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Tissu

es
Tissue is a cellular
organizational level
intermediate between cells
and a complete organism.
Hence, a tissue is an
ensemble of cells, not
necessarily identical, but
from the same origin, that
The study of tissue is
known as histology or,
in connection with
disease,
Tissues in
Plants
Tissues in
Plants
Meristematic tissue: Cells of this tissue continue to divide
throughout the life of the plant. Some of these cells lose their
ability to divide and become part of other tissues.
Tissues in
Plants
Shoo
t

R
Tissues in
Plants

A longitudinal section through a growing shoot tip


showing apical meristematic tissue. Note that the cells
are small, have dense cytoplasm, and are very tightly
packed.
Tissues in
Plants High power view of a
longitudinal section of the
Coleus apical meristem. The
apical meristem is a dome-
shaped mass of dividing
cells at the tip of the shoot.
The apical meristem will
produce the three primary
meristems: protoderm,
procambium, and ground
meristem. These three
meristems in turn will
produce new cells that will
differentiate into the
epidermis, primary vascular
Tissues in
Plants

Zone of
Cell
elongat
ion

Apical
Meristem
Root
cap
A longitudinal section through a root tip. The
meristematic tissue is located just above the root cap.
This too is apical meristem; division of these cells
followed by cell elongation results in the root growing
Tissues in
Plants
It is a cross section of a
dicot stem.
Focus on the two large
vascular bundles in the
center of the slide.
The xylem tissue is
stained red.
Just above the xylem is
a layer of meristematic
tissue, the vascular
cambium.
The phloem tissue is
found outside of the
vascular cambium.
Tissues in
Plants

This is a high-power view of a cross-section showing a lateral meristem, the


vascular cambium, in the same plant shown in previous slide. Again, the xylem
tissue is stained red, and the large cells on the top of the slide are phloem. The
green brick-like cells between the xylem and phloem is the area in which the
vascular cambium is located. The new cells produced by the cambium are initially
like those of the cambium itself, but, as they grow and mature, their characteristics
slowly change as they differentiate into other tissues. The vascular cambium is a
single layer of cells within this brick like region; it is responsible for the growth in
diameter of a stem. The tissues produced by the vascular cambium are secondary
Tissues in
Plants
Permanent tissue:Cells of this tissue have lost their ability to
divide and they have a specialized structure to perform
specific functions.

Based on the type of cells present in the tissue, the


Permanent tissue is divided into two categories:
Simple Permanent Tissue
and
Complex Permanent Tissue.

While the simple permanent tissue consist of only one type


of cells (eg. Parenchyma),
the complex permanent tissue consists of more than one
type of cells (eg. Xylem and phloem)
Tissues in
S i m Plants
p l e P e r m a n e n t T i s s u e s

Parenchyma
Structure:It is the fundamental tissue composed of thin walled, living
cells whose cell wall is composed of cellulose. Small intercellular spaces
are present between the cells.
Location and function: It occurs in all soft parts of plants and is
meant for storage of food and to provide turgidity to softer parts of plants.
Parenchyma tissue in stem and roots store nutrients and water.
Types of parenchyma:
i) Chlorenchyma :Certain parenchymatous tissue contain chloroplast and
synthesize food by the process of photosynthesis.
ii) Aerenchyma: In aquatic plants parenchymatous cells have air cavities
between them to store air, such a tissue is called Aerenchyma. It provides
buoyancy to the aquatic plants so that they can float in water.
Tissues in
Plants

Aerenchyma
Tissues in
Plants
Collenchyma
Structure: This tissue is composed of somewhat elongated cells with
cell walls that are irregularly thickened at corners due to deposition of
cellulose or pectin. They may be oval, circular or polygonal. Very little
intercellular spaces are present.
Location: It occurs below the epidermis of stem and petiole (stalk of
the leaf) and around veins.
Function: This tissue provides mechanical support and flexibility and
in some cases it may possess chloroplasts to perform Photosynthesis.
The stem and leaves are able to bend easily and then come back to
their original position due to the presence of collenchyma.
Tissues in
Plants
Collenchyma in Transverse Section Showing
Wall Thickenings
1. Cell Wall
2. Wall Thickenings
3. Protoplasm
4. Vacuole
Tissues in
Plants
Sclerenchyma
Structure: It is a tissue of dead and thick walled cells, having no
intercellular spaces. The thickenings are of cellulose or lignin or both.
Several unlignified areas called pits often develop on walls.
Location: This tissue is usually found in the hard and stiff parts of the
plant like seed coat, husk of coconut, in the stem around vascular
bundles, veins of leaves and hard covering of fruits and nuts.
Function: It is the chief mechanical tissue in plants and is able to bear
push, pull, strain and shearing forces. It provides strength to plant
parts and also protects the delicate parts of the plants.
They are of two types: fibres and sclereids.
Tissues in
Plants
Sclerenchyma
Tissues in
Plants
Tissues in
Plants
Tissues in
Plants
Epidermis and
Bark
The epidermis usually consists of a single-layered group of cells that covers
plants leaves, flowers, roots and stems. It forms a boundary between the plant
and the external world.

Bark is formed from the meristem that appears later in the life cycle of a plant.
Woody stems and some other stem structures produce a secondary covering
called the secondary meristem or periderm or cork cambium that replaces the
epidermis as the protective covering.
The periderm replaces the epidermis, and acts as a protective covering like the
epidermis.
Cells produced on the outside by periderm form the cork. Cells of have suberin
in their walls to protect the stem from drying and pathogen attack. Older cork
cells are dead, as is the case with woody stems. As the stem grows, the cork
cambium produces new layers of cork which are impermeable to gases and
water.
Tissues in
Plants
Epider
mis
Tissues in
Plants
Epider
mis
Tissues in
Plants

A high-power view of one glandular hair. Secretory


hairs may provide a chemical defense against
insects.
Tissues in BA
Plants RK
Tissues in BA
Plants RK

Another type of surface tissue, the outer bark or periderm (stained


red in this slide). Periderm is found on the surface of woody plants; it
includes the cork cells on the surface of older woody stems. The
periderm replaces the epidermis in plants that have secondary
growth. The cork cells are dead; it is their waterproofed cell walls that
function as the protective outer covering of plants. Meristematic cells
within the periderm (cork cambium, the other lateral meristem)
Tissues in
C o mPlants
plex Permanent Tissues
Xylem and Phloem
Tissues in
XylemPlants

It is a complex permanent
tissue, which is specialized
for the conduction of water
and mineral substances in
the plant body. Xylem is a
heterogenous tissue made
up of four different types of
cellular elements.
They are:
•Xylem tracheids
•Xylem tracheae or vessels
•Xylem fibers and
•Xylem parenchyma
Tissues in
Plants
Phloem:
Phloem is a complex
permanent tissue, which is
specialized for the
conduction of food and
other organic substances.
Phloem is also a
heterogenous tissue, made
up of four different types of
cellular elements, namely,
•Sieve tubes
•Companion cells
•Phloem parenchyma and
•Phloem fibres
Tissues in
Plants
Tissues in
Animals
Multicellular (large) organisms function more
efficiently if cells become specialized for specific
functions.
There are four types of tissues found in animals:
epithelial, connective, nerve, and muscle tissue.
Sponges do not have tissues.
Tissues in
Animals
Tissues in
Animals
Tissues in
Animals
Tissues in
Animals
Epithelial tissue

Epithelial tissue covers the


whole surface of the body. It is
made up of cells that are
closely packed and are
composed of one or more
layers. This tissue is
specialised to form the
covering or lining of all internal
and external body surfaces.
Epithelial tissue that occurs on
surfaces on the interior of the
body is known as
endothelium.
Cellular arrangements in
epithelial tissues. (a) Squamous.
(b) Cuboidal. (c) Columnar. (d)
Stratified squamous. (e)
Tissues in
Animals
Tissues in
Animals
Connective Tissue
It is an animal tissue that is characterized by the abundance of
extracellular components (such as fibers and intercellular substances).
The tissue derives its name from its function in connecting, supporting,
surrounding or binding cells and tissues.
Connective tissue is composed of:
•cells
•extracellular matrix
Extracellular matrix is a special feature that distinguishes connective
tissue from the other tissues of the body. This matrix may be jelly-like,
fluid, dense or rigid. The nature of matrix differs according to the
function of that particular connective tissue.
Tissues in
Animals
Tissues in
Animals
Tissues in
Animals
Muscular tissue
Muscles of the body are made up of elongated
muscle cells also known as muscle fibre. The
movement of the body is brought about by the
contraction and relaxation of contractile protein
present in muscle cells. These contractile proteins
are actin and myosin.
Tissues in
Animals

Striated
Tissues in
Animals

Cardiac
Tissues in
Animals

Smooth
Tissues in
Animals
Tissues in
Animals
Nervous Tissue
All living cells have the
ability to react to stimuli.
Nervous tissue is
specialised to react to
stimuli and to conduct
impulses to various
organs in the body which
bring about a response
to the stimulus. Nerve
tissue (as in the brain,
spinal cord and peripheral
nerves that branch
throughout the body) are
Tissues in
Animals
Neurons have many different shapes and
sizes. However, a typical neuron in a human
consists of four major regions: a cell body,
dendrites, an axon, and synaptic terminals.
Like all cells, the entire neuron is surrounded
by a cell membrane. The cell body is the
enlarged portion of a neuron that most
closely resembles other cells. It contains the
nucleus and other organelles (for example,
the mitochondria and endoplasmic
reticulum). The dendrites and axon are thin
cytoplasmic extensions of the neuron. The
dendrites, which branch out in treelike
fashion from the cell body, are specialized to
receive signals and transmit them toward the
cell body. The single long axon carries
signals away from the cell body.
In humans, a single axon may be as long as
1 meter (about 3 feet). Some neurons that
have cell bodies in the spinal cord have
axons that extend all the way down to the
toes.
Tissues in
Animals
Tissues in
Animals

A nerve is an
enclosed, cable-like
bundle of axons
(the long, slender
projections of
neurons). A nerve
provides a common
pathway for the
electrochemical
nerve impulses that
are transmitted
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