speed. Even after 2to3 attempts the machine is running at lower speed, probably the governor of the turbine is faulty.

LOSS OF FIELD OR LOSS OF EXCITATION PROTECTION


This fault is caused due to open circuit of field, short circuit of field, accidental tripping of field breaker, poor brush contact

The mho relay is placed which is designed to detect the change of impedance from the normal load value may therefore be used to provide protection against asynchronous operation resulting from the loss of excitation.

POLE SLIP PROTECTION


A

generator may lose synchronising with power system without failure of excitation system, because of severe fault disturbance or operation at a high load with leading power factor and hence a relatively weak field

OVER SPEED PROTECTION

Bearing over heating can be detected by a

relay actuated by a thermometer-type bulb


inserted in a hole in the bearing, or by a resistance-temperature-detector relay, such as used for stator over heating protection, with the detector embedded in the bearing

PROTECTION AGAINST VIBRATIONS


A vibration

detector may be mounted on one of

the bearing pedestals in the case of a horizontal shaft generating set, or on the upper guidebearing in case of a vertical shaft generating set. It may be set to trip the machine or initiate

an alarm when the radial deflections of certain


duration exceed a per-determined value.

BEARING OVER HEATING PROTECTION

Bearing over heating can be detected by a

relay actuated by a thermometer-type bulb inserted in a hole in the bearing, or by a resistance-temperature-detector relay, such as used for stator over heating protection, with the

detector embedded in the bearing

ANTI MOTORING PROTECTION

In the event of prime-mover failure the generator continues to rotate as a synchronous motor drawing electrical power from the system and driving the prime mover. element directional power relay is used to sense (reverse power relay)the direction of power flow in any one phase.

A single

CONCLUSION
A generator is the most important and most costly equipmenent in a power system. It is subjected to more number of troubles than any other equipment. The basic function of protection applied to generators is therefore to reduce the outage period to a minimum by rapid discriminative clearance of faults.

While selecting the scheme for generator protection, the protection of complete unit and the stability of the system due to disturbance, in a generator should be considered in addition to protection of the generator itself.

QUERIES?

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