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Topics covered

• • • • • • • • What is adaptive control? (Chap 1) Deterministic self tuning regulators (chap 3) Model reference adaptive systems (chap 5) Properties of adaptive systems (chap 6) Auto tuning (chap 8) Gain scheduling (chap 9) Robust and self oscillating systems (chap 10) Practical issues and implementation (chap 11)

Introduction

• “to adapt” means to change a behavior to conform to new circumstances. • An adaptive controller a controller that can modify its behavior in response to the changes in dynamics of the processes and the disturbances acting on the process.

• The controller becomes nonlinear because of the parameter adjustment mechanism .Contd. • An adaptive controller a controller with adjustable parameters and a mechanism for adjusting the parameters.. • The parameters are adjusted to compensate for the changes in dynamics of the plant and the disturbances acting on the plant.

A block diagram of the adaptive controller .

• The parameter adjustment loop is usually slower than the normal feedback loop. • The other loop is the parameter adjustment loop. • One loop is a normal feedback with the process and the controller. .Description • An adaptive control system can be thought of as having two loops.

• Some circumstances under which the adaptive controllers can perform better than the conventional PID controllers are: • Change in plant transfer function due to variations in the environment. • Stochastic disturbances (disturbances whose characteristics/behavior are unpredictable ) . the size and properties of the raw materials. wear & tear of certain components.Circumstances under which adaptive control can be preferred: • it is convenient to control a plant with the available conventional PID controllers.

when control system for new process is commissioned. . • Change in nature of inputs • Propagation of disturbances along a chain of unit processes • Nonlinear behavior as in case of complex chemical or biochemical reaction • Appreciable dead time • Unknown parameters.Contd..

Effects of process variations • The standard approach to control system design is – to develop a linear model for the process for some operating condition and to design a controller having constant parameters. . The mechanisms causing variation in process dynamics and its effect on the performance of control system is studied in the following section. A fundamental property is also that feedback systems are intrinsically insensitive to modeling errors and disturbances.

Some mechanisms causing variation in process dynamics are: • • • • Nonlinear actuators Flow and speed variations Flight control Variation in disturbance characteristics .

Nonlinear actuators • A very common source of variations is that actuators. like valves have a nonlinear characteristic. • Let the static valve characteristics be 0 • and let and .

Block diagram of a flow control loop with a PI controller and a nonlinear valve .

Discussions • Linearizing the system around a steady state operating point shows that • the incremental gain of the valve is f(u). and hence the loop gain is proportional to f(u). • The system can perform well at one operating level and poorly at another .

Step responses for PI control of simple flow loop at different operating levels .

3. • For higher values of operating level. .Discussions • The controller is tuned to give a good response at low levels of operating level. the closed loop system even becomes unstable as can be seen in fig.

Other examples • Flow and speed variations – tank system • Flight Control • Variations in disturbance characteristics are also discussed for Ship steering control Regulation of quality variable in process control .

Adaptive control schemes • • • • Gain scheduling Model-Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) Self-Tuning Regulator (STR) Dual Control .

where the gain of the system is determined and based on its value the controller parameters are changed. . • This approach is called gain scheduling because – the scheme was originally used to measure the gain and then change. schedule the controller to compensate for changes in the process gain.Gain Scheduling • Gain scheduling is an adaptive control strategy. that is.

Block diagram of system with gain scheduling .

Description • The system can be viewed as having two loops. . • an inner loop composed of the process and the controller • outer loop contains components that adjust the controller parameters on the basis of the operating conditions. • regarded as mapping from process parameters to controller parameters. • It can be implemented as a function or a table lookup.

• The concept of gain scheduling originated in connection with the development of flight control systems. time constants and time delays are inversely proportional to production rate. . the production rate-a scheduling variable.. • Gain scheduling is a very useful technique for reducing the effects of parameter variations.Contd. • In process control.

with no real learning or intelligence • The design required for its implementation is enormous.Advantages and disadvantages • Advantages: • Parameters can be changed quickly in response to changes in plant dynamics • very easy to apply • Drawbacks: • It is an open-loop adaptation scheme. .

• This model tells how the process output ideally should respond to the command signal. .Model – Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) • Used to solve a problem in which the performance specifications are given in terms of a reference model.

Block diagram of MRAS .

• In this case. which is the difference between the process output y and model output ym is small.the process and an ordinary feedback controller. the reference model describes the desired response of the aircraft to joystick motions. • The MRAS was originally introduced for flight control. . • The outer loop adjusts the controller parameters in such a way that the error.• composed of two loops. • The inner loop .

which brings the error to zero is obtained.• The key problem with MRAS is to determine the adjustment mechanism so that a stable system. called MIT rule was used in original MRAS. . • parameter adjustment mechanism. e is the error between the plant and model outputs θ is the controller parameter.

• The MIT rule can be regarded as a gradient scheme to minimize the squared error e2. .• The quantity is the sensitivity derivative of error with respect to the parameter θ. • It is necessary to make approximation to obtain the sensitivity derivative. • The parameter γ is the adaptation rate.

Self Tuning Regulator (STR) • The gain scheduling and MRAS are called direct methods. • A difference scheme is obtained if the estimates of the process parameters are updated and the controller parameters are obtained from the solution of a design problem using the estimated parameters. . because the adjustment rule tells directly how the controller parameters should be updated.

Block Diagram of a STR .

the process and an ordinary feedback controller. . which is composed of a recursive parameter estimator and a design calculation.• composed of two loops. • The inner loop . • The parameters of the controller are adjusted by the outer loop.

• A controller of this construction is called a Self Tuning Regulator to emphasize that the controller automatically tunes its parameters to obtain the desired properties of the closed loop system. . in which the process model and the control design are updated at each sampling period.• It is sometimes not possible to estimate the process parameters without introducing probing control signals or perturbations. • The system may be viewed as an automation of process modeling and design.

Adaptive control problem An adaptive control problem is formulated by defining the following: • Description of the process • Possible controller structures and • Adaptation of controller parameters .

z is the z-transform variable. the process is represented in state space as: Transfer Function form as Where. In the continuous time domain. • In discrete time.Description of the process • • • The process is usually described by linear Single-input Single-output (SISO) system. the process can be described in state space form as: • • The discrete time system can also be represented in transfer function form as: Where. . s is the Laplace Transform variable.

.Controller Structures • The process is controlled by a controller that has adjustable parameters. if the process and its environment are known. • Underlying design problem: It is assumed that there exists some kind of design procedure that makes it possible to determine a controller that satisfies some design criteria.

– In direct adaptive control. . – In indirect adaptive methods. the process model and possibly the disturbance characteristics are first determined.• The adaptive control problem is – used to find a method of adjusting the controller when the characteristics of the process and its environment are unknown or changing. the controller parameters are changed directly without the characteristics of the process and its disturbance first being determined. – The controller parameters are designed on the basis of this information.

any of the techniques can be chosen. Based on the application and the performance desired.Adaptation (adjustment) of controller parameters • • • • Various techniques are available like the MIT rule and Lyapunov technique for the MRAS. MDPP LQG for STR. • .

Construction of an adaptive controller contains the following steps: • Characterize the behavior of the closed loop system • Determine a suitable control law with adjustable parameters • Find a mechanism for adjusting the parameters • Implement the control law .

Applications of Adaptive control • • • • • aerospace process control ship steering robotics and automotive biomedical systems. .

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