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WASTE MANAGEMENT

Venk atesh K BS

INTROD UCT ION
• Wast e m an agem ent is the collection, transport, processing or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local amenity. • Waste management can involve solid, liquid or gaseous wastes, with different methods and fields of expertise for each. • 3R Reduce-Reuse-Recycle

Sources of waste for European Environment Agency countries, 1992-1997

WASTE IN IND IA
• According to a study done by The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), annual per capita municipal solid waste generation in India is projected to grow from 1 to 1. 33 p er cen t, which would lead to a generation of over 26 0 milli on to nes of waste by 2047. Methane emissions from landfills are projected to reach 39 m il li on ton es by 2047, from 7 million tones in 1997. On the other hand, waste management responses have not kept pace with the increasing quantities of waste resulting in (a) a high proportion of uncollected waste, and (b) poor standards of transportation, storage, treatment and disposal

WASTE OR RES OURCE
About 0.1 million tonnes of municipal solid waste is generated in India every day. That is approximately 36.5 million tonnes annually. Per capita waste generation in major Indian cities ranges from 0.2 Kg to 0.6 Kg. Difference in per capita waste generation between lower and higher income groups range between 180 to 800 gm per day. The urban local bodies spend approximately Rs.500 to Rs.1500 per tonne on solid waste for collection, transportation, treatment and disposal. About 60-70% of this amount is spent on collection, 20-30% on transportation and less than 5% on final disposal.

INTEGRTAED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

PUBLIC ED UCATION & INVOLVEM

ENT

ADOPT ION MAINT ENA NC E TRIAL AW ARENES S EVALUAT ION INT EREST

News release, news articles, guest spots on radio, flyers, Posters, billboards, commercials,

AW ARENES S

FACIL ITY SITING
Dec ide- anno unc e- defend 3 Pha se fra mew or k
Phase 1

& PERMITT ING

Identifying the problem

Choosing site feasibility

Planning

Designing the siting framework

Assigning alternatives

Phase 2 : site selection & design Selecting the site Designing the facility Phase 3 : Implementation Operations Management Closing future & land uses

Developing a waste manangement program
• Characterizing community’s waste is a crucial step • Methods for characterizing waste

Mod elli ng Te chni ques Phy si cal Se par at ion Tech ni ques
• •

Direct Meas ure men t T echn iques Organizing a waste management program Successful organization focuses on the 5 "Ps
planning price publicity politics perseverance

COLLECTION & TRANSFER
g ity zin ion ri un s te rat m & int c ra ene a om a g C str Ch n co ls oa g te as w g din n fu re m tu ste truc Sy s e ur d ce tion o pr ara n tio prep c l le t e Co as w

n tio t c lle men Co uip eq

n ra t te ds a alu nee Ev

r fe s

es & ives ut o n n r es tio rnat o l ec l t e cti dul l e Co er a oll sche C f ns a Tr

Public & private collection/transfer
 Municipal collection  Contract collection  Private collection

Determining the system funding structure
 Property tax  Flat fee system  Variable rate system  Hybrid funding methods

Pick up points for collection
Curb side/ alley collection Backyard set out – set back collection Backyard carry collection Drop off at specified collection point

Frequency of collection
 The greater the level of service, the more costly the collection system will be to operate.  Factors to consider when setting collection frequency include the cost, customer expectations, storage limitations, and climate.  Most municipalities offer collection once or twice a week, with collection once a week being prevalent. Crews collecting once per week can collect more tons of waste per hour, but are able to make fewer stops per hour than their twicea-week counterparts.

RECYCLING
• Designing an efficient recycling program requires a systems approach. Decisions about collecting, marketing, and processing recyclables are interrelated • An efficient recycling program requires a systems approach—all program components are interrelated; decisions about one must be made with other components in mind. Successful recycling also requires enthusiastic public participation, and programs must be designed with public convenience and support in mind.

Successful marketing of recyclables
• This requires accurate ma rk et knowl edg e and sha re dec isio n ma king

Mark et ing of r ecy clables

Identifying buyers

Contacting buyers

Selecting buyers

Contracting with buyers

Ways to collect recyclables
Residential waste drop off & buy back collection Curbside collection options Source collection Mixed waste collection

Composting
• Composting involves the aerobic biological decomposition of organic materials to produce a stable humus-like product. Biodegradation is a natural, ongoing biological process that is a common occurrence in both human-made and natural

COMBUSTION
• A decision many communities face is determining whether a waste-to energy (WTE) system might be a feasible component of their integrated solid waste management program

LAND DISPOSAL
• The basis of a good solid waste management system is the municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. MSW landfills provide for the environmentally sound disposal of waste that cannot be reduced, recycled, composted, combusted, or processed in some other manner • La ndfi ll is a waste disposal site for the deposit of the waste onto or into land (i.e. underground), including: Internal waste disposal sites (i.e. landfill where a producer of waste is carrying out its own waste disposal at the place of production), and a permanent site (i.e. more than one year), which is used for temporary storage of waste, but excluding

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