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ENGG ZC232 ENGINEERING MATERIALS. Lecture IV.

BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus

Prof.P.Srinivasan. Mechanical Engineering Department

Topics to be covered.
Dislocations or Line defects. Planer defects and it’s influence. Metallurgical Microscope. Metallography and Microstructre. Phase diagrams.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Atoms above the dislocation line are squeezed and below the line are stretched too far apart. Pilani Campus .Edge dislocation causes localised lattice distortion Edge dislocation can be described as slicing part way through a perfect crystal. BITS Pilani. and partly filling the cut with an extra palne of atoms. The bottom edge of this inserted plane represents edge dislocation. Burger vector (vector required to close the loop) is perpendicular to the dislocation. spreading the crystal apart.

then skewing the crystal one atom spacing. Pilani Campus .Screw Dislocation: Screw dislocation can be described as cutting partway through a perfect crystal. The axis is screw dislocation. If we follow a crystallographic plane one revolution around the axis on which the crystal was skewed we shall finish one atom spacing below our starting point. BITS Pilani. The vector required to complete the loop is called burger vector b. If we continue our rotation we would trace out a spiral path.

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Pilani Campus . BITS Pilani. A screw dislocation moves (in the slip plane) in a direction perpendicular to the Burgers vector (slip direction) Most dislocations found in crystalline material are neither pure edge nor pure screw. A screw dislocation lies parallel to the Burgers vector. These are termed as Mixed dislocations. An edge dislocation moves (in its slip plane) in the direction of the Burgers vector (slip direction) Screw dislocation.Edge dislocation. An edge dislocation lies perpendicular to its Burgers vector.

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Adapted Version.1 Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering. 24/08/2013 • If dislocations don't move. 10.plastic deformation by plastic shear or slip where one plane of atoms slides over adjacent plane by defect motion (dislocations). deformation doesn't occur! ENGG ZC 232 Engineering Materials.Dislocation Motion Dislocations & plastic deformation • Cubic & hexagonal metals . Lecture IV From Fig. 9 .

f10_05_pg127 BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .BITS Pilani.

BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .f20_a_05_pg137 BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .f20_b_05_pg137 BITS Pilani.

06/08/2012 ENGG ZC232 Engineering Materials Lecture V (Phase Diagrams). Vary considerably in size. 20 BITS Pilani. Can be quite large – ex: Large single crystal of quartz or diamond or Si – ex: Aluminum light post or garbage can .see the individual grains • Crystallites (grains) can be quite small (mm or less) – necessary to observe with a microscope. Pilani Campus .Microscopic Examination • Crystallites (grains) and grain boundaries.

Adapted Version. 5.g. Optical Microscopy crystallographic planes (Fig. depending on crystal orientation.18(b) and (c) Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering. scratches) • Etching changes reflectance..E.• Useful up to 2000X magnification. • Polishing removes surface features (e. Micrograph of brass (a Cu-Zn alloy) 06/08/2012 0.18(c) is courtesy of J. 5. Pilani Campus . From Fig. Burke. General Electric Co.75mm ENGG ZC232 Engineering Materials Lecture IV (Crystal defects) 21 BITS Pilani.

Brady. (Fig.C. Smith and C.) 22 BITS Pilani. • change in crystal orientation across boundary. MD].19(b) is courtesy of L. 5.19(a) and (b) Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering. Washington. DC [now the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Adapted Version.Grain boundaries. 5. ASTM grain size number polished surface surface groove grain boundary From Fig.. • are more susceptible to etching. • may be revealed as dark lines. Pilani Campus (a) N = 2 n -1 number of grains/in2 at 100x 06/08/2012 magnification Fe-Cr alloy (b) ENGG ZC232 Engineering Materials Lecture IV (Crystal defects) . the National Bureau of Standards. Optical Microscopy • are imperfections.. Gaithersburg.

Pilani Campus .Optical Microscopy • Polarized light – metallographic scopes often use polarized light to increase contrast – Also used for transparent samples such as polymers 06/08/2012 ENGG ZC232 Engineering Materials Lecture IV (Crystal defects) 23 BITS Pilani.

000X) • Atomic resolution possible • Electron beam focused by magnetic lenses.000.1. 10-7 m = 0.Microscopy Optical resolution ca.003 nm) – (Magnification . 3 pm (0. – Electrons • wavelengths ca.1 m = 100 nm For higher resolution need higher frequency – X-Rays? Difficult to focus. 06/08/2012 ENGG ZC232 Engineering Materials Lecture IV (Crystal defects) 24 BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Eigler. Iron atoms arranged on a copper (111) surface. Zeppenfeld.M. and D. Lutz.Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) • Atoms can be arranged and imaged! Photos produced from the work of C. 06/08/2012 ENGG ZC232 Engineering Materials Lecture IV (Crystal defects) 25 BITS Pilani. copyright 1995.P. Pilani Campus . These Kanji characters represent the word “atom”. Carbon monoxide molecules arranged on a platinum (111) surface. Reprinted with permission from International Business Machines Corporation.

.g. if we specify. what equilibrium state do we get? • In particular.wt% Ni).. • When we combine two elements... Pilani Campus . and --a temperature (T ) then. wt% Cu .... --a composition (e. How many phases do we get? What is the composition of each phase? How much of each phase do we get? Phase A Phase B Nickel atom Copper atom 26 BITS Pilani...Phase Diagrams ISSUES TO ADDRESS.

If Co < 65 wt% sugar: syrup If Co > 65 wt% sugar: syrup + sugar. • Solubility Limit: Sucrose/Water Phase Diagram 10 0 Temperature (°C) 80 60 40 20 0 Pure Water Max concentration for which only a single phase solution occurs.Phase Equilibria: Solubility Limit Introduction – Solutions – solid solutions.1. Solubility Limit L L (liquid) + S (solid sugar) 100 Pure Sugar 27 BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus Question: What is the solubility limit at 20°C? (liquid solution i.e. Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering. single phase – Mixtures – more than one phase From Fig. 7. 20 40 60 65 80 Co =Composition (wt% sugar) .. Adapted Version. syrup) Answer: 65 wt% sugar.

. Chapter 9. Pilani Campus . a and b).g..Components and Phases • Components: The elements or compounds which are present in the mixture (e. Callister 3e.g. AluminumCopper Alloy b (lighter phase) a (darker phase) Adapted from chapter-opening photograph. Al and Cu) • Phases: The physically and chemically distinct material regions that result (e. 28 BITS Pilani.

e.70) 1 phase 100 L (liquid) + L S (solid sugar) A (20°C. 7.Effect of T & Composition ( C o) • Changing T can change # of phases: path A to B.. syrup) 20 0 From Fig. Adapted Version. • Changing Co can change # of phases: path B to D. 0 20 40 60 70 80 Co =Composition (wt% sugar) 100 29 BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .90) 2 phases 80 watersugar system Temperature (°C) 60 40 (liquid solution i.1 Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering. B (100°C.70) 2 phases D (100°C.

1246 0. • Ni and Cu are totally miscible in all proportions. 30 BITS Pilani.8 0.. Pilani Campus . Ni-Cu solution) Crystal Structure electroneg r (nm) Ni Cu FCC FCC 1.9 1. Hume – Rothery rules) suggesting high mutual solubility.g.1278 • Both have the same crystal structure (FCC) and have similar electronegativities and atomic radii (W.Phase Equilibria Simple solution system (e.

Materials Park.3(a) is adapted from Phase Diagrams of Binary Nickel Alloys. and P. Nash (Ed. • Phase T(°C) 1600 1500 L (liquid) • 2 phases: L (liquid) a (FCC solid solution) Diagram for Cu-Ni system 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 0 20 a (FCC solid solution) 40 60 80 • 3 phase fields: L L+ a Fig.). Co.• Indicate phases as function of T. 100 wt% Ni 31 BITS Pilani. • For this course: Phase Diagrams -binary systems: just 2 components. Adapted Version. P. OH (1991). 7. (Fig. ASM International. Pilani Campus . -independent variables: T and Co (P = 1 atm is almost always used).3(a) a From Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering. 7.

OH. 35): 2 phases: L + a L (liquid) Cu-Ni phase diagram 1400 1300 1200 a (FCC solid solution) A(1100°C. Adapted Version.). Nash (Ed. 60): 1 phase: a B (1250°C.35) 1500 --the # and types of phases present. Materials Park. Pilani Campus . ASM International.60) From Fig. 1100 1000 0 20 40 60 80 100 wt% Ni 32 BITS Pilani. 7.3(a) is adapted from Phase Diagrams of Binary Nickel Alloys. then we know: T(°C) 1600 B (1250°C. P. (Fig. • Examples: A(1100°C.3(a) Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering. 1991). 7.Phase Diagrams: # and types of phases • Rule 1: If we know T and Co.

7. OH.) 33 BITS Pilani. Nash (Ed. 1991. • Examples: A TA C o = 35 wt% Ni tie line L (liquid) 1300 At T A = 1320°C: Only Liquid (L) B TB C L = C o ( = 35 wt% Ni) a At T D = 1190°C: (solid) 1200 D Only Solid ( a) TD C a = C o ( = 35 wt% Ni ) 20 3032 35 40 4 3 50 At T B = 1250°C: C LC o C a wt% Ni Both a and L From Fig. C L = C liquidus ( = 32 wt% Ni here) Adapted Version.). (Fig.3(b) is adapted from Phase Diagrams C a = C solidus ( = 43 wt% Ni here) of Binary Nickel Alloys. P. then we know: T(°C) Cu-Ni system --the composition of each phase. Materials Park. Pilani Campus .7.3(b) Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering. ASM International.Phase Diagrams: composition of phases • Rule 2: If we know T and Co.

ASM International.). (Fig. 7.) 34 BITS Pilani. P. 1991. 7. Pilani Campus C a wt% Ni . then we know: T(°C) TA 1300 --the amount of each phase (given in wt%). Adapted Version. W a = 100 wt% At T B : Both a and L WL  TB 1200 TD 20 a (solid) 4043 50 43  35   73 wt % R + S 43  32 S R R + S C LC o Wa  = 27 wt% From Fig. Materials Park.3(b) is adapted from Phase Diagrams of Binary Nickel Alloys.3(b) Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering.Phase Diagrams: weight fractions of phases • Rule 3: If we know T and Co. OH. • Examples: Cu-Ni system A L (liquid) B R S D 3 032 35 tie line C o = 35 wt% Ni At T A : Only Liquid (L) W L = 100 wt%. Nash (Ed. W a = 0 At T D : Only Solid ( a) W L = 0.

essentially an isotherm T(°C) tie line 1300 L (liquid) How much of each phase? Think of it as a lever (teeter-totter) ML Ma TB 1200 B a (solid) R S 50 R From Fig. 7. S 20 3 0C 40 C a L Co M a S  M L R wt% Ni WL  C  C0 ML S   a ML  M a R  S Ca  CL Wa  C  CL R  0 R  S Ca  CL 35 BITS Pilani. Adapted Version.The Lever Rule • Tie line – connects the phases in equilibrium with each other . Pilani Campus .3(b) Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering.

. 35 Co 40 50 wt% Ni 36 BITS Pilani.e.Ex: Cooling in a Cu-Ni Binary • Phase diagram: Cu-Ni system.. Adapted Version. 7. 2 components: Cu and Ni. complete solubility of one component in another. 110 0 20 30 From Fig. • Consider D E a (solid) 36 Co = 35 wt%Ni. Pilani Campus .4 Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering.e. a phase field extends from 0 to 100 wt% Ni. A 35 Cu-Ni system 46 43 L: 32 wt% Ni a: 43 wt% Ni L: 24 wt% Ni a: 36 wt% Ni B C --isomorphous i. • System is: T(°C) L (liquid) 130 0 L: 35 wt% Ni a: 46 wt% Ni 32 24 120 0 L: 35wt%Ni --binary i.

• Cu-Ni case: First a to solidify has Ca = 46 wt% Ni. Last a to solidify has Ca = 35 wt% Ni. • Slow rate of cooling: • Fast rate of cooling: Cored structure First a to solidify: 46 wt% Ni Last a to solidify: < 35 wt% Ni Equilibrium structure Uniform C a: 35 wt% Ni 37 BITS Pilani.Cored vs Equilibrium Phases • Ca changes as we solidify. Pilani Campus .

Callister’s Materials Science and Engineering.6(a) and 7. wt% Ni 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Cu Ni Composition. wt% Ni From Figs. Adapted Version.%AR) 60 %EL for pure Cu %EL for pure Ni 400 TS for pure Ni Elongation (%EL) 50 40 30 300 TS for pure Cu 200 0 20 40 60 80 100 Cu Ni Composition.Mechanical Properties: Cu-Ni System • Effect of solid solution strengthening on: --Tensile strength (TS) Tensile Strength (MPa) --Ductility (%EL. Pilani Campus .6(b). --Peak as a function of Co --Min. 7. as a function of Co 38 BITS Pilani.