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1-23-08 M. Benton 1

Introduction to Morphology
Class 3 (Bickford Chapter 4 pp. 25-34)


M. Benton


Goals and Prerequisites
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State a more precise definition of MORPHEME and explain how it is better than the one given in the previous chapter Use appropriate terms for glossing meanings commonly found in verbal morphology (let’s learn some jargon!) use appropriate terms for classifying and describing morphemes and morphological systems (and a little more jargon!) construct position class charts to describe data in an agglutinative morphological system Write a clear and concise prose description of such a system
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You are familiar with the following material:
• traditional terminology wh/ applies to verbal morphology (see ch 2) • how to isolate morphemes and “guess” their meanings (see ch 3)



M. Benton


4.2 What is a Morpheme?

(from ch 3):
• Minimal meaning unit of the language • unreadiness  un | ready | ness (p. 19)

Minimal ≠ smallest Minimal = the smallest UNANALYZABLE unit. “unanalyzable”  a unit that cannot be further split up (or analyzed) into meaningful pieces.
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Benton 6 .More Terms  MEANIFUL • LEXICAL    like a dictionary definition can usually be translated into equivalent ordinary words or phrases in other languages Can be “glossed” with a TRANSLATION EQUIVALENT 1-23-08 M.

More Terms  MEANIFUL • GRAMMATICAL   DON‟T usually translate directly between languages. 1stperson.g. usually have to describe their meaning with technical linguistic terminology • e. PST…”  usually have more to do with grammar than vocabulary 1-23-08 M. Benton 7 . Perfect. “plural.

that is. how it combines with other morphemes to form words and how these words combine to form sentences.” ex: -d (-ed) • He arrived two hours ago.More Morpheme Description    there is more to a morpheme that just its meaning (or SEMANTICS) “part of the analysis of a morpheme includes a statement about its morphological and syntactic properties.  also • –s1 N + -s (turtle-s)  plural • –s2 V + -s (run-s)  SV agreement • –s3 N + -s (turtle‟s)  possessive 1-23-08 M. Benton 8 . • * He did not arrived yet.

Benton 9 .More Morpheme Description  Morphemes with lexical meanings may have grammatical properties • (homophones) • „week‟ & „weak‟ Consider the following quote: • “I see said the blind man as he picked up is hammer and saw.” • V: saw. N: saw ? 1-23-08 M.

• other phonological morphemes  change in vowel quality (man/men foot/feet… ) M. sometimes. accents. intonation.e.More Morpheme Description   Morphemes can also be prosodic or phonetic… in some cases “supersegments” might be considered morphemes • supersegments  those features of a language that occur across phoneme or word boundaries • i. Benton 10 1-23-08 . pitch.

Better Definition  Bickford p. grammatical. Benton 11 . and semantic information.‟ 1-23-08 M.27 •A morpheme is „a consistent and unanalyzable association of phonological.

4. Benton 12 .3 Verbal Morphology   Involves more grammatical meanings than noun morphology includes • tense • aspect • mood • agreement 1-23-08 M.

PRS. Non-FUT. • can be PST. • as well as Non-PST.Tense  What are they: • Things you sleep in when you go camping …(tɪnt˺s)  The relation between the time of the situation described by the verb and the moment of speech. Benton 13 . Distant PST • or even VERY-Distant PST 1-23-08 M. FUT.

Aspect  Refers to the time of a situation in relation to its context. Benton 14 . • Generally two distinctions:  Perfective and Imperfective 1-23-08 M.

Aspect  Imperfective: • The internal temporal structure of a situation (its beginning.… 1-23-08 M. Benton 15 . or end) is being presented as important.  While I was wandering through the maze. • Can be used to describe a past event. middle. • Often used for presenting events which are not complete and thus the internal structure is of interest.

Imperfective Perfective • Also might be “habitual” or “progressive” 1-23-08 M. I noticed a strange design on one wall. • Used for past events (usually preeneted as complete and whole).Aspect  Perfective: • Only the situation as a whole is important. Benton 16 .  While I was wandering through the maze.

Benton 17 • Imperative  1-23-08 .Mood    (Not what the cow did yesterday!) Refers to the relationship between the situation reported by the verb and reality. covered in Two types of mood are: *(Others more detail in Ch 17) • Indicative  statements and questions concerned with how things actually are commands concerned with how the speaker would like things to be M.

I/we/you/y‟all ride-Ø fifteen miles a day.‟ M. Eng PRES 3rd Sg • V + -s   She/he/it ride-s fifteen miles a day. speak-3rdPl „They are speaking.Agreement   Generally adding something on the verb that indicates something about the subject.  Spanish: • Habla-n. Benton 1-23-08 18 .

Benton 19 . which we just considered. THIS IS INCORRECT. Zero morphemes DO exist. denying the existence of zero morphemes. allomorphy at the same time. But the form of "yellow" doesn't change.udel. So we say that we added a zero suffix: 1-23-08 M.html “Some affixes consist of no sounds at all. and illustrate another concept. [some books take] a different position on this Consider the following words: Adjective yellow brown green purple | Verb | yellow | brown | green | purple The relation between "yellow" (adjective) and "yellow" (verb) is exactly the same as that between "white" and "whiten". and we'll see why.Ø Morphemes   Zero Morphemes from: http://www.ling.

deal/dealt. meet/met… M. Benton 20 1-23-08 . keep/kept.26-27 & 265) An allomorph = morpheme alternate • two roots or morphological patterns are allomorphs (of the same abstract morpheme) if they express the same meaning and occur in complementary distribution.(Allomorph)  (Haspelmath 2002 pp. • Korean accusative suffix markers   ton „money‟ tali „leg‟ ton + -ul „money –ACC‟ tali + -lul „leg –ACC‟ • Some English verbs   root [i:] „PRES‟  root allomorph [ɛ] „PST‟ sleep/slept.

(Sherlock Holmes solves one of his cases by noticing that a dog DIDN'T bark. Benton 1-23-08find zero morphemes. This is the kind of thinking you have to do to M.Consider the following words: Ø Morphemes Adjective yellow brown green purple | Verb | yellow | brown | green | purple But the form of "yellow" doesn't change. So we say that we added a zero suffix: Verb / \ Adjective –Ø | yellow Meaning: "to make (more) yellow" Zero morphemes are obviously hard to spot because you can't hear them! In these cases you have to notice what ISN'T there.) 21 . This was important because there was a situation where any dog would have barked.

null derivation or zero derivation. and nothing at all. a null morpheme is a morpheme that is realized by a phonologically null affix (an empty string of phonological segments).”  1-23-08 M. “ Ø Morphemes   “The concept was first used over two thousand years ago by Pāṇini in his Sanskrit grammar. from: http://www. the empty set symbol ø. In simpler terms.)” “The null morpheme is represented as either the figure zero (0).answers. It's also called zero “In morpheme-based morphology. since it sets up (they say) an unverifiable distinction between a "null" or "zero" element. (Some linguists object to the notion of a null morpheme. or its variant Ø. a null morpheme is an "invisible" affix. the process of adding a null morpheme is called null affixation. Benton 22 .

a null morpheme marks the present tense of verbs in all forms but the third person singular:” (I) run = run + -Ø = ROOT ("run") + PRESENT: Non-3rd-SING (He) runs = run + -s = ROOT ("run") + PRESENT: 3rd-SING M. from: http://www. Benton 1-23-08 23 .” cat = cat + -Ø = ROOT ("cat") + SINGULAR cats = cat + -s = ROOT ("cat") + PLURAL  “In addition.” sheep = sheep + -Ø = ROOT ("sheep") + SINGULAR sheep = sheep + -Ø = ROOT ("sheep") + PLURAL  “Also. the singular number of English nouns is shown by a null morpheme that contrasts with the plural morpheme -s. For example. there are some cases in English where a null morpheme indicates plurality in nouns that take on irregular (cont) Ø Morphemes ?Maybe?  “The existence of a null morpheme in a word can also be theorized by contrast with other forms of the same word showing alternate morphemes.

present tense and third persons (English is unusual in its marking of the third person singular with a non-zero morpheme. is very common in English.answers. it's quite common to employ null affixation to (not) mark singular number. also known as conversion if the word class changes. to slow. to warm.” M. For instance. to take out) consists of one prefix (вы-). It's also frequent to find null affixation for the least-marked cases (the nominative in nominative-accusative languages. by contrast with a null morpheme for others). Russian word вы-Ø-ну-ть (vynut'. But in some cases roots may alse be realized as these.” “A basic radical element plus a null morpheme is not the same as an uninflected word. and the absolutive in ergative-absolutive languages). it's also a null morpheme that turns some English adjectives into verbs of the kind of to clean. Benton 24 Ø Morphemes     1-23-08 . from: http://www. one suffix (-ну-). one zero root (-Ø-). though usage may make those equal in (cont) “According to some linguists' view.” “In most languages of the world these are the affixes that are realized as null morphemes. and one postfix (-ть).” “In languages that show the above distinctions. Null derivation.

linguistics.html #anchor1962289 1-23-08 le/schuh/lx001/Discussion/d03. Benton 25 .Morphology Explanations online  http://www.ucla.

Questions up to this point?   questions comments 1-23-08 M. Benton 26 .

1-23-08 M. Benton 27 .Comic Relief…  An Aggie ordered a pizza and the clerk asked if he should cut it in six or twelve pieces.

" 1-23-08 M. "I could never eat twelve pieces.Comic Relief…  An Aggie ordered a pizza and the clerk asked if he should cut it in six or twelve pieces. please." said the Aggie. Benton 28 . "Six.

Comic Relief…2  Why did the Aggie stare at a frozen orange juice can for over an hour? 1-23-08 M. Benton 29 .

 1-23-08 M.Comic Relief…2  Why did the Aggie stare at a frozen orange juice can for over an hour? Because it said 'concentrate'. Benton 30 .

e. a base that consist of a single morpheme” 1-23-08 M. Benton 31 .Stems/Roots and Affixes   the “base” (or part of the word to which affixes are attached) of a word is called either a STEM or a ROOT.” • may be identical to the STEM • (Haspelmath 2002 p. 136) • Is “any single morpheme which is not an affix. Root (p.274) “a base that cannot be analysed further – i.

274) “the base of an inflected word-form” 1-23-08 M.e. 136) • Can be an “inflected” word  i.Stems/Roots and Affixes  STEM (p. can contain multiple morphemes • May be identical to the root • May consist of multiple roots • (Haspelmath 2002 p. Benton 32 .

Benton 33 .Stems/Roots and Affixes  | stem -er | + -s Inflectional Suffix kick + Root  Derivational Suffix | stem | view + point Root 1-23-08 Root M.

• (Haspelmath 2002 p. Benton 34 .265) “a short morpheme with an abstract meaning” 1-23-08 M.Stems/Roots and Affixes   the “base” (or part of the word to which affixes are attached) of a word is called either a STEM or a ROOT. Affix • morphemes that are used to modify the base of the word.

AFFIXES • rules of thumb to help determine if a morpheme is a stem or an affix 1. whether it belongs to an open or closed class. Benton 35 . 2.Stems/Roots and Affixes  STEMS VS. The richness of its semantics. whether it is free or bound. 1-23-08 M. 3.

Stems/Roots and Affixes  STEMS VS. Span.  Stems usually have richer semantics than affixes • usually have lexical meaning Affixes often have grammatical meaning  e.„sing‟ -s „2ndSgPres stem affix lexical grammatical  1-23-08 M.g. AFFIXES 1. The richness of its semantics. cantas „you are singing‟ canta. Benton 36 .

Stems/Roots and Affixes  STEMS VS. AFFIXES 2.   Stems are generally members of OPEN CLASSES Affixes are generally members of CLOSED CLASSES • Open/Closed refers partly to the number of members in a class • Further it refers to whether members can be added to the class  e. Benton 37 . whether it belongs to an open or closed class.g. harsh + ness (Adj + suffix) 1-23-08 M.

    Affixes are always BOUND (cannot appear alone but must always be attached to some other morpheme) Stems can be either bound or FREE Free morphemes can appear alone as a word (Stems are always present in a word. affixes may or may not be present) • for more see Bickford pp. Benton 1-23-08 38 . whether it is free or bound. 29-30 M. AFFIXES 3.Stems/Roots and Affixes  STEMS VS.

5 Questions about Morphology  2 basic questions: (when analyzing affixes) 1. B. What meanings are being expressed? Are these meanings lexical or grammatical? 1-23-08 M.4. What is its meaning? A. Benton 39 .

C.5 Questions about Morphology  2 basic questions: (when analyzing affixes) 2. B. D.4.)? M. V. etc. What is the phonological material that represents this meaning? Where is this material located w/ respect to the stem? Is it always the same on every stem. or does it vary depending on context? What category of words is affected by this morphological process (N. How is meaning expressed? A. Benton 40 1-23-08 .

4.6 Different Systems  Three main TYPOLOGIES of Morphological systems • ISOLATING • AGGLUTINATIVE • FUSIONAL 1-23-08 M. Benton 41 .

Benton 42 .6 Different Systems  Three main TYPOLOGIES of Morphological systems • ISOLATING    simplest possible morphology nearly every word consist of a single morpheme especially common in SE Asia • Vietnamese (#11) 1-23-08 M.4.

Swahili.6 Different Systems  Three main TYPOLOGIES of Morphological systems • AGGLUTINATIVE     individual “Words” may correspond to whole sentences in other languages. Morphemes are generally easy to find they are clearly seperable from each other they don‟t change much when they appear in different context • Chukchi (#12) .4. Benton 43 . Chichewa 1-23-08 M.

6 Different Systems  Three main TYPOLOGIES of Morphological systems • FUSIONAL    May have several morphemes per word finding morphemes may be difficult clear morpheme boundaries may not exist • most European Languages. Russian (#13) 1-23-08 M.4. Benton 44 .

4.7 Position Classes   How do morphemes combine to form words? Bickford pg. Benton 45 . then represent the order in a position class chart. 1-23-08 M. Peru) Make morpheme cuts and gloss morphemes 1st. 32 ex (#14): Yagua (Peba-Yaguan.

or in some languages an inflected verb form that expresses desire. a sentence. relating to.4. Benton 46 . or expressing desire. 2. 1. Of. Grammar Designating a clause. 1-23-08 M.7 Position Classes -1 Person 0 STEM +1 +2 Desider.TNS ative +3 ASP naatsa- -ruuy -hay -tsi -maa  de·sid·er·a·tive (di-sid-ər-ə-tv) adj.

7 Position Classes  Each column represents a Position Class. 1-23-08 M.  (they are MUTUTALLY EXCLUSIVE) • When two affixes from different classes appear they appear in the order given in the chart.4. Benton 47 . • any two morphemes that occur in the same position class will never occur in the same word. • a class of morphemes that will occur in the same position in a word.

4. after the affixes found in question 1? For each pair of affixes that can occur together in a word. or always immediately precede or follow the stem? Which affixes are next in line in these positions. which one comes first? M.7 Position Classes    Which affixes (when they appear) are always first or last in the word. Benton 48 1-23-08 .

4. Benton 49 . 33 1-23-08 M.8 REVIEW  Bickford pg.

4. Benton 50 . or some combination of these? 1-23-08 M. 34 • What morphemes are found in the data? • What are their semantic properties? • What are their phonological properties? • What are their grammatical properties? • Is the language isolating. fusional. or agglutinative.9 Questions for Analysis  Bickford pg.

For instance consider the following position class chart for Yagua verbs: As seen in example X in the data set… M.4.10 Sample Description  Bickford pg. Benton 51 • Yagua verb structure    1-23-08 . 34 • See ch 24: “Hints for Linguistic Writing” • INTRODUCTION  Yagua is a language spoken in the Amazon basin… The verb structure of Yagua is highly agglutinative… There is a rich verbal morphology.