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INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF MANUFACTURING

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is Manufacturing? Materials in Manufacturing Manufacturing Processes Production Systems Trends in Manufacturing

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Product quality and reliability, responsiveness to customer demands, increased labor productivity, and efficient use of capital were the primary areas that leading manufacturing companies throughout the world emphasized during the past decade to respond to the challenge of global competitiveness.

©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Gross domestic product resulted from production of durable and nondurable goods. exports were manufactured goods. and manufacturing industries employed a work force of over 19 million people in 360. ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.S. M P Groover. approximately 65% of total U. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e .000 companies.S. the manufacturing sector accounted for 95% of industrial research and development spending.In 1995. 19% of the U. Inc.

Economic Importance U. transportation. and government ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. education. Economy Sector: Agriculture and natural resources Construction and public utilities Manufacturing Service industries* %GDP 5 5 15 75 100 * includes retail. communication. Inc. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . M P Groover. banking.S.

Manufacturing is Important  Making things has been an essential human activity since before recorded history  Today. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . the term manufacturing is used for this activity  Manufacturing is important to the United States and most other developed and developing nations  Technologically  Economically ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. M P Groover.

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . Inc.the application of science to provide society and its members with those things that are needed or desired  Technology provides the products that help our society and its members live better  What do these products have in common?  They are all manufactured  Manufacturing is the essential factor that makes technology possible ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.Technological Importance Technology . M P Groover.

M P Groover. Inc.D. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e .  Most modern manufacturing operations are accomplished by mechanized and automated equipment that is supervised by human workers ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.What is Manufacturing?  The word manufacture is derived from two Latin words manus (hand) and factus (make). the combination means “made by hand”  “Made by hand” accurately described the fabrication methods that were used when the English word “manufacture” was first coined around 1567 A.

process equipment (machines). begins during the design phase when judgments are made concerning part geometry. material choices. and enabling resources. . equipment calibration and maintenance. tolerances. manufacturing methods. skilled workers and technicians.Manufacturing is the means by which the technical and industrial capability of a nation is exploited to transform innovative designs into well-made products that meet customer needs. Manufacturing. in the broad sense. and so on Modern manufacturing operations can be viewed as having six principal components: materials being processed.

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . Inc.Manufacturing . M P Groover. properties. and/or appearance of a starting material to make parts or products ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.Technological  Application of physical and chemical processes to alter the geometry.

Inc. M P Groover.Economic  Transformation of materials into items of greater value by one or more processing and/or assembly operations ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.Manufacturing . Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e .

cultivate and exploit natural resources. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . agriculture. Inc.g. Secondary industries . Tertiary industries . e. Primary industries .take the outputs of primary industries and convert them into consumer and capital goods 3.Manufacturing Industries   Industry consists of enterprises and organizations that produce or supply goods and services Industries can be classified as: 1. mining 2.service sector ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.. M P Groover.

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . M P Groover.Specific Industries in Each Category ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Inc.

. apparel. manufacturing means production of hardware  Nuts and bolts. forgings. digital computers. airplanes. plastic parts. construction. and ceramic products ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.Manufacturing Industries continued  Secondary industries include manufacturing. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . chemicals. cars. and food processing  For our purposes. e.g. and electric power generation  Manufacturing includes several industries whose products are not covered in this book. M P Groover. Inc. beverages.

products purchased directly by consumers  Cars. tennis rackets 2. machine tools.Manufactured Products  Final products divide into two major classes: 1.those purchased by companies to produce goods and/or provide services  Aircraft. M P Groover. TVs. medical apparatus. clothes. trucks. construction equipment ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. communication equipment. computers. Inc. Consumer goods . Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . Capital goods .

©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . Inc.and nano-fabrication. M P Groover.There are three distinct categories of manufacturing: Discrete item manufacturing Continuous materials processing Micro.

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . Inc.000 to millions of units ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. and procedures are organized  Annual quantities can be classified into three ranges: Production range Annual Quantity Q Low production 1 to 100 units Medium production 100 to 10. facilities.000 units High production 10. M P Groover.Production Quantity Q The quantity of products Q made by a factory has an important influence on the way its people.

Product Variety P  Product variety P refers to different product types or models produced in the plant  Different products have different features  They are intended for different markets  Some have more parts than others  The number of different product types made each year in a factory can be counted  When the number of product types made in the factory is high. M P Groover. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . this indicates high product variety ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Inc.

©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. M P Groover. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e .

with few common parts (if any) ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. M P Groover. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e .. between a small car and a large truck. with many common parts  Hard product variety .small differences between products.g. Inc. it is much less exact than Q because details on how much the designs differ is not captured simply by the number of different designs  Soft product variety .g.More About Product Variety  Although P is quantitative. between car models made on the same production line. e. e..products differ substantially.

materials.Manufacturing Capability  A manufacturing plant consists of processes and systems (and people) to transform a certain limited range of materials into products of increased value The three building blocks . Technological processing capability   2. processes. and systems . Physical product limitations 3. M P Groover. Production capacity ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e .are the subject of modern manufacturing Manufacturing capability includes: 1.

1. Inc. so by specializing in certain processes. but also the expertise of the plant personnel  A machine shop cannot roll steel  A steel mill cannot build cars ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. M P Groover. the plant is also specializing in certain materials  Includes not only the physical processes. Technological Processing Capability The set of available manufacturing processes in the plant (or company)  Certain manufacturing processes are suited to certain materials. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e .

2. Physical Product Limitations
 Given a plant with a certain set of processes, there are size and weight limitations on the parts or products that can be made in the plant  Product size and weight affect:  Production equipment  Material handling equipment  Production, material handling equipment, and plant size must be planned for products that lie within a certain size and weight range
©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

3. Production Capacity
Defined as the maximum quantity that a plant can produce in a given time period (e.g., month or year) under assumed operating conditions  Operating conditions refer to number of shifts per week, hours per shift, direct labor manning levels in the plant, and so on  Usually measured in terms of output units, such as tons of steel or number of cars produced by the plant  Also called plant capacity
©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Materials in Manufacturing
 Most engineering materials can be classified into one of three basic categories: 1. Metals

 

2. Ceramics 3. Polymers Their chemistries are different, and their mechanical and physical properties are different These differences affect the manufacturing processes that can be used to produce products from them
©2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e

Inc. M P Groover.In Addition: Composites  Nonhomogeneous mixtures of the other three basic types rather than a unique category  Venn diagram of three basic material types plus composites ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e .

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . nickel. comprises about 75% of metal tonnage in the world:  Steel and cast iron 2. Nonferrous metals .1. etc. Inc. silver.based on iron. at least one of which is metallic. Two basic groups: 1. M P Groover.all other metallic elements and their alloys:  Aluminum. ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Metals  Usually alloys. Ferrous metals . tin. copper. which are composed of two or more elements.

Charging a basic oxygen furnace in steelmaking: molten pig iron is poured into the BOF. ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . Inc. Temperatures are around 1650C (3000F). M P Groover.

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . and modern ceramics.2. Crystalline ceramics – includes:  Traditional ceramics. such as alumina (Al2O3) 2. such as clay. nitrogen. and carbon  For processing. Inc. M P Groover. Glasses – mostly based on silica (SiO2) ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. ceramics divide into: 1.  Typical nonmetallic elements are oxygen. Ceramics Compounds containing metallic (or semi-metallic) and nonmetallic elements.

Elastomers . M P Groover.molecules chemically transform into a rigid structure – cannot reheat 3. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . whose atoms share electrons to form very large molecules. Three categories: 1.shows significant elastic behavior ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Polymers Compound formed of repeating structural units called mers. Inc. Thermoplastic polymers .3. Thermosetting polymers .can be subjected to multiple heating and cooling cycles without altering molecular structure 2.

Inc. and the way they are combined to form the final material ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.homogeneous mass of material. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . such as grains of identical unit cell structure in a solid metal  Usual structure consists of particles or fibers of one phase mixed in a second phase  Properties depend on components. Composites Material consisting of two or more phases that are processed separately and then bonded together to achieve properties superior to its constituents  Phase . physical shapes of components. M P Groover.4.

properties.Manufacturing Processes Two basic types: 1. Assembly operations . or appearance of the starting material 2.join two or more components to create a new entity ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.transform a work material from one state of completion to a more advanced state  Operations that change the geometry. Inc. M P Groover. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . Processing operations .

©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . M P Groover.

Inc.alter the geometry of the starting work material 2. Surface processing operations .improve physical properties without changing shape 3. coat. or appearance in order to add value  Three categories of processing operations: 1. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . treat. physical properties. or deposit material on surface of work ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. M P Groover. Shaping operations .clean.Processing Operations Alters a material’s shape. Property-enhancing operations .

Inc.starting material is a heated liquid or semifluid Particulate processing .starting material consists of powders Deformation processes .Shaping Processes – Four Categories 1. Solidification processes . 2. M P Groover.starting material is a ductile solid (commonly metal) Material removal processes . 3. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . 4.starting material is a ductile or brittle solid ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.

M P Groover. Inc. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e .Solidification Processes  Starting material is heated sufficiently to transform it into a liquid or highly plastic state  Casting process at left and casting product at right ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.

Inc. M P Groover.Particulate Processing  (1) Starting materials are metal or ceramic powders. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . which are (2) pressed and (3) sintered ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . M P Groover. Inc.Deformation Processes  Starting workpart is shaped by application of forces that exceed the yield strength of the material  Examples: (a) forging and (b) extrusion ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.

M P Groover. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . and (c) milling ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. (b) drilling.Material Removal Processes  Excess material removed from the starting piece so what remains is the desired geometry  Examples: (a) turning. Inc.

M P Groover. ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . Inc.Metal chips fly in a high speed turning operation performed on a computer numerical control turning center (photo courtesy of Cincinnati Milacron).

Inc. but molding and particulate processing operations waste little material  Terminology for minimum waste processes:  Net shape processes .little or no waste of the starting material and no machining is required  Near net shape processes .when minimum machining is required ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e .Waste in Shaping Processes  It is desirable to minimize waste in part shaping  Material removal processes are wasteful in the unit operations. M P Groover.

Property-Enhancing Processes Processes that improve mechanical or physical properties of work material  Examples:  Heat treatment of metals and glasses  Sintering of powdered metals and ceramics  Part shape is not altered. M P Groover. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . except unintentionally  Example: unintentional warping of a heat treated part ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Inc.

Inc.A batch of silicon wafers enters a furnace heated to 1000°C (1800°F) during fabrication of integrated circuits under clean room conditions (photo courtesy of Intel Corporation). Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . M P Groover. ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.

and other surface contaminants Surface treatments .Surface Processing Operations    Cleaning . and physical processes like diffusion Coating and thin film deposition . Inc. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e .mechanical working such as sand blasting.chemical and mechanical processes to remove dirt. M P Groover. Examples:  Electroplating  Physical vapor deposition  Painting ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.coating exterior surface of the workpart. oil.

Photomicrograph of the cross section of multiple coatings of titanium nitride and aluminum oxide on a cemented carbide substrate (photo courtesy of Kennametal Inc.). Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . M P Groover. Inc. ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.

Inc. Mechanical assembly – fastening by mechanical methods  Threaded fasteners (screws. brazing. expansion fits ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.Assembly Operations Two or more separate parts are joined to form a new entity  Types of assembly operations: 1. bolts and nuts). soldering. M P Groover. press fitting. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . Joining processes – create a permanent joint  Welding. adhesive bonding 2.

Two welders perform arc welding on a large steel pipe section (photo courtesy of Lincoln Electric Company). Inc. ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . M P Groover.

Automated dispensing of adhesive onto component parts prior to assembly (photo courtesy of EFD. ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. M P Groover.). Inc. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . Inc.

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . M P Groover.power-driven machines used to operate cutting tools previously operated manually  Other production equipment:  Presses  Forge hammers.  Plastic injection molding machines ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.Production Machines and Tooling  Manufacturing operations are accomplished using machinery and tooling (and people)  Types of production machines:  Machine tools . Inc.

M P Groover. ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e .A robotic arm performs unloading and loading operation in a turning center using a dual gripper (photo courtesy of Cincinnati Milacron). Inc.

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . Inc.Production Systems People. M P Groover. and procedures used for the materials and processes that constitute a firm's manufacturing operations  A manufacturing firm must have systems and procedures to efficiently accomplish its production  Two categories of production systems:  Production facilities   Manufacturing support systems People make the systems work ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. equipment.

and material handling systems  Includes the way the equipment is arranged in the factory . Inc. Examples:  Automated production line  Machine cell consisting of an industrial robot and two machine tools  Production facilities "touch" the product ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.Production Facilities The factory. production equipment. M P Groover. called manufacturing systems. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e .the plant layout  Equipment usually organized into logical groupings.

Inc. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e .Machine cell consisting of two horizontal machining centers supplied by an in-line pallet shuttle. ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. M P Groover.

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . Low production – 1 to 100 2. High production – 10. Inc.Facilities vs Product Quantities  A company designs its manufacturing systems and organizes its factories to serve the particular mission of each plant Certain types of production facilities are recognized as most appropriate for a given type of manufacturing: 1. M P Groover.000.000 to >1.000 ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.000  3. Medium production – 100 to 10.

Inc. e. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e ..g. space capsules.Low Production Job shop is the term used for this type of production facility  A job shop makes low quantities of specialized and customized products  Products are typically complex. prototype aircraft. special machinery  Equipment in a job shop is general purpose  Labor force is highly skilled  Designed for maximum flexibility ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. M P Groover.

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . M P Groover. Inc.Fixed-Position Plant Layout ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . Inc. depending on product variety:  Batch production  Suited to medium and hard product variety  Setups required between batches  Cellular manufacturing  Suited to soft product variety  Worker cells organized to process parts without setups between different part styles ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.Medium Production  Two different types of facility. M P Groover.

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . M P Groover. Inc.Process Plant Layout ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.

Cellular Plant Layout ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. M P Groover. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . Inc.

Quantity production  2. M P Groover. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e .High Production  Often referred to as mass production  High demand for product  Manufacturing system dedicated to the production of that product Two categories of mass production: 1. Flow line production ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Inc.

Quantity Production Mass production of single parts on single machine or small numbers of machines  Typically involves standard machines equipped with special tooling  Equipment is dedicated full-time to the production of one part or product type  Typical layouts used in quantity production are process layout and cellular layout ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. M P Groover. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e .

g. Inc.. production lines  Product is complex  Requires multiple processing and/or assembly operations  Work units are physically moved through the sequence to complete the product  Workstations and equipment are designed specifically for the product to maximize efficiency ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. M P Groover. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e .Flow Line Production Multiple machines or workstations arranged in sequence. e.

Inc.Product Plant Layout ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. M P Groover. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e .

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . M P Groover.Assembly workers on an engine assembly line (photo courtesy of Ford Motor Company). Inc. ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.

plan and control production. Production planning and control.Manufacturing Support Systems  A company must organize itself to design the processes and equipment. and satisfy product quality requirements  Accomplished by manufacturing support systems  The people and procedures by which a company manages its production operations Typical departments:  Manufacturing engineering. Inc. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e  . Quality control ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. M P Groover.

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . Inc. M P Groover.Trends in Manufacturing     Lean production and Six Sigma Globalization and outsourcing Environmentally conscious manufacturing Microfabrication and Nanotechnology ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.

Inc. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . yet achieving higher quality in the final product  Underlying objective: elimination of waste in manufacturing  Six Sigma  Quality-focused program that utilizes worker teams to accomplish projects aimed at improving an organization’s organizational performance ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. M P Groover.Lean Production and Six Sigma  Lean production  Doing more work with fewer resources.

capital. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . and Mexico have developed their manufacturing infrastructures and technologies so that they are now important producers in the global economy ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. M P Groover.Globalization The recognition that we have an international economy in which barriers once established by national boundaries have been reduced  This has enabled the freer flow of goods and services. India. technology. and people among regions and countries  Once underdeveloped countries such as China.

 Outsourcing to foreign countries  Offshore outsourcing .production in China and other overseas locations  Near-shore outsourcing . Inc.production in Canada. and Central America ©2010 John Wiley & Sons.Outsourcing Use of outside contractors to perform work that was traditionally accomplished in-house  Local outsourcing  Jobs remain in the U. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . M P Groover. Mexico.S.

sustainable manufacturing  Basic approaches: 1. cleaner production. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . M P Groover. Inc.Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Determining the most efficient use of materials and natural resources in production. Design processes that are environmentally friendly ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. and minimizing the negative consequences on the environment  Associated terms: green manufacturing. Design products that minimize environmental impact 2.

Microfabrication and Nanotechnology  Microfabrication  Processes that make parts and products whose feature sizes are in the micron range (10-6 m)  Examples: Ink-jet printing heads. flat screen TV monitors ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Inc. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . M P Groover. microsensors used in automobiles  Nanotechnology  Materials and products whose feature sizes are in the nanometer range (10-9 m)  Examples: Coatings for catalytic converters. compact disks.

Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e . M P Groover.Overview of Major Topics ©2010 John Wiley & Sons. Inc.