You are on page 1of 131


10 - Family - Social Institution

The most basic institution of society, serves common purposes in every society

Definitions: *
a group of two or more people (one of whom is the householder) related by birth, marriage, or adoption and residing together; all such people (including related subfamily members) are considered as members of the family. U.S. Census Bureau those sharing economic property, sexual access among the adults, and a sense of commitment among members (sociologists)

Two types: Family of orientationconsists of parents and


Family of procreationwhen we find a mate and

have own children (consanguine - blood) Mixed forms yours/mine/ours; relative, adoptive

Family Location:
Patrilocal live in area of husbands family Matrilocal live in area of wifes family Neolocal new location neither location

Family Living arrangements:

Extended families multiple generations/ same location Nuclear family husband/wife, children (parent1, parent2, children)

Authority (power relations)

Patriarchy male dominance Matriarchy female dominance Egalitarian decision making power shared (equal)

Resource theory spouse with greater resources has

greater authority (higher educ., income, job) = power

Family Dynamics Processes* Mate selection (arranged? Free choice?)

Exogamy outside group/category (incest taboo) Endogamy inside group/category Homogamy similar traits, shared decision Hypergamy marry above social class

Number of partners:
One: Monogamy Strict one man, one woman Serial several spouses in lifetime, one at a time More than one: Polygamy Polygyny* 1+ wives at a time Polyandry* 1+ husbands at a time
*[Latin root for terms: Androgyny behavior of either sex] Husband (male) Gynocology (female)

Symbolic Interaction (Micro/Meso)

socialize, develop self concept; Assists with defining/interpreting situations; Develop norms, expectations

Rational Choice (Micro/Meso)

Reinforce family patterns because exchanges beneficial to members. Unlikely to continue if costs outweigh rewards. Costs and benefits often established/influenced by meso-level organizations and institutions.

Structural-functional (Meso/Macro) Functions:

Sexual control, reproduction Socialization, care of family members, education - outsourced to other institutions Status assignment/attainment Economic
Production (early history (rural)) Support (recent) outsourced to other institutions

Recreation, changing functions

Social Conflict (meso/macro):

Assumes conflict inevitable, natural Results from struggles for power within/outside family
Sustain (perpetuates-inherited) class inequality Power struggles within positive effect; can lead to changes making family stronger

Feminist (meso/macro) : (social action approach)

Women as active agents; uncover male assumptions (patriarchy)
Women construct their own realities More equality/autonomy for women; education, employment, child care

Global Family Trends and Policies*

Major global family changes (influenced by industrialization/modernization) include:
free choice of spouse more equal status for women equal rights in divorce Neo-local residency bilateral kinship systems pressures for individual equality
(c) SAGE Publications, Inc,2011

Family dysfunction:
Abuse spouse/child (resource theory) Divorce contract breaking
Marriage culture assumes normal Unilateral no-fault divorce allow one partner to end due to irreconcilable differences Bilateral no fault requires both parties want out. Dont have to agree Divorce culture assumes marriages fragile

Highest divorce rate among young couples Rate has leveled off since 1981 (cohabitation rise?) Affects others - partners, other family members

Divorce problems/consequences
Economic consequences inability of partner to support self/children dependence upon other family or government assistance Educational lower academic performance, advancement Health emotional, insurance, treatment issues Variety of Divorce Effects: Men more emotional Women more financial (lose status) Children mixed effects (emotional,financial,
educational, interpersonal, etc.) 50% of children live with single parent

Cohabitation doubled in 1990s; 7% U.S. couples
Reject traditional practices dating, marriage Seek intimacy, emotional satisfaction, companionship Test/trial compatibility of relationship Financial, sexual gratification

Varies by ethnicity Little relationship found with marital satisfaction, emotional closeness, role sharing, level of conflict

Same-sex relationships:
Civil union/ marriage:
same-sex marriage) (41 states do not recognize

3.1M same-sex partners living together

30% couples lesbian 20% couples gay males with children

Ch. 11 Education and Religion

Schooling learning skills (reading, math) via
systematic instruction by trained professionals

UNESCO standards: Average 7 yrs. primary school,

3 intermediate/secondary school; emphasis on comprehensive (non-specialized)

Formal education schooling in formal setting with

pre-determined (standardized) curriculum

Quality measures:
Student/teacher ratio: W. Europe 13:1; US 72:1 Literacy: 76%-99% Mass education standardization of national educational curricula (NoChildLeftBehind; Common Core**)

Theoretical views of education: Functional theory (macro/meso):

Socialization children/adults Selecting and training individuals
teaches knowledge/skills Cultural transmission of societys values

Enhancing personal and social development Promoting personal and social change Social integration

Social conflict theory (macro/meso):

Powerful socializing agent; reinforce inequality (reproduction of class/social status)

Symbolic interaction (micro/meso) meaning of

education; Student is seen as a master status

Rational choice (micro/meso) evaluate benefits/costs

Affects drop out decisions; teacher retention (accountability/performance measures)

Challenges in education: Student - status/role relationships conflict, strain;

peer influences/culture Teachers gatekeepers, role strain, accountability, de-professionalism (lower standards)

Administrators bureaucratic role; interact with other institutions (family, political )

Can schools bring about equality in society?

Research Findings (Coleman):

Minority students (except Asian Americans) scored lower on tests at each level of schooling that did white students.

Recommendation: Integrating schools would provide an

equal climate for achievement. Busing and magnet schools were two policies enacted to address the problems.

Goals of equal educational opportunity (James Coleman - YES): Provide a common curriculum for all children regardless of background Provide that children from diverse backgrounds attend the same school (enculturate) Provide equality within a given locality

NO - Jencks Schools along cannot bring about equality.

Effects of education on Stratification

Education relates to meritocracy, or a social group or organization where people are allocated to positions according to their ability and credentials. In some areas, meritocracy doesnt exist.

Sources of Inequality:
Assessing Student Achievement: can place students according to achievement and determining progress Importance for tracking IQ tests Achievement tests Bias in tests

Sources of Inequality (continued):

Tracking or Streaming
Tracking or streaming refers to placing students in groups based on their ability levels, and is another way in which schools contribute to the stratification process Begins in primary school Tracking correlates directly with the childs background and ethnic group, language skills, appearance, and other socioeconomic variables The negative effects of tracking can be reduced if the system of placement is flexible

School Funding
In the United States, unequal school spending results from reliance on local property taxes as well as state and federal funds This perpetuates existing inequalities

Public and Private Schools

10% of U.S. students attend private schools. Private schools are more academically demanding, more stringent, more disciplined, and more orderly. Choice and voucher plans would allow parents to choose schools; however, potentially at the expense of public schools.

(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

Educational Social Policy Issues

School success shows a worsening picture. 27 million functionally illiterate U.S. citizens. Many 17-year-olds are unable to write well or solve mathematical problems and lack basic skills needed to enter business and the military.

(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

Educational Social Policy Issues (continued)

The No Child Left Behind initiative tied school performance to federal funds and required annual competency testing: Penalize failing schools not meeting guidelines penalized. 70% of schools reducing instructional time in other subjects to teach more reading and math. Not adjusted for differences in family backgrounds; socioeconomic status; preschool education; or community context. Rural and small schools are often disadvantaged. Current administration changing NCLB by funding parts that were unfunded and adding new assessment measures.
(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

Educational Social Policy Issues (continued)

Education Research in multiple countries:
Children from 0-5 years rapidly develop in:
linguistic and cognitive gains, emotional development, social regulatory development, and other capacities.

In the childs early years, the growth trajectory in learning, health, and emotional development should not be interrupted. Needs of young children are not always being adequately addressed.

New emphasis on early childhood education:

Current administration new emphasis on 0-5 grade levels; expand Head Start funding for preschoolers.
(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

Educational Social Policy Issues (continued)

Example of early childhood education: Head Start is an early childhood educational opportunity for disadvantaged three- to five-year-olds in the United States. Children attending Head Start are more likely to:
stay in school, receive preventive health care, a void remedial classes later in school, and will not become juvenile delinquents.
(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

Global Issues in Education

Societys educational system (learning or motivational(or lack thereof) reflects a societys economic values. Educational systems also reflect the economic and political institutions of a given society and its place in the world system. Governments compare their academic test scores to other students worldwide.

(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

Global Issues in Education

A silent killer* in developing countries is the lack of quality basic education. In 2011, 55% of girls were out of school.
2/3 of illiterate adults were women.

Another 150 million dropped out of primary school.

(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

The Future of Education in the Global System

The Digital Divide access to information and technology The Virtual University access to internet education The school-to-work transition The ultimate objective of schools is to prepare individuals to meet the needs of the community, the state, the nation, and the world.

(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

*Religion - Social Institution

Functionalist perspective:
Provide meaning, explanations about the unknown, unjust Reduce anxiety and fear Provide guidelines, rules and ethics; right/wrong Form of social control Defines unquestionable Provide identity and sense of belonging Provide cohesion, order/solace Integrate in confusing times Is culturally relative

Religion: The Search for Meaning

Durkheim that which is defined as extraordinary, inspiring a sense of awe, reverence and even fear. The sacred realmthe dimension of life separate from the mundane, worldly (secular); elicits awe

It pervades the lives of people of faith Cannot be separated from the rest of the world
Animism: belief that elements of natural world are
conscious forms of life and can affect humanity. Tree, animal, rock Ritualism: formal ceremonial behavior thats codified; ritual has great symbolic meaning relating to the deity.

*Components of Religion Meaning system faith/world-view, purpose in life Belonging systemintegrates society; relationships Structural systemdefines order; patterns of roles,
statuses, and organizational practices

Become religious by: Family socialization. Formal meanswithin a temple, church, or mosque Informal meansby observing others practice their religions
Individuals usually change religions first on the belonging level; meaning and structural levels follow
(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

*Symbols and the Creation of Meaning

Concerned with how people make sense of things and construct their worlds
Mythsstories embodying ideas about the world Ritualsgroup activities in which myths are reinforced
Orthopraxyconformity of behavior Orthodoxyconformity of beliefs

Symbolsanything that can stand for something else

Symbols are used extensively in ritualsmyths. Myths, rituals, and symbols are usually interrelated and interdependent.
(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

*Rational Choice Perspective (micro):

If freedom of religion decision to join/not a religious group based upon weighing the costs and benefits of membership. Churchgoers are viewed as consumers. Churches are seen as entrepreneurial establishments. Religious groups produce commodities to meet consumer demand.

More complex societies:

religion is distinct from other institutions, but influences and is influenced by other institutions. Dominant religion generally supports the political system and ideology of the dominant group and can be pressured by other institutions.
(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

Religion Types Ecclesia state, official, large, formal, less participation Denominations large, NOT state, accept other religions, more formal, less participation Sects breakaway, outsiders, dont seek established, more informal, reject former, emotional, original doctrine Cults (NRM, new religious movements), small, secretive, roots outside dominant religions, least accepted, charismatic

*Conflict Perspective (macro/meso):

The link between religion and stratification: A conflict perspective Religion can serve different purposes for people based on their position in society and can reinforce socially defined differences in a way that legitimizes inequality
Religion perpetuates the current social structure/system and acts as the opiate of the masses (Marx) Religion is class-based in most societies
Elective affinity (Weber)the pattern of people belonging to religious groups that espouse values compatible with their social class

Most religious groups profess to welcome all comers, yet most have practiced discrimination against some group at some time
(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

Religion (macro level analysis)

Bias racial, gender, class prejudice:
Ministers selected/retained based on popularity; support values of group members; avoid discussion of controversial topics. Examples: Justify inequalities of income, ethnicity, gender - Reward on earth or in heaven? Ethnicity/race - separate parallel churches, organizations Gender - Women more active; often denied the highest positions within the church. Income/class Predestination to explain inequalities
(Weber Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism; Marx Communist Manifesto)
(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

*Religious Leadership/Organization (Weber)

(See also slide 44)

Charismatic based on personal, individual

characteristics, abilities with special traits
(more associated with cults/NRM, sects), informal

Traditional ritual, ceremony, inheritance (more

associated with denominations, some ecclesia) structured, formal

Rational-legal rational, objective, complex

bureaucratic legitimacy people, democratic
(more associated with denominations, ecclesia [statesanctioned]) structured, formal
Influence of religion at the global level is becoming more secularized in nation-states ruled by secular law rather than theocracies which are governments controlled by religion.

*Civil Religion: shared public faith in nation/govt

Theology of the nation; belief, symbols, rituals

Secularization diminishing influence and role of religion in everyday life; a movement away from the supernatural and sacred in favor of logic and empirical evidence
Belief based on faith or science, logic Religion use/effects act differently on different levels of analysis (see p. 343)
Still very important at the micro-level (individual) and has numerous macro-level consequences; some trend toward secularization The global organizational level of nation-states is almost totally secular; global organizations are governed by rational-legal (secular) authority, not religious doctrines (c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011 or theocracies (see p. 359)

*Religion and Peace? Degree/level of belief systems

War Sacred Fundamentalist Closed Intolerant Ethnocentric Peace Secular Liberal Open Tolerant Culturally Relative

-Religion in the Contemporary Global Context

Religion and Peace

Most religious systems advance living in harmony, yet peace is not the reality. ?The structural system of all Abrahamic religions does not always reward those who pay attention to the meaning system of peace and justice. There is movement toward interfaith and transnational cooperation. Liberal theologies suggest that God may speak to people through a variety of channels, including the revelations of other religious traditions. Many global religious programs today are ecumenical and aimed at humanitarian relief versus proselytizing.
(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

Religion, Technology and World Wide Web

Using technology to communicate, religious messages.
Medium faster-paced and More timely - oriented to the now.

Enhanced the marketing of religion

modification of the product to meet consumer demand.

(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

*Ch.12: Politics & Economics

Functions of Political System: 1. Govern (develop rules and regulations),
1. relies on recognized set of procedures for implementing and achieving goals of a group; 2. address social policy issues

2. Maintain order 3. Protection/defense

*Politics and Economics (Power within a nation)

Politics refers to the social institution that determines and exercises power relations in society, Economics is the social institution that deals with production and distribution of goods and services.
Both interact and focus on questions related directly to the concept of power and power relationships. In many countries, the government is the largest employer, purchaser of goods, controller of exports and imports, and regulator of industry and of interest rates.

Power: the ability of a person or group to realize their
own will in communal action, even against resistance of others participating in the action. (Weber) The ability to make someone do something, even against their will. (Cooks definition) Influences society as a whole and other social institutions government, economy, culture Control of mechanisms of (economic) production allow the ruling class to exercise its rule and keep state power Multiple levels (micro-macro)

(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

*Theoretical Perspectives of Power

Interaction theorists focus on symbols and constructions of reality that allow some persons to assume power how loyalty to the power of the state is created. legitimate (authority-given by people) and illegitimate power (Weber). Three ways leaders gain legitimate power: (36)
1. Traditional authoritypassed on through generations so that positions are inherited 2. Charismatic authoritypower held by an individual resulting from a claim of extraordinary, even divine, personal characteristics 3. Rational-legal authoritymost typical today; leaders have the expertise to carry out the duties of their position(s)

*Pluralist theory: (political science)

Power is distributed ; multiple groups; no single group rules. (Accommodation) Politics involves negotiation and compromise. Multiple power centers offer the best chance to maintain democratic forms of government.

Elite theory: (sociology)

It is inevitable that a small group of elite will rule societies (executive, military, corporate). A power elite in the United States make the key political, economic, and social decisions for the nation (C. Wright Mills). Michels described this pattern of elite domination as the iron law of oligarchy. Ruling few try to keep power from others.

Theoretical Perspectives on Power and Privilege

Interaction theorists focus on symbols and constructions of reality that allow some persons to assume power.

Functionalists believe that citizens legitimize (elect) political systems by supporting them. Conflict theorists believe that the state protects the privileged position of a few.
(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

Individuals, Power, and Participation

Political systems influence our personal lives in a variety of ways.
Key is decision to vote or participate in political system Efficacy individuals impact on the government Political and economic policymaking processes affect participation

Political ideology affects how people think about a variety of issues related to power.
Belief about the individual power versus state power Belief about equal distribution of resources, or that those who are most able should receive more of the wealth? Belief about whether change is desirable/inevitable?

Participation in Democratic Processes

World Participation in politics:
Majority uninvolved; few opportunities for them to be meaningful involved.
Apathy Alienation

United States Participation: Second lowest of the Western democracies.

(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

*National/State level (meso) - governments and national parties.

Political institutions influenced by other social institutions, e.g., family, education, religion, health care, and the economy. Six activities are typical functions of meso-level political and economic institutions:
To maintain social control To serve as an arbiter in disputes (enforce law) To protect citizens of the group To represent the group in relations with other groups or societies To make plans for the future of the group** To provide for the (basic?) needs of their citizens**
** depends upon philosophical and political structure

(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

Political Systems as Distributions of Power Within a Nation

Types of political systems:
Fascist Totalitarianism Democracy

Two broad approaches are used:

Authoritarian systemsregimes headed by single or few individuals, dictators or military juntas with absolute power
Control and discourages dissent

Oligarchy rule of the few (Michels) State terrorism - use terror to handle internal and external dissent; control citizenry
(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

**Authoritarian (absolute)
Government run by single party that controls ALL aspects of society Authoritarian or charismatic leadership People and individual subordinate Extreme nationalism Strong military presence police continuous surveillance Widespread censorship of media Lack of freedom of speech or assembly

*Dominant world political systems: Democratic systems govt. accountable to the citizens; large degree of control by individuals of their own lives
Parliamentary governments (e.g., Great Britain) Presidential governments (e.g., the United States)

Democracies share the following characteristics:

Citizens participate in selecting the government Civil liberties are guaranteed** Constitutional limits on governmental powers** Governmental structure and process are formal Written documents such as constitutions are the basis for the development of legal systems
(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

Individuals compete for political leadership Participate in common cultural & politics Power of government derived from consent of the governed Citizens have right to participate 1. Universal sufferage 2. State apparatus accountable to elected parliament 3. Civil rights free expression and association

**Types of democracy
Representative citizens vote for people who make policy Direct or participatory citizens make policy Liberal defends rights of private property, freedom of expression, assembly and political participation, and equality under the law

**Important elements of democracy

Direct citizens make policy Representative elect officials to make policy
Proportional representation (Senate and House)

Universal sufferage Secret ballot privacy of vote Technological effects +/- (a la Nate Silver)
Rapid communication Confounding of information simplification; isolating voters; use of symbols; rhetoric

**Economic Elements of Society

Social/Political Precursors/Preconditions

Variations in political systems:

Emergence of Democracy has certain preconditions: High levels of economic well-being The absence of extreme inequalities in wealth and income Social pluralism A market-oriented economy Influence in the world system of democratic states A culture relatively tolerant of diversity and able to compromise A literate population informed about issues (Lipset)
(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

National/Global Systems of Power and Privilege

Power and the nation-state:
A nation-state is a political, geographical, and cultural unit with recognizable boundaries and a system of government.
There are more than 200 nation-states in the world today, 192 of which are represented in the United Nations.

(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

Political body of citizens whose collective sovereignty (power) manifests itself in a state Group of people who share a common identity, traditions, history, aspiration, interests, language, religion and culture Ethnic or ethos = nation Nationalism or ethnonationalism political and nation unit should be congruent

A form of consciousness (strong identity and awareness of a particular national history and culture) An emotional attachment and loyalty to a nation A sentiment (romanticism) An actual historical process (political Mvmts) Theory (high sense of ethnic/natl ID) An ideology of political activities (myth, ideas, propaganda, courses of action to mobilize support to create nation-state)

1. 2. 3. 4.

5 major evils associated with nationalism (Hayes)




Exclusivity Docility, obedience and suppression of critical attitude Exalt heroic, militaristic and wartime values Encourage jingoism, extreme chauvinism Policy of territorial expansionism involving acquisition of foreign land out of intolerance for people whose ideas differ or greed

Governance and Power

Political Parties (meso-macro):
Political parties are meso-level organizations: operate beyond the local community less influence ? than national or federal governments

At the state government level can have major influences in political processes at the national level
e.g., state and federal policies on same-sex marriage

(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

*Economic System Functions

Functions of Economic System:
Deals with production Distribution Consumption of goods and services Communication

**Types of Economic Systems Planned or centralized systems involve

state-based planning and control of property (i.e., communist systems)

Market systems/capitalism
stress individual planning and private ownership of property, with less governmental coordination or oversight (i.e., capitalist systems)

(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

*Power Effects upon Economic Decision-making for the Nation

Decision-maker concerning production and distribution of goods? Market systems:
Goal of capitalism is profit, made through free competition between competitors for the available markets Goal is to bring in more money than a capitalist manufacturer pays out to produce goods and services Closest to its pure form during the Industrial Revolution Market control closer relationship with government
(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

**Mixed Economies:
Democratic socialism Collective or group planning of the development of the society, but within a democratic socialist political system Welfare statese.g., Sweden, Great Britain, Canada

*Movement toward globalization

Transnational, multinational businesses/corporations beyond nation borders

**Nation-State, Global Interactions

*Global interdependencies :
(1) Dependency theorists and (2) world systems theorists point out the inequality between rich core countries and developing peripheral countries that are dependent on core countries for survival.

Young democracies are emerging in the developing world largely due to: Political participation, interest groups, economic growth, control of corruption, and maintenance of order without reducing liberty G8, G77?
(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

**World System Theory Wallerstein

(see Ch. 14, p. 451)

Core nations first embraced capitalismwealth, highest standard of living, health care, education (most powerful- (economic/polit) Semi-periphery stagnant economy; dependent upon core nations, developing industry, lower std. of living, hlth, ed.(cheap
labor, raw materials; trade with core and periphery)

Periphery limited to selling cash crops to core nations; less well-developed economy External left out, few connections to core

**Transnational/Traditional corporations (multinational or international corporations): Traditional

Rely on domestic labor/production Extract natural resources; manufacture industrial goods

Depend on foreign labor/production Emphasize skills and advances in design, technology, management

**Transnational corporations (multinational or international corporations): [contd] Traditional

Rely on established marketing and sales outlets
Work with or under national government control

Depend increasingly on massive advertising campaigns Are increasingly autonomous from national governments

**Sources of globalization
Technology production, communication Politics (International)
Policy issues Rules and regulations
(international, extranational) Agreements/procedures


Revolutions and rebellions:

Revolution refers to social and political transformation of a nation because of failure of state regimes. They typically occur when the government does not respond to citizen needs and when leadership to challenge the existing regime emerges.

(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

*Global conflict: violence on the global level War is armed conflict occurring within, between,
or among societies or groups. Organized mass violence. War is frequent but not inevitable. Why do nations go to war?
Leaders use moral, religious, or political ideology to legitimize war. Functional theorists believe underlying social problems cause disruptions to the system . Conflict theorists see war, terrorism, and revolution as the outcome of oppression by the ruling elite and an attempt to overthrow that oppression.
(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

How avoid war?

Deterrenceif a nation is militarily strong, no one will dare attack it. Peace through strength Extremely expensive military-industrial complex Brinkmanship World military expenditures in 2009 were $1.204 billion Negotiationoften the problem is that negotiation means a partial win and a partial loss for each side 20th century no clear winner, peace doesnt last, nuclear war suicidal
(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

The use of indiscriminate violence to cause mass fear and panic, intimidate a population, and advance ones political goals. Often targets non-military citizens State terrorism is used by government to control people. Reasons for committing terrorist hostile acts? Structural explanations: See group structure/dynamics we versus they Conflict theory explanations: unequal distribution of world resources the oppression of groups in the social world. Religious and political beliefs lead some terrorists to commit violent acts. Reactions: retaliation, recognize group/issue
(c) SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011

**Ch. 13 - Population and Health

Here a few important terms to know: Population any group that can be described as include within some defined boundary, e.g. national, state, city/county, village borders. Often geographical Population formula: Population= [Population + births - deaths + migration] Immigration = in(to) migration (move across boundary) Emigration = out(of) migration (leave across boundary)

Predictors of population growth:

Population pyramidsa visual depiction of sex and dependency ratios (p. 432,434)
Normal growth Pyramid
(Zero growth)

21-40 Iraq war 0-20

Important considerations: Age and sex distribution;

Age because it affects whos dependent upon whom; 0-15 + 65 and older Dependency ratio Sex Because it affects whether society will grow or decline. Sex ratio potential partners (#M vs #F); fertility able to give birth; fecund actual child-bearing; (F: pubertymenopause) (M:pubertydeath)
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Population Factors to consider

Sizeoverall number of people Compositionmake-up of the population, including sex ratio, age distribution, and religious or ethnic representation in the population Distributiondensity or concentration in various portions of the land

**Population Growth Theories Malthus theory of population growth

High reproduction population growth Food production, agriculture, technology cannot sustain exponential growth
Positive checks on populationwars, diseases, food shortages, and famines Other: delayed marriage/abstinence til can afford a family
Proportionate change Mass starvation & Many deaths Malnutrition & starvation Bare subsistence Available food Population years l 20 l 40 l 60 l 80 100

Thomas Malthus Hypothesis

too many people, too little food

SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Neo-Malthusians (Hardin & Ehrlich):

Support contraception over moral restraint Acknowledge pollution, industrialization, environmental damage

**Demographic Transition Theory (p. 413)

Stage 1: Hi birth/high death 2: Hi birth/low deathPre-industrial, improved health Birth rate sanitation, declining deaths Birth rate

Death rate

3: Low birth/Low death

Industrialization/post-industr. Improved health, sanitation, agriculture

Stage 1 Malthusian population

Stage 1 Demographic gap/transition

Stage 3 Modern Population

?Limitations of Demographic transition theory

Fails to consider: Age at marriage, birth of first child Contraceptive availability A countrys land and other resources Economy, religious beliefs, and political philosophy Criticism: Assumes that modernization between stages 2 and 3 result in rational choice about family size

Wealth flow theory - family decisions re family size:(wealth flow from

parents to children and vice versa) Wealth from parents to children = smaller family sizes Children working for parents = larger family sizes

Population size Influences on Fertility:

Government, economics, war, health and other technology + Religion, education, norms/values

Influences on Mortality: health, illness, norms/values;

Life expectancy average number of years people live Infant mortality -social indicator of world status poverty, health care, prenatal care, malnutrition

Other influences on population growth, health:

diseases, plagues (bird flu, SARS, HIV/AIDS, etc. Mobile population, life styles (smoking, drugs, etc.)

*Migration (Geographic) external, international

3% each year migrate Sociocultural, environmental reasons internal (urban/rural), urbanization, industrialization, etc.

**Push-Pull Theory + reasons - forced out; attracted

Immigration controls/curb

Social issues and Population Patterns

Young, aging population? Births? Crime, juvenile delinquency? Population density, environment, poverty, crime Health support system?

**Ch. 14 Change and Social Movements Social Change variations defined as

variations or alterations over time in the behavior patterns, culture (including norms and values), and structure of society. *Agents of change Individuals - enough wealth, expertise, power by force, or charisma (e.g., Bill Gates, John Kennedy, Barack Obama, George Soros, Adolph Hitler). Organizations appeals to values, remove others Nations war, treaties, multinational coorporations Terrorists(ism) destabilizes economies, money?, social structures

Factors & effects in societal/global change: Economic/political International alliances countries (World systems

Multinational corporations economics

NAFTA and the societal, community, and individual examples of terrorism and climate change Green Peace? Labor union movement?

**Social Change: Process and Theories Change is triggered by:

Strain internally/within, e.g., conflicting goals or belief systems Stress external pressures for change
e.g., the natural environment, population dynamics, leaders or dominant individuals, technology, the social environment, or major historical events

Applying theories:
(Micro) symbolic interaction, reational choice, (Meso) social evolutionary theory unilinear, multilinear (Macro)
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Social Change theories

Social evolutionary theories of change
(meso/macro): Societies move slowly from simple to more complex forms
Unilinear social evolutionary theories all societies progress through the same steps; advancement is desirable Lenski societies progress through four stages Multilinear social evolutionary theories simple societies go through a process of change to become large, complex, technologically advanced societies in a variety of ways

Functional theory Conflict theory World systems theory

SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

**Collective Behavior: Micro-Level Behavior and Change

Collective behavior actions that are spontaneous, unstructured, disorganized, and often violate norms; - people are trying to cope with stressful situations and unclear/uncertain conditions
Crowd behaviors temporarily acts as if unified Mass behaviors communicate/respond in individual manner to ambiguous/uncertain situations, often based on common information from the news or on the Internet (little structure) What about flash mobs? Are they mobs?

SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

**Collective Behavior Theories

The minimax strategyindividuals try to minimize costs and maximize gains; based on rational choice Emergent norm theorycollective behaviors often take place in unusual situations where norms break down and new definitions of acceptable behavior emerge

SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

**Value-added theory (Smelser)

key elements are necessary for individuals to join together in collective behavior
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Structural conduciveness Structural strain Spread of a generalized belief Precipitation factor Mobilization for action Social controls are weak

SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Types of Collective Behavior

Mobs (e.g., lynchings) emotional, specific target Riots catalyst, disorganized Panic (e.g., in fires) fearful Rumors (e.g., urban legends) unsupported, unproven reports about a problem Fads (e.g., Silly Bandz, Gangnam) temporary, spread rapidly Fashions (e.g., music, patterns favored by large number, limited period of time)

SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

**Planned change deliberate, structured attempts, guided by stated goals, to alter the status quo of the social unit Models for planning organizational change:
Closed system modelsthe goal of closed system models is to move the organizational closer to ideal bureaucratic efficiency and effectiveness
Human resources approach or Theory Yfocuses on the internal dynamics of a company, taking individual workers into account (e.g., Hawthorne studies)

Open system modelscombine internal processes and external environment; the external environment provides the organization with inputs (workers and raw materials) and feedback (accessibility of the product)

**Process of Planned Change in Organizations: Example of NGOs (bureaucracies)

to improve the lives of individuals throughout parts of the world. Organizations must try to avoid conflict to stay balanced, but planned change can be beneficial.? Organizational leaders direct planned change. Change is often stimulated by individuals and events outside the chambers of power, and there is much less control over how the change evolves.

SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

**Social Movements: Macro-Level Change

Social movements consciously organized
attempts outside of established institutions to enhance or resist change in the social structure through group action Common interest Organization, leader, and one or more goals that aim to correct some perceived wrongs existing in the society or even around the globe Occurs in societies with diversity that advocate for their own goals and interests Individuals usually begin outside the power structure Often stimulate counter-movementssocial movements against the goals of the original movement
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

**Participants of Social Movements

1. Core activists backbone, leaders,

spokespersons, staff, organizers recruiters and transitory teams 2. Participants, contributors (donate), 3. Sympathizers (not active but identify)
(Neidhardt & Rucht, 1991)

**Types of Social Movements

Expressive focus on changing individuals attitudes and saving people from corrupt lifestyles Social reform seek to change some aspect of society, but members generally support the society as a whole Resistance/regressive or conservative see change as a threat to societal values, so seek to retain the status quo, oppose change Reactionary seek to restore society or part of it. Global transnational* focus on large-scale, global issues

Revolutionary attempt to transform society, to bring about total change in a society by overthrowing existing power structures and replacing them with new ones
Escapist withdraw in substance or thought from active participation
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

**Types of Social Movements

Proactive Reactive

Macro level

Social Reform Revolutionary Global Transnational

Resistance or Conservative Reactionary

Micro level

Expressive Escapist

Expressive Escapist

p. 460 w/ modifications

Globalization and Social Movements

Globalization has generated social movements as response to perceived mistreatment by the core countries of periphery nations. Possible reasons:
Environmental damage, lessened consumer protection, decreased national sovereignty and local control of decisions, and reduced safety and other protections for workers.

SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Examples of approaches:
Globalizing from below efforts by common people to fight back;
protect workers, defend the environment, and combat poverty

Lilliput strategy one tiny individual cannot fight massive corporations, but many individuals working in tandem can

SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Technology and Change

New technology can improve the lives of those in developing countries, but in other ways it may be deleterious.
Generational digital divide

The social world is interdependent, but its parts are often in conflict.

SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.


Populationall permanent societies, states, communities, adherents of a common religious faith, racial or ethnic groups, kinship or clan groups, professions, and other identifiable categories of people Demographythe study of human populations Below population replacement levelspopulation size may eventually drop because fewer people are being born than are dying. Population momentumcaused by the large number of individuals of childbearing age having children; even though birth rates per couple drop because the number of women of child bearing age is still very high resulting in growth in population size

Introductory Terms
Urbanizationthe movement of populations to cities in hopes of finding jobs

SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Macro-Level Patterns in World Population Growth

Patterns of population growth over time result from three phases:
Human adaptation in thinking and innovation to survive The agricultural revolution The industrial revolution
Improved health and sanitation measures
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Population Patterns: Theoretical Explanation

Conflict theorists explanations of population growth:
Social and structural factors built into the economic system are the cause of poverty.
Capitalist structures result in wealth for capitalists and create overpopulation and poverty for workers. Socialist societies can absorb population growth; all can find jobs as the system expands to include them.
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Population Patterns: Theoretical Explanation

Demographic transition theory demographic transition involves comparing countries stages of economic development with trends in birth and death rates
Stage 1high births, high deaths; pre-industrial, non-urban societies; births may outpace deaths until disaster occurs Stage 2high births, declining deaths; lessdeveloped countries; improvements in health, sanitation, and food availability Stage 3low births, low deaths; industrial and post-industrial; mostly small, nuclear families
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Institutional Influences on Population Change: Meso-Level Analysis

Sizeoverall number of people Compositionmake-up of the population, including sex ratio, age distribution, and religious or ethnic representation in the population Distributiondensity or concentration in various portions of the land

Demographic processes that affect population

Fertilitybirth rate Mortalitydeath rate Migrationmovement of people from one place to another
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Institutional Influences on Population Change

Factors affecting fertility rates:
Economic factors Governmental
Pronatalist policiespolicies that encourage fertility Antinatalist policiespolicies that discourage fertility (e.g., China)
Female infanticide

Religious and cultural norms Education (especially for women)

SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Economic Factors
Fertility fluctuates with what is happening in meso-level institutions such as economic and political systems Macro-level structural factors also affect fertility: Level of economic prosperity in a nation Governments commitment to providing/restricting contraception Changes in norms and values about sexuality within a society Health care factors
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Government Influence
Pronatalist policiespolicies that encourage fertility (e.g., many Romanian men were killed in World War II, creating a sex imbalance, therefore marriage and birth rates plummeted. In 1966 the government banned abortions and the importation of most contraceptives; within 8 months the birthrate doubled Antinatalist policiespolicies that discourage fertility; arise out of concern over available resources and differences in birthrates among population subgroups (e.g., China; Singapore)
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Religious and Cultural Norms

Religions shapes morality and values in most societies.

Norms and customs of a society or subculture also influence fertility.

Some religious groups oppose any birth control interventions. Culturally couples may be pressured to delay marriage until their late 20s or even 30s.
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Women who have no formal education give birth to two to three times as many babies as women with at least a secondary education. Raising the status and education level of women will contribute to controlling population growth. Studies repeatedly show that investing in education of girls and women raises every index of a countrys progress toward economic growth and development.
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Mortality Rates: Social Patterns of Health, Illness, and Death

Healtha state of physical, mental, and social well-being or the absence of disease Illnessthe lack of health

Individual decisions and institutional norms have an effect on health and mortality in a community of nation.
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Life Expectancy and Infant Mortality

Life expectancy refers to the average number of years people live in a particular society. Infant mortality rates are indicators of a countrys status in the world.
Differences caused by national exploitation, poverty, poor health care, malnutrition, etc. Even in the United States, minorities, those under 18, unmarried, the poor, and less-educated women have less access to prenatal care.
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Mortality From the Spread of Diseases and Plagues

Modern diseases do not spread as they did in earlier centuries because global organizations (i.e., World Health Organization) monitor diseases such as bird flu and SARS to ensure a tragic level is not reached.
The largest modern-day plague is HIV/AIDS.
In 2010, 22.5 million people in sub-Saharan Africa had HIV/AIDS with 1.8 million additional people infected that year.
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Globalization and the Mobility of Disease

The world is highly connected, and diseases anywhere in the world can quickly spread to other continents. Because both people and infection are highly mobile today, the problem is global. Global interconnectedness facilitates the spread of diseases and requires countries and world organizations working together to attack problems and reduce mortality rates. Most diseases are transmitted by direct contact with infected people. Health as a global issue is not limited to diseases and their treatment (i.e., use of tobacco is a major issue).
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Migration: Why and Where People Move

Geographic mobilitychange of residence
Push-pull theorysome people are pushed by their original locations by wars, plagues, famine, political or religious conflicts, economic crises, or other factors, and pulled to new locations by economic opportunities or political and religious tolerance Reason to move is a personal or family decision but is influenced by the sociocultural environment
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

International Migration
About 3% of the worlds population migrates each year. International migrationmovement from one country to another
Often influenced by political unrest, discrimination, or environmental conditions as well as economic conditions Has been tightly controlled in Western countries recently, but illegal immigration still common

Two factors curb migrations:

restrictive immigration laws of receiving countries SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011. economic recessions

Internal Migration
Internal migrationmovement within a country
Rural to urban common Rates are high in the United States because of pull migration

One major form of internal migration is urbanization, movement from rural areas to cities.
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Micro-Level Population Patterns

Baby boom Birth dearth Career decisions, retirement, Social Security are all influenced by population (too many or too few workers are problematic) Deviance and juvenile delinquency Population shifts affect political representations
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Environment, Urban Ecosystems, and Global Policy Issues

Rural migrants and overcrowding Environment, infrastructure, and urban ecosystems Poverty in the worlds cities Crime and delinquency in the city
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Environment, Urban Ecosystems, and Global Policy Issues

The spatial distribution of people affects the number of rodents and insects, sanitation, and contact individuals have with one another. Circulated air has contributed to the spread of disease. More people are traveling globally, more diseases are being spread.
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Ch. 14 - Change in the Social World

Social changedefined as variations or alterations over time in the behavior patterns, culture (including norms and values), and structure of society Some is controllable, some not Inevitable and ubiquitous Can be rapid or gradual and evolutionary Change at one level often caused by changes at other levels Whether evolutionary or revolutionary, change is inevitable and ever present in our social world.

SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Change at the Individual Level: Micro-Level Analysis

Individuals with enough wealth, expertise, power by force, or charisma can influence change (e.g., Bill Gates). Organizations can use numerous strategies for change, including appealing to individuals values, removing uncooperative individuals from the organization, etc.
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Change at the Institutional Level: Meso-Level Analysis

Terrorism also has consequences for economies and other institutions.
Destabilizes economies and changes the kinds of jobs available Investors hesitate to invest Changes the ways monies are allocated

SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Change at the National and Global Level

Societal level change
Environmental changes caused by one nation affect the entire world, but most nations do not want to change for economic reasons.

Global systems and change

International alliances based primarily on economic ties. Change at one level of the social world leads to change in other levels as it did in the global example of NAFTA and the societal, community, and individual examples of terrorism and climate change.
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Theories of Social Change

Micro-level theories of change:
Symbolic interactionismhumans actively construct meaning; redefinitions of situations can be powerful impetuses for change Rational choicea group seeking change must set up a situation in which new desired behavior is rewarded; alternatively, peoples perceptions about the advantages/disadvantages of old behaviors can be changed
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Theories of Social Change

Meso- and macro-level theories of change:
Functionalist theoriessocieties are basically stable (held together by shared norms) and composed of interdependent parts that make the society function smoothly; slow change may occur as societies become more complex, but rapid change is potentially destabilizing and is dysfunctional. Conflict theorieschange is inevitable; conflict between those in power and the oppressed will lead to healthy changes that are useful for society.

SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Theories of Social Change

Meso- and macro-level theories of change:
World systems theoryall societies have been influenced (at least indirectly) by capitalism
Core nationseconomically and politically powerful countries; historically have controlled global decision making and received the largest share of profits from the world economic systems Peripheral nationscountries that provide cheap labor and raw materials for the core nations Semi-peripheral countriescountries in an intermediate position between core and periphery nations that trade with both; industrializing, so many core countries expand there or work as partners with them Commodity chainsworldwide networks of labor resources and production process that create a product
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Planned Change in Organizations: Meso-Level Change

How organizations plan for change:
Because of modern communication and transportation techniques, the outcomes of even small changes cannot be fully predicted. Planned changedeliberate, structured attempts, guided by stated goals, to alter the status quo of the social unit
SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.

Planned Change in Organizations: Meso-Level Change

Models for planning organizational change:
Closed system modelsthe goal of closed system models is to move the organizational closer to ideal bureaucratic efficiency and effectiveness
Human resources approach or Theory Yfocuses on the internal dynamics of a company, taking individual workers into account (e.g., Hawthorne studies)

Open system modelscombine internal processes and external environment; the external environment provides the organization with inputs (workers and raw materials) and feedback (accessibility of the product)

SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.