You are on page 1of 64

Chapter 3

Matter and Energy
Are matter & energy related
• Matter is any particle with mass and volume
• Energy is simply matter that is moving
• 0 Kelvin is defined as the temperature when
matter does not moving
• So temperature is related to moving mass
• Therefore: temperature and mass are related to
energy
• That’s why any chemistry or physics equation
with energy must relate mass and temperature.
2
3
Around you
• Everything you can see,
touch, smell or taste in
your room is made of
matter.
4
What Is Matter?
• Matter is anything with
mass.
• Typically, we think of tiny
little pieces of mass as
atoms and molecules
because those 117 elements
behave Newtonian. There
are over 200 smaller
particles that behave
Quantunian.
5
Energy: it’s just Mass and Velocity
• Electrical
Kinetic energy associated with the flow of electrical
charge.
• Heat or Thermal Energy
Kinetic energy associated with molecular motion.
• Light or Radiant Energy
Kinetic energy associated with energy transitions in an
atom.
• Nuclear
Potential energy in the nucleus of atoms.
• Chemical
Potential energy in the attachment of atoms or because of
their position.
6
Atoms and Molecules
• Atoms are the tiny particles
that make up all matter.
• In most substances, the
atoms are joined together in
units called molecules.
The atoms are joined in
specific geometric
arrangements.
Any matter can exist in one
of 3 States
• Solid
• Liquid
• Gas
7
8
Structure Determines Properties
• The atoms or molecules have different
structures in solids, liquids, and gases −
leading to different properties.
9
Solids
• The particles in a solid are packed
close together and are fixed in
position.
Although they may vibrate.
• The close packing of the particles
results in solids being
incompressible.
• The inability of the particles to
move around results in solids
retaining their shape and volume
when placed in a new container
and prevents the particles from
flowing.
10
Solids, Continued
• Some solids have their particles
arranged in an orderly geometric
pattern—we call these crystalline
solids.
Salt and diamonds.
• Other solids have particles that do
not show a regular geometric
pattern over a long range—we call
these amorphous solids.
Plastic and glass.
11
Liquids
• The particles in a liquid are closely packed,
but they have some ability to move around.
• The close packing results in liquids being
incompressible.
• The ability of the particles to move allows
liquids to take the shape of their container
and to flow. However, they don’t have
enough freedom to escape and expand to fill
the container.
12
Gases
• In the gas state, the particles have complete
freedom from each other.
• The particles are constantly flying around,
bumping into each other and the container.
• In the gas state, there is a lot of empty space
between the particles.
On average.
13
Gases, Continued
• Because there is a lot of empty
space, the particles can be
squeezed closer together.
Therefore, gases are
compressible.
• Because the particles are not
held in close contact and are
moving freely, gases expand to
fill and take the shape of their
container, and will flow.

14
Matter: is it pure or impure
• Pure Substance = All samples are made of the same
pieces in the same percentages.
 Salt
• Mixtures = Different samples may have the same pieces in
different percentages.
 Salt water
Pure Substance
Constant Composition
Homogeneous
Mixture
Variable Composition
Matter
Heterogeneous
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry",
Chapter 3
15
Mixtures
1. Made of
multiple
substances, but
appears to be
one substance.
2. All portions of
a sample have
the same
composition
and properties.
1. Made of
multiple
substances,
whose
presence can
be seen.
2. Portions of a
sample have
different
composition
and properties.
Heterogeneous Homogeneous
16
Matter Summary
17
Matter has Properties
• Physical Properties are the characteristics of matter
that can be changed without changing its
composition.
Characteristics that are directly observable.
• Chemical Properties are the characteristics that
determine how the composition of matter changes as
a result of contact with other matter or the influence
of energy.
Characteristics that describe the behavior of matter.

Chapter One 18
H
2
O Physical verses H
2
O Chemical
Tro's "Introductory Chemistry",
Chapter 3
19
Physical Properties
Melting Point Boiling Point
Electrical
Conductivity
Thermal
Conductivity
Magnetism
Malleability Ductility Specific Heat
Color Order Taste
Solid Liquid Gas
20
Some Physical Properties of Iron
• Iron is a silvery solid at room temperature with a
metallic taste and smooth texture.
• Iron melts at 1538 °C and boils at 4428 °C.
• Iron’s density is 7.87 g/cm
3
.
• Iron can be magnetized.
• Iron conducts electricity, but not as well as most other
common metals.
• Iron’s ductility and thermal conductivity are about
average for a metal.
• It requires 0.45 J of heat energy to raise the temperature
of one gram of iron by 1°C.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry",
Chapter 3
21
Chemical Properties
Acidity Basicity
Inertness Explosiveness
Inflammable Flammable
Oxidizing Reducing
22
Some Chemical Properties of Iron
• Iron is easily oxidized in
moist air to form rust.
• When iron is added to
hydrochloric acid, it produces
a solution of ferric chloride
and hydrogen gas.
• Iron is more reactive than
silver, but less reactive than
magnesium.
Quiz: is it a Physical or Chemical
Property
• Salt is a white, granular solid = physical.
• Salt melts at 801 °C = physical.
• Salt is stable at room temperature, it does not decompose
= chemical.
• 36 g of salt will dissolve in 100 g of water = physical.
• When a clear, colorless solution of silver nitrate is added
to a salt solution, a white solid forms = chemical.
23
24
Matter has Properties, Matter can
also go through Changes
• Changes that alter the state or appearance of the
matter without altering the composition are
called physical changes.
• Changes that alter the composition of the matter
are called chemical changes.
During the chemical change, the atoms that are
present rearrange into new molecules, but all of the
original atoms are still present.
25
Is it a Physical or Chemical Change?
• A physical change results in a different form of
the same substance.
The kinds of molecules don’t change.
• A chemical change results in one or more
completely new substances.
Also called chemical reactions.
The new substances have different molecules than the
original substances.
You will observe different physical properties because
the new substances have their own physical properties.
26
Phase Changes Are
Physical Changes
• Boiling = liquid to gas.
• Melting = solid to liquid.
• Subliming = solid to gas.
• Freezing = liquid to solid.
• Condensing = gas to liquid.
• Deposition = gas to solid.
• State changes require heating or cooling the substance.
Evaporation is not a simple phase change, it is a solution
process.
• Evaporation of rubbing alcohol = physical.
• Sugar turning black when heated = chemical.
• An egg splitting open and spilling out =
physical.
• Sugar fermenting into alcohol = chemical.
• Bubbles escaping from soda = physical.
• Bubbles that form when hydrogen peroxide is
mixed with blood = chemical.
27
Quiz: is it a Physical or Chemical change
28
Separation of Mixtures
• Separate mixtures based on different
physical properties of the components.
Physical change.
Centrifugation and
decanting
Density
Evaporation Volatility
Chromatography Adherence to a surface
Filtration State of matter (solid/liquid/gas)
Distillation Boiling point
Technique Different Physical Property
29
Distillation: different boiling points
30
Filtration: different solubility's
Summary
• Moving Matter has Energy. Motion is
related to temperature. All energy formulas
are relations between mass and temperature
• Matter has 3 states
• Matter has properties
• Matter can change
31
States/Properties/Change
are all related to temperature
and how much you have
32
Law of Conservation of Mass
• Antoine Lavoisier
• “Matter is neither created nor destroyed in a
chemical reaction.”
• The total amount of matter present before a
chemical reaction is always the same as the total
amount after.
• butane + oxygen ÷ carbon dioxide + water
58 grams + 208 grams ÷ 176 grams + 90 grams
266 grams = 266 grams


33
Law of Conservation of Energy
• ―Energy can neither be created nor destroyed.”
• The total amount of energy in the universe is
constant. There is no process that can increase
or decrease that amount.
• Note: neither Mass nor Energy are ever
destroyed
34
Energy
• The Fundamental Principle of the Universe is
Energy
• From the Greeks to Newton to Quantum
Mechanics Energy is known as the capacity to do
work and is simply calculated by knowing the
mass and velocity of a particle.
• The harder you swing an ax the faster you can fall
a tree.
• Guess what happens when you walk into a wall
.005 mph or 500 mph
35
Energy: it’s just Mass and Velocity
• Electrical
Kinetic energy associated with the flow of electrical
charge.
• Heat or Thermal Energy
Kinetic energy associated with molecular motion.
• Light or Radiant Energy
Kinetic energy associated with energy transitions in an
atom.
• Nuclear
Potential energy in the nucleus of atoms.
• Chemical
Potential energy in the attachment of atoms or because of
their position.
• You take slow moving particles and make them
move faster


36
To get Energy (electrical,
thermal, light, nuclear, chemical)
As slow moving water
falls, gravity pulls it
faster. The water falls on
top of a turbine, which
moves a coil in a magnet
to generate electricity.
• You take slow moving particles and make them
move faster


37
To get Energy (electrical,
thermal, light, nuclear, chemical)
• You take slow moving particles and make them
move faster


38
To get Energy (electrical,
thermal, light, nuclear, chemical)
Binding energy is simply the
amount of energy (and mass)
released, when free nucleons
join to form a nucleus; a
gluon is released or
absorbed
Einstein's mass-energy
equivalence formula E = mc²
can be used to compute the
binding energy
39
Kinds of Energy
Kinetic and Potential
• Potential energy is energy that is
stored; slow moving
 Water flows because gravity pulls it
downstream.
 However, the dam won’t allow it to
move, so it has to store that energy.
• Kinetic energy is energy of motion,
or energy that is being transferred
from one object to another; fast
moving.
 When the water flows over the dam,
some of its potential energy is converted
to kinetic energy of motion.

Tro's "Introductory Chemistry",
Chapter 3
41
There’s No Such Thing as a
Free Ride
When atoms contact each other, frictions is
produced. You will often notice friction as
sound or heat. So instead of useful energy,
―anti-energy‖ friction slows your car down.
42
Units of Energy
• Calorie (cal) is the amount of energy needed to
raise one gram of water by 1 °C.
kcal = energy needed to raise 1000 g of water 1 °C.
food calories = kcals.
Energy Conversion Factors
1 calorie (cal) = 4.184 joules (J)
1 Calorie (Cal) = 1000 calories (cal)
1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) = 3.60 x 10
6
joules (J)
43
Energy Use 2008
Unit
Energy Required
to Raise
Temperature of 1 g
of Water by 1°C
Energy
Required to
Light 100-W
Bulb for 1
Hour
Energy
Used by
Average
U.S. Citizen
in 1 Day
joule (J) 4.18 3.6 x 10
5
9.0 x 10
8

calorie (cal) 1.00 8.60 x 10
4
2.2 x 10
8

Calorie (Cal) 1.00 x 10
-3
86.0 2.2 x 10
5
kWh 1.1 x 10
-6
0.100 2.50 x 10
2
Ex 3.5, A candy bar has 225 Cal, convert to Joules
Units and magnitude are
correct.
Check: 7. Check.
225 Cal = 9.41 x 10
5
J
Round: 6. Significant figures and
round.
Solution: 5. Follow the solution map to
Solve the problem.
Solution
Map:
4. Write a Solution Map.
1 Cal = 1000 cal
1 cal = 4.184 J
Conversion
Factors:
3. Write down the appropriate
Conversion Factors.
? J
Find: 2. Write down the quantity
you want to Find and unit.
225 Cal
Given: 1. Write down the Given
quantity and its unit.
Cal
cal 1
J .184 4
J 10 41 . 9
cal 1
J .184 4
Cal 1
cal 1000
Cal 25 2
5
× = × ×
cal J
Cal 1
cal 1000
3 sig figs
3 significant figures
45
Chemical Potential Energy
• The amount of energy stored in a material is its
chemical potential energy.
• The stored energy arises mainly from
the attachments between atoms in the molecules
the attractive forces between molecules.
46
Exothermic Processes
• When a change results in the release of energy it is
called an exothermic process.
• An exothermic chemical reaction occurs when the
reactants have more chemical potential energy
than the products.
• The excess energy is released into the surrounding
materials, adding energy to them.
Often the surrounding materials get hotter from the
energy released by the reaction.

47
An Exothermic Reaction
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

e
n
e
r
g
y

Reactants
Products
Surroundings





reaction
Amount
of energy
released
48
Endothermic Processes
• When a change requires the absorption of energy
it is called an endothermic process.
• An endothermic chemical reaction occurs when
the products have more chemical potential energy
than the reactants.
• The required energy is absorbed from the
surrounding materials, taking energy from them.
Often the surrounding materials get colder due to the
energy being removed by the reaction.

49
An Endothermic Reaction
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

e
n
e
r
g
y

Products
Reactants
Surroundings





reaction
Amount
of energy
absorbed
Temperature Scales
Celsius Kelvin Fahrenheit
-273°C
-269°C
-183°C
-38.9°C
0°C
100°C
0 K
4 K
90 K
234.1 K
273 K
373 K
-459 °F
-452°F
-297°F
-38°F
32°F
212°F
Absolute
zero
BP helium
Boiling
point
oxygen
Boiling
point
mercury
Melting
point ice
Boiling
point water
0 R
7 R
162 R
421 R
459 R
671 R
Rankine
Room temp
25°C
298 K 75°F 534 R
51
Fahrenheit vs. Celsius
• A Celsius degree is 1.8 times larger than a
Fahrenheit degree.
• The standard used for 0° on the Fahrenheit
scale is a lower temperature than the
standard used for 0° on the Celsius scale.
( )
1.8
32 - F
C
°
= °
52
The Kelvin Temperature Scale
• Both the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales have
negative numbers.
Yet, real physical things are always positive amounts!
• The Kelvin scale is an absolute scale, meaning it
measures the actual temperature of an object.
• 0 K is called absolute zero, all molecular motion
stops.
0 K = -273 °C = -459 °F.
Absolute zero is a theoretical value obtained by
following patterns mathematically.
53
Kelvin vs. Celsius
• The size of a ―degree‖ on the Kelvin scale is the
same as on the Celsius scale.
Although technically, we don’t call the divisions on the
Kelvin scale degrees; we call them kelvins!
That makes 1 K 1.8 times larger than 1 °F.
• The 0 standard on the Kelvin scale is a much lower
temperature than on the Celsius scale.
• When converting between kelvins and °C, remember
that the kelvin temperature is always the larger
number and always positive!
273 C K + ° =
Example 3.7—Convert –25 °C to Kelvins
Units and magnitude are
correct.
Check: 7. Check.
258 K
Round: 6. Significant figures and
round.
Solution:
5. Follow the solution map to
Solve the problem.
Solution
Map:
4. Write a Solution Map.
Equation: 3. Write down the appropriate
Equations.
K
Find: 2. Write down the quantity
you want to Find and unit.
-25 °C
Given: 1. Write down the Given
quantity and its unit.
units place
units place
° C K
273 C K + ° =
K 258 273 C) 25 ( K = + ° ÷ =
K = ° C + 273
Example 3.8—Convert 55° F to Celsius
Units and magnitude are
correct.
Check: 7. Check.
12.778 °C = 13 °C
Round: 6. Significant figures and
round.
Solution:
5. Follow the solution map to
Solve the problem.
Solution
Map:
4. Write a Solution Map.
Equation: 3. Write down the appropriate
Equations.
° C
Find: 2. Write down the quantity
you want to Find and unit.
55 °F
Given: 1. Write down the Given
quantity and its unit.
units place
and 2 sig figs
units place and 2 sig figs
° F ° C
( )
1.8
32 - F
C
°
= °
( )
1.8
32 - F
C
°
= °
( )
C 778 . 12
1.8
32 - F 55
C ° =
°
= °
Example 3.9—Convert 310 K to Fahrenheit
Units and magnitude are
correct.
Check: 7. Check.
98.6 °F = 99 °F
Round: 6. Significant figures and
round.
Solution:
5. Follow the solution map to
Solve the problem.
Solution
Map:
4. Write a Solution Map.
Equation: 3. Write down the appropriate
Equations.
°F
Find: 2. Write down the quantity
you want to Find and unit.
310 K
Given: 1. Write down the Given
quantity and its unit.
units place
and 3 sig figs
units place and 2 sig figs
( )
1.8
32 - F
C
°
= °
( ) 32 C 1.8 F + ° = °
( ) F 6 . 98 32 C 37 .8 1 F ° = + ° = °
K = °C + 273
°F °C K
°C = K - 273
C 37 273 310 C ° = ÷ = °
57
Practice—Convert 0 °F into Kelvin
58
Practice—Convert 0 °F into Kelvin,
Continued
°C = 0.556(°F-32)
°C = 0.556(0-32)
°C = -18 °C

K = °C + 273
K = (-18) + 273
K = 255 K
59
Heat Capacity
• Heat capacity is the amount of heat a substance
must absorb to raise its temperature by 1 °C.
cal/°C or J/°C.
Metals have low heat capacities; insulators have
high heat capacities.
• Specific heat = heat capacity of 1 gram of the
substance.
cal/g°C or J/g°C.
Water’s specific heat = 4.184 J/g°C for liquid.
Or 1.000 cal/g°C.
It is less for ice and steam.
60
Specific Heat Capacity
• Specific heat is the amount of energy required to raise
the temperature of one gram of a substance by 1 °C.
• The larger a material’s specific heat is, the more
energy it takes to raise its temperature a given amount.
• Like density, specific heat is a property of the type of
matter.
It doesn’t matter how much material you have.
It can be used to identify the type of matter.
• Water’s high specific heat is the reason it is such a
good cooling agent.
It absorbs a lot of heat for a relatively small mass.

61
Specific Heat Capacities
Substance Specific Heat
J /g°C
Aluminum 0.903
Carbon (dia) 0.508
Carbon (gra) 0.708
Copper 0.385
Gold 0.128
Iron 0.449
Lead 0.128
Silver 0.235
Ethanol 2.42
Water (l) 4.184
Water (s) 2.03
Water (g) 2.02

62
Heat Gain or Loss by an Object
• The amount of heat energy gained or lost by an
object depends on 3 factors: how much material
there is, what the material is, and how much the
temperature changed.
Amount of Heat = Mass x Heat Capacity x Temperature Change
q = m x C x AT

( ) ( ) ( )
J 557 . 4
C 25.0 - 29.9 0.372 g 2.5
C g
J
=
° × × =
°
q
q
Example 3.10—Calculate Amount of Heat Needed to
Raise Temperature of 2.5 g Ga from 25.0 to 29.9 °C
Units and magnitude are
correct.
Check: 7. Check.
4.557 J = 4.6 J
Round: 6. Significant figures and
round.
Solution:
5. Follow the solution map to
Solve the problem.
Solution
Map:
4. Write a Solution Map.
Equation: 3. Write down the appropriate
Equations.
q, J
Find: 2. Write down the quantity
you want to Find and unit.
m = 2.5 g, T
1
= 25.0 °C,
T
2
= 29.9 °C, C = 0.372 J/g°C
Given: 1. Write down the Given
quantity and its unit.
2 significant figures
m, C, AT q
T C m q A × × =
T C m q A × × =
64
Practice—Calculate the Amount of Heat Released
When 7.40 g of Water Cools from 49° to 29 °C
Practice—Calculate the Amount of Heat Released
When 7.40 g of Water Cools from 49° to 29 °C,
Continued



q = m ∙ C
s
∙ AT
C
s
= 4.18 J/g·°C (Table 3.4)
The unit and sign are correct.
T
1
= 49 °C, T
2
= 29 °C, m = 7.40 g
q,

J
Check: • Check.
Solution:
• Follow the
concept
plan to
solve the
problem.
Solution Map:



Relationships:
• Strategize
Given:

Find:
• Sort
Information
T C m q
s
Δ - - =
( ) ( ) ( )
J 10 6.2 J 64 . 8 1 6
C 0 2 - 4.18 g 7.40
Δ
2
C g
J
× ÷ = ÷ =
° - - =
- - =
° -
T C m q
s
( )
C 0 2 -
C 9 4 - C 29

1 2
° =
° ° = A
÷ = A
T
T T T
C
s
m, AT q