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Introduction

„archaic mobile communication“
• optical transmission (smoke/light signals,..)
• acoustic transmission (drums, alpine horns,...)

electronic communications: „fixed networks“
• Morse code
• Telephony
P. Reis 1861 A.G. Bell 1876
1st telegraph line 1843 Washington - Baltimore

Wireless transmission:
1873 Maxwell theory of electromagnetic waves 1887 H. Hertz: experimental proof 1897 Marconi: 1st wireless transmission 1901 1st transatlantic transmission 1903 Dt. Telefunken GmbH: AEG, Siemens& Halske 1906 1st speech & audio transmission 1909 1st radio program 1917: 1st mobile transmission: BS - train

First steps & 1G
Fig. 1 (TM2201EU04TM_0002 Introduction, 3)

Louis. 2 (TM2201EU04TM_0002 Introduction.1st mobile services: Car phone since 1946 (St. USA) Single Cell  1G Cellular systems radius r r Single Cell Systems: • no Handover. 5) . bulky & expensive equipment • used until the 1980’s  frequency Re-use Quantum leap in mobile communication: Single Cell systems  Cellular systems Fig. small service area • poor service & speech quality • manual switching • cumbersome.

86 1985 1985 Fig. 7) .2000: Growth Rates cellular networks > 50%/year 1G Introduction Year of introduction 1979 1979 1981 . 900 TACS 900 C450 450 • Capacity • Roaming • Handover 1 1980 . 3 (TM2201EU04TM_0002 Introduction.Principle of cellular systems 2 2 7 1 6 5 7 Cluster 6 5 country USA Japan Scandinavia Great Britain Germany Advantage: 7 3 6 4 2 3 5 1 3 4 2 7 1 6 4 5 frequencysystem range [MHz] AMPS 800 NTT-MTS 800 NMT 450.

early 1990th Fig. 4 (TM2201EU04TM_0002 Introduction. 9) .1G limitations  capacity  quality  incompatibility European mobile market.

Introduction PDC IRIDIUM GSM 2G: Digital revolution D-AMPS IS-95 CDMA Fig. 5 (TM2201EU04TM_0002 Introduction. 11) .

operation & maintenance  Miniaturisation  micro electronics  Transmission Quality  Easy to regenerate  Security easy to cipher Signal Quality Security: Ciphering Input data (original text) Cipher Sequence CIPHER MODUL Digital Signal Analogue Signal Output data (ciphered text) Transmission Quality: “Easy to regenerate” Distance to BS BS: Base Station Fig.Advantages of digital data transmission  Network capacity  speech compression  Supplementary Services  signalling  Costs  production. 6 (TM2201EU04TM_0002 Introduction. 13) .

subscriber D-AMPS: Digital AMPS IS-95: Interim Standard-95 since 1991/92 USA.2G cellular systems GSM: Global System for Mobile Communication PDC: Personal Digital Cellular since 1993/94 Japan only 800 & 1500 MHz since 1992 world-wide:  165 countries 900. Korea 800 & 1900 MHz.  70 M. 1700 MHz (Korea) AMPS/D-AMPS subscriber:  90 M. Kanada 800 & 1900 MHz since 1995 welt-wide. 1800 & 1900 MHz subscriber:  550 M. Date: 4Q2001  100 M. subscriber Fig. 15) . 7 (TM2201EU04TM_0002 Introduction. America & S.

8-496 MHz 824-849 / 869-894 MHz Fig.up world-wide market GSM Adaptations: GSM900 E-GSM 890-915 / 935-960 MHz 880-915 / 925-960 MHz GSM1800 GSM1900 GSM-R GSM450 GSM480 GSM850 1710-1785 / 1805-1880 1850-1910 / 1930-1990 MHz 876-880 / 921-925 MHz 450. 8 (TM2201EU04TM_0002 Introduction.6 MHz 478.4-467.4-457.GSM: Standard / Adaptations 1990-2002: 1990/91: 1982-1990: 1978: CEPT Frequency Reservation GSM Standardisation by Group Special Mobile GSM / ETSI (founded 1988) GSM Phase 1 frozen (GSM900/1800) GSM rolls. 17) .8-486 / 488.6 / 460.

Decision of downward compatibility 1997 ‟96. 19) .6 kbit/s 1995 Wide range of Supplementary Services comparable to ISDN.GSM: Evolutionary Concept Original concept: • closed standard • lifetime until 3G standardisation Capabilities Downward compatibility Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 1 Phase 2+ Phase 2 Phase 1 1991 Speech transmission: FR. Basic Services Data: max.. 9. „98. Year Annual Releases: • New Supplementary Services • IN Applications • new Data Services (high data rates) Fig. 9 (TM2201EU04TM_0002 Introduction. „99.. „97.

21) . Fig.20.000 .. 10 (TM2201EU04TM_0002 Introduction.000 km 1G: INMARSAT MEO (Medium Earth Orbital) 700 . ORBCOMM. Globalstar. ICO.Mobile Satellite Systems MSS 10. INMARSAT.1500 km Erde GEO (GEOstationary Orbital) LEO (Low Earth Orbital) 36.000 km Service of (in):  sparsely populated areas  areas with poor infrastructure  at sea  catastrophe areas  areas without other supply 2G: IRIDIUM..

11 (TM2201EU04TM_0002 Introduction.01 .] 100 10 1 0.Introduction 1000 Germany Subscriber [M. 23) 2000 0.1 1980 1982 World 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Year 3G Motivation Fig.

2002:  Phasing out of 1G  GSM dominating 2G ( 2/3 market) Trends & Outlook 2500' RoW 2000' Asia / Pacific North America EU15 Subscriber [M.] 1500' 1000' 500' 0' 1995 2000 2005 2010 Year 2015 Long-term forecast:  strong 2G & 3G growth  new frequency ranges & efficient resource management UMTS Forum Report #1 Fig. 25) . 12 (TM2201EU04TM_0002 Introduction.

27) 2001 2005 2007 Trend: Voice  Data Year .Mobile Trends 100 80 Traffic [%] Voice Data 60 40 20 0 1996 Source: UMTS Forum Fig. 13 (TM2201EU04TM_0002 Introduction.

Demands on 3G Mobile Communication Fig. 14 (TM2201EU04TM_0002 Introduction. Multimedia) . E-Mail. File Transfer. 29) • improved speech quality • User-friendliness • world-wide access • world-wide HPLMN services • specific service definition • fast transfer of large data volumes (Inter-/Intranet.

15 (TM2201EU04TM_0002 Introduction.000 Data rate [kbit/s] Fig.3G Services & required data rates Video conferences video telephony Tele-Shopping Electronic newspapers Images / Sound files Tele-Banking Financial services Data base access Information services E-mail Voice UMTS offers flexible & dynamic data rates: 8 kbit/s .2 Mbit/s 10 100 1000 10. 31) .

. 33) . WAP.. 16 (TM2201EU04TM_0002 Introduction. HSCSD High Speed Circuit Switched Data Advanced Speech Call Items Customized Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic CAMEL EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for the GSM evolution GPRS General Packet Radio Service  Ph2+ Solutions:  enhanced speech quality mobile Multi Media: • Start with GSM Ph2+ • Breakthrough: 3G (UMTS) GSM Phase 2+ Solutions  user-friendliness  world-wide access & “HPLMN” services  flexible service creation  fast transfer of large data volumes  Platform for UMTS Fig.GSM Phase2+ EFR Enhanced Full Rate Satellite Roaming ASCI MultiBand / Mode Many other Supplementary Services supplemented by external features: Blue Tooth.