INTRODUCTION

"Amphibian" comes from the Greek term- Amphibios meaning (amphi- both sides + bios-life) "both life“ / both kind of life Most amphibians live on land and water(breed in water ) Amphibians evolved from lobe-finned fishes called crossopterygians. Biologist conclude that amphibians appeared during the late Devonian period, about 345 million years ago.

Crossopterygian

Crossopterygians had no gills but they had internal nostrils and a primitive lung that may have enabled them then to respire for periods of time on land.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTIC S OF AMPHIBIANS

 Tetrapods- Have four limbs.  3-5 digits on forelimb (most 4)  5 digits on hind limb  Have   

 Live in moist habitats  As tadpole in water,

an internal skeleton. Glandular epidermis Have soft, moist skin without any dermal scales, fur or feathers. Lose and gain water through their skin. Are cold-blooded.- Ectothermic. Gills as larvae/juveniles, lungs present but may degenerate, some with dermal respiration

they breathe through gills, and as adults they breathe with lungs. (terrestrial)  Evolutionary adaptations for life on land: 1. stronger bones 2. lungs and breathing tubes 3. sternum (breastbone) and ribs to protect internal organs

AMPHIBIANS
 Kingdom  Phylum  Subphylum  C lass -

Animalia Chordata Vertebrata Amphibia

 ORDERS Anura – eg: Frogs & Toads Urodela (Caudata)– eg: Salamanders and Newts Trachystomata – eg: Mud eels, sirens Apoda (Gymnophiona)- eg: Caecillians Temnospondyli (Subclass- Lepospondyli)extinct now

SURVIVING AMPHIBIANS
 ONLY

THREE ORDERS

 URODELA / CAUDATA (Salamanders and Newts)  ANURA (Frogs and Toads)

 APODA / GYMNOPHIONA(Caecilians)

INDIAN AMPHIBIAN SPECIES
 Salamander :  Newts  Frog  Toads  Caecilian

Tylototriton verrucosus (Himalayan) Pleurodeles verrucosus (Himalayan newt) Rana tigrina Bufo melanostictus Ichthyophis malabarensis

: : : :

Order: Caudata (Urodela)
 Families: 6  Ambystomatidae , Amphiumidae ,

   

Cryptobranchidae, Plethodontiade, Proteidae and Salamandridae Salamanders and Newt Elongated bodies, long tails, and smooth, moist skin , lives in moist woods Internal fertilization Paedomorphosis (retention by an organism of juvenile or even larval traits into later life) prevalent

Order: Caudata (Urodela)
 Other species can reproduce in damp

land environments
 Eggs

laid

on

land

hatch

into

miniature adult salamanders
 Compared

to

the

anurans,

salamanders are less able to remain on dry land, although some can live in dry areas by remaining inactive during the day

Newt

Necturus maculosus

Giant Japanese Salamander

Some Urodeles

Ambystoma mexicanum (Axolotl)

Southern dusky salamander

Order: Anura
FAMILIES: 5  Bufonidae (toads); Hylidae(tree frog); Ranidae(true frog); Microhylidae and Pelobatidae  Frogs & Toads- many similarities in the way they look.  Found on every continent except Antarctica  Frogs- smooth, wet skin , Associated with more aquatic habitats  Toads: Thicker dry, warty skins; Dryer habitats  Hop/jump with legs; Adult has no tail  Eggs- fertilized externally. The fertilized eggs hatch into swimming larval forms called tadpoles  Some types spend their entire life in or near water, but others live mainly on land and come to the water only to mate /reproduce  Some frogs and toads are climbers that dwell in trees or burrowers that live underground.

Really Weird Surinam Toad

Rana catesbeiana

Acris crepitans

Bufo woodhousii

Pseudacris clarki

Rana pipiens

Order: Apoda (Gymnophiona) Characteristics
 Compose a highly specialized group of tropical burrowing
amphibians - Caecilians  Superficially resemble earthworms or snakes.  Mostly live hidden in the ground, making them the least familiar order of amphibians.  A tropical, burrowing worm-like amphibians that is often Legless  Legless wormlike creatures average 30 cm long, can be up to 1.3m long. ; with fishlike scales  Very small eyes and are often blind.; Eat worms and other invertebrates  Male deposits sperm directly into the female, and the female bears live young

Order: Gymnophiona (Apoda) Caecilians

ORDER :

TRACHYSTOMATA

 An order of tailed aquatic

amphibians, including Siren and Pseudobranchus.  Family: 1- Sirenidae  They have anterior legs only, are eel-like in form  No teeth except a small patch on the palate.  The external gills are persistent through life.  Three living species of Mud eels, sirens.  Sirens live in the eastern United States and northeastern Mexico.

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SIREN

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