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must be a coherent set of links between techniques and principles. The actions are the techniques and the thoughts are the principles.

Principles

(thoughts) Techniques (actions) Method: the link between actions and thoughts

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. After that. After we have identified the principles. we will answer the following ten questions. In this book. we will observe the techniques the teacher is using and his or her behavior (experience). we will infer the principles on which the teacher’s behavior and techniques are based.

What is the nature of the student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of the student-student interaction? .

How is evaluation accomplished? .

Approach Method Technique .

approach is a set of assumptions dealing with the nature of language teaching and learning.Approach • In language teaching. It describes the nature of the subject matter to be taught… .

. An approach is axiomatic. a method is procedural. no part of which contradicts. and the order in which the content will be presented. • Within one approach there can be many methods. the selected approach.  Method is the level at which theory is put into practice and at which choices are made about the particular skills to be taught.• Method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material. and all of which is based upon. the content to be taught.

It is used to accomplish an immediate objective. reading aloud.A technique is implementational – that which actually takes place in a classroom. Techniques must be consistent with a method. listening to the tape. and therefore in harmony with an approach as well. discussion.  Eg. translation …  .  Technique is the level at which classroom procedures are described.

The organizational key is that techniques carry out a method which is consistent with an approach  .  The arrangement is hierarchical. method. a method determines technique. which determines which?  An approach determines method. in turn.What’s their relation?  For approach. and technique.

Approach Method Technique .

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involving little or no spoken communication or listening comprehension.The grammar.  .  It was originally used to teach ‘dead’ languages (and literatures) such as Latin and Greek.translation method of foreign language teaching is one of the most traditional methods.

To read and translate literary masterpieces and classics. .

the house = la casa the mouse = el ratÓn  .g.A focus on learning the rules of grammar and their application in translation passages from one language into the other  Vocabulary in the target language is learned through direct translation from the native language. e.

e. . I don’t know where your book is = …………………. Grammar is taught with extensive explanations in the native language. and only later applied in the production of sentences through translation from one language to the other. Readings in the target language are translated directly and then discussed in the native language.g:  Do you have my book? = ………………………….

 Students will be able to read literature written in the target language  Students will be able to translate from one language to another It Helps students to develop reading and writing skill  .

 To help students read and appreciate foreign language literature Students can become more familiar with the grammar of their native language also write and speak their native language better Helpful for mental exercise   .

 The authority in the classroom is the teacher.  Translating each language into each other is an important goal for learners.  The ability to communicate with the target language is not among the goals of instruction.Literary language is superior to the spoken language. Students study literature and fine arts.  .

.  Ss should be conscious of the grammatical rule of the target language.PRINCIPLES  The primary skills to be improved are reading and writing.  Its focus is on accuracy (grammatical correctness) and not fluency.

 Deductive application of an explicit grammar rule is a useful technique.  It’s important for ss to learn about the form of the target language. (rule example  .PRINCIPLES The structures of the foreign languages are best learned when compared and contrasted with those of mother tongue.  It provides good mental exercise through memorizing vocabulary.

1. Translation of a literary passage › Students will be asked to read a literary passage and then translate the target language into their native language › Translation may be written or spoken › Translation made by the students can show that they understand their meaning .

 Reading comprehension questions › Students answer these questions in the target language › Answers to the questions may be: Contained in the text inferred Related to experience  Antonyms / synonyms › Students are asked to find antonyms in the reading passage or. to define a set of words based on their understanding of them as they occur in the reading passage .

 Cognates › Recognize cognates by learning the spelling or sound patterns that correspond between the language › Students also asked to memorize words that look like cognates but have meanings in the target language that are different from those in the native language  Deductive application of rule › It is important for students to learn about the forms(grammar rules) of the target language › Grammar rules are presented with examples › Students are asked to apply the rules on examples they are given .

grammatical rules. Fill in the blank › Teacher give students sentences with word missing. and verb conjugation . › Students should fill in the blanks with the new vocabulary or with a particular grammar type  Memorization › Students are asked to memorize new words.

 Use the words in sentences › Students are asked to make up sentences with the new words they learn in the text › This technique can show whether students really understand the new words  Composition › Students are asked to write a composition in the target language › The topic is based on some aspect of the reading passage .

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 Least stressful for students as they use their native language.  Phraseology of the target language is quickly explained through translation. An effective way for application of grammar and sentence structure Teacher’s labor is saved.  .

 Less learners’ motivation   Create frustration for learners .  Unnatural method.  Speech is neglected as it lays emphasis on reading and writing.  It does not give pattern practice.Wrong idea of what language is. It starts with the teaching of reading not listening.