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ENGG ZC232 ENGINEERING MATERIALS. Lecture 01(Introduction).

BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus
Prof.P.Srinivasan. Mechanical Engineering Department

Det i!" o# $re"ent tion Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering. Types of Engineering materials, properties and Applications. Advanced Materials.

E%&& 'C ( Engg. Materials )ecture*I !"#!" #$ Intorduction

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

M teri !" Science nd En%ineerin%
Materials Science
*The discipline of investigating the relationships that e+ist ,et-een the structures and properties of materials.

Materials Engineering

. The discipline of designing or engineering the structure of a material to produce a predetermined set of properties ,ased on esta,lished structure*property correlation.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

%on*5errous and Polymer Age .io*Materials . 4igh Strength Alloys .&i"toric ! E'o!ution o# M teri !" Ages of /Man0 -e survive . Titanium and %ic1el 6superalloys7 . Silicon . food preservation. housing. 4igh Temperature furnaces . aerospace .ased on the materials -e control . Aluminum. Plastics and Composites . Special roc1s. -ood . 2ron3e Age . %ano*Material and . Stone Age . Steel Age . Pilani Campus . aerospace and higher speeds . E+otic Materials Age8 . naturally occurring materials . Iron Age . Information . they are coming and then 9 BITS Pilani. s1ins. Casting and forging .

B "ic En%ineerin% M teri !" Metals: . >ptically translucent or transparent. nitrides. thermal . lo. Soft.density . sulfides7 . Strong. reflective.onding 6refractory7 . electrical conductivity . Polymers"plastics: Covalent .strength. compounds of metallic . Pilani Campus . ductile. glassy. high thermal .onding  sharing of e=s . opa<ue. lo. ductile . electrical insulators . elastic .ides. 2rittle. non* metallic elements 6o+ides. non*conducting 6insulators7 BITS Pilani. car. Ceramics: ionic .

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atomic Structure Atomic Structure Crystal structure Microscopic Structure Macroscopic Structure BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .A3out "tructure o# + teri !" It relates to the arrangement of its internal components.      Su.

Structure o# + teri !" nd in#!uence BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Performance of Materials BITS Pilani. Structure of Materials . Pilani Campus . Processing of Materials . Properties of Materials .5our Ma?or Components of Material Science and Engineering: .

Pilani Campus .Structure4 $roce""in%4 5 $ro(ertie" $ %ro&erties de&end on structure ex !ardness "s structure o# steel (d) 5ardness (65N) 400 300 -00 300 200 30µ) 30µ) (c) (a) (() -µ) 30µ) 'ata o(tained #ro) *igs+ 10+21(a) and 10+23 .t.it! -.C co)&osition/ and #ro) *ig+ 11+13 and associated discussion/ Callister 6e+ Microgra&!s ada&ted #ro) (a) *ig+ 10+100 (() *ig+ 1+270(c) *ig+ 10+2-0 and (d) *ig+ 10+12/ Callister 6e+ 100 0+01 0+1 1 10 100 1000 Cooling 2ate (C/s) $ %rocessing can c!ange structure E%&& 'C ( Engineering Materials (#"#!" #$( )ecture #$6Introduction7 ex structure "s cooling rate o# steel $ 2 BITS Pilani.

M %neto"tricti'e M teri !" . A3!e to "en"e t6e c6 n%e" in t6eir en'iron+ent nd re"(ond to t6e"e c6 n%e" in (redeter+ined + nner. E!ectro:r6eo!o%ic !. A!!o.M teri !" o# t6e 7uture S+ rt M teri !" . Pilani Campus . . $ie9oe!ectric Cer +ic" . 7o!!o8in% + teri !" u"ed #or ctu tor". M %netor6eo!o%ic ! 7!uid" E%&& 'C ( Engineering Materials (#"#!" #$( )ecture #$6Introduction7 BITS Pilani. S6 (e Me+or. .

/%ano0 refers to the dimensions of the structural entities are on order of a nanometer 6$#*@m7 as a rule less than $## nanometers. %anotechnology Top do-n approach 2ottom up approach The study of properties of materials using . E%&& 'C ( Engineering Materials (#"#!" #$( )ecture #$6Introduction7 ( BITS Pilani.Continued. Pilani Campus ..ottom up approach is called %anotechnology.

lo. Increasing the Engine operation Condition. Materials that have high temperature capa. E%&& 'C ( Engineering Materials (#"#!" #$( )ecture #$6Introduction7 B BITS Pilani.density material remain to .4igh strength. %e.ilities. for use in engine components. Pilani Campus .e developed.Tr n"(ort tion Aeducing the -eight of the transportation vehicle.

Pilani Campus .and economical source of energy and to use present resource more efficiently. To find ne.: Solar Cells.Continued.g. E%&& 'C ( Engineering Materials (#"#!" #$( )ecture #$6Introduction7 C BITS Pilani.. Materials play significant role in these developments e.

ility to control air and -ater pollution.e considered. to+ic su.M int inin% t6e En'iron+ent ! <u !it.stances are produced and ecological impact of their disposal must . In some materials manufacturing process. Depends upon our a. Pilani Campus . %eed to improve the material processing and refinements so that they produce less environmental degradation. E%&& 'C ( Engineering Materials (#"#!" #$( )ecture #$6Introduction7 D BITS Pilani.

E%&& 'C ( Engineering Materials (#"#!" #$( )ecture #$6Introduction7 ! BITS Pilani. Development of ne.le resources are gradually depleting -hich necessitates Discovery of additional reservoirs.Continued..and compara.  Includes Polymers 6made from oil and some metals7  These nonrene-a.le resources.le material Increased recycling efforts and development of nerecycling technology. Pilani Campus . Materials derived from %onrene-a.

oining/ annealing+ E%&& 'C ( Engineering Materials (#"#!" #$( )ecture #$6Introduction7 E 3 BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .T6e M teri !" Se!ection $roce"" 1+ %ic7 8&&lication 'eter)ine re9uired %ro&erties %ro&erties )ec!anical/ electrical/ t!er)al/ )agnetic/ o&tical/ deteriorati"e+ 2+ %ro&erties 3+ Material Identi#: candidate Material(s) Material structure/ co)&osition+ Identi#: re9uired %rocessing %rocessing c!anges structure and o"erall shape ex casting/ sintering/ "a&or de&osition/ do&ing #or)ing/ .

Pilani Campus . BITS Pilani.Si* I+(ort nt $ro(ertie" Mechanical Electrical Thermal Magnetic >ptical Deteriorative.

Dor7/ 1170+) * ## *$## # T 6FC7 $ 8dding <i)&urit:= ato)s to Cu increases resisti"it:+ $ 'e#or)ing Cu increases resisti"it:+ BITS Pilani. (*ig+ 17+> ada&ted #ro) ?+@+ Linde/ Ann Physik 5/ 211 (1132)0 and C+8+ Aert and 2+M+ B!o)son/ Physics of Solids/ 2nd edition/ McGra. Cu G$ u C d e i rm % o f H e t d a $ .( ( G at H %i *ro) *ig+ 17+> Callister’s Materials Science and Engineerin Adapted Version. Pilani Campus .ELECTRICAL D C 6$#*E >hm*m7 Aesistivity. G$ u C Cu 0 e r /Pu Cu . ρ $ Electrical 2esisti"it: o# Co&&er B ( $ # %i H t %i $D a . H t a G $ .C5ill Co)&an:/ Ne.

Adapted Version. (Courtes: o# Loc7!eed 8eros&ace Cera)ics E:ste)s/ Eunn:"ale/ C8) (Note HAH denotes #ig+ is on C'C2@M+) *ro) *ig+ 11+Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering.!en :ou add FincG Thermal Conductivity 6I"m*J7 B## (## ## $## # # $# # (# B# Composition 6-tH 'inc7 $## µµ 8da&ted #ro) *ig+ 11+-A/ Callister 6e. (*ig+ 11+. !eat conduction+ *ro) c!a&terCo&ening &!otogra&!/ C!a&ter 11/ Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering.is ada&ted #ro) Metals Hand ook! Properties and Selection! "onferrous alloys and Pure Metals/ Iol+ 2/ 1t! ed+/ 5+ 6a7er/ (Managing Editor)/ 8)erican Eociet: #or Metals/ 1171/ BITS Pilani.T&ERMAL $ E&ace E!uttle Biles CCEilica #i(er insulation o##ers lo. Adapted Version. (Courtes: o# Loc7!eed Missiles and E&ace Co)&an:/ Inc+) $ B!er)al Conducti"it: o# Co&&er CCIt decreases . &+ Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus . Adapted Version.MAGNETIC $ Magnetic Etorage CC2ecording )ediu) is )agnetiFed (: recording !ead+ $ Magnetic %er)ea(ilit: "s+ Co)&osition CC8dding 3 ato)ic . ?erse:+ BITS Pilani. Ei )a7es *e a (etter recording )ediu)G Magneti3ation 5eG(HSi 5e Magnetic 5ield *ig+ 1>+23 Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering. (*ig+ 1>+23 is #ro) ?+J+ Le)7e/ M$S %ulletin/ Iol+ KI/ No+ 3/ &+ 31/ 1110+) 8da&ted #ro) C+2+ 6arrett/ A+'+ Nix/ and 8+E+ Betel)an/ #he Principles of Engineering Materials/ *ig+ 1C7(a)/ &+ 1/ 1173+ Electronicall: re&roduced (: &er)ission o# %earson Education/ Inc+/ J&&er Eaddle 2i"er/ Ne.

Pilani Campus . Adapted Version.=$TICAL $ Brans)ittance CC8lu)inu) oxide )a: (e trans&arent/ translucent/ or o&a9ue de&ending on t!e )aterial structure+ single crystal polycrystal: lo.porosity polycrystal: high porosity 8da&ted #ro) *ig+ 1+2/ Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering. (E&eci)en &re&aration/ %+8+ Lessing0 &!oto (: E+ Banner+) BITS Pilani.

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7 .s crac7 s&eed in salt . %arayanan and A. (#ro) Marine Corrosion. 2oeing Commercial BITS Pilani. $#.efore testing0 Alloy !$!E tested in saturated a<ueous %aCl solution at (LC $#*$# increasing load *ro) c!a&terCo&ening &!otogra&!/ C!a&ter 14 Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering.Mg. Pilani Campus Airplane Company.4.&.($. $#.Cu.ater+++ CCcauses crac7sG $ 5eat treat)ent crac1 speed 6m"s7 $#*E slo.'r7 B µµ 5rom 5ig.($ provided courtesy of &. Adapted Version. and Pre&ention/ ?o!n Aile: and Eons/ Inc+/ 1173+) 8da&ted #ro) *ig+ 11+20(()/ 2+A+ 5ertF(erg/ H'e#or)ation and *racture Mec!anics o# Engineering MaterialsH (-t! ed+)/ &+ 303/ ?o!n Aile: and Eons/ 1114+ (@riginal source Mar7us @+ E&eidel/ 6ro. 65ig.aterG /as*is0 /held at $D#LC for $ hr . Adapted Version.DETERI=RATI>E $ Etress L Ealt. Miller.n 6o"eri Co+) **material: !$C#*TDC$ Al KalloyK 6'n. Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering. Causes.

T6e M teri !" Se!ection $roce"" 1+ %ic7 8&&lication 'eter)ine re9uired %ro&erties %ro&erties )ec!anical/ electrical/ t!er)al/ )agnetic/ o&tical/ deteriorati"e+ 2+ 3+ %ro&erties Identi#: candidate Material(s) Material structure/ co)&osition+ Material Identi#: re9uired %rocessing %rocessing c!anges structure and o"erall shape ex casting/ sintering/ "a&or de&osition/ do&ing #or)ing/ . Pilani Campus .oining/ annealing+ BITS Pilani.

design o&&ortunities o##ered (: )aterials selection+ BITS Pilani.o(+ $ Jnderstand t!e relation (et. Pilani Campus .S?MMAR@ Course Goals $ Jse t!e rig!t )aterial #or t!e .een &ro&erties/ structure/ and &rocessing+ $ 2ecogniFe ne.