- Introduction to Network

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CHAPTER I - Introduction to Network

What is a Network?

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CHAPTER I - Introduction to Network

The Birth of Networks
Most systems loaded programs using punch cards or magnetic tape. Fairly quickly, mainframes began to use CRT terminals and keyboards. In time, a single mainframe could support dozens of dumb terminals from a distance this resembles networking, but in this case, looks deceive. You need more than one computer to make a network. Having multiple dumb terminals attached to a single mainframe computer is roughly analogous to having a single PC with multiple monitors and keyboards. You could add as many dumb terminals as you wanted, but all the work still took place back at the single mainframe computer. .

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Remote terminals worked well for the times. This began another important pre-networking step: cross-platform support. but as more terminals began to appear in offices and computer rooms.Introduction to Network Pre-networking Issues The great issue that motivated the development of networking was based on the academic world’s desire to share information among scholars. it did provide the idea that you could be far away from a computer and do work as though you were at a dumb terminal right next to the mainframe. While a remote terminal didn’t provide networking. Terminal manufacturers began to develop standards that enabled different companies’ terminals to interact with different mainframes.CHAPTER I . another problem surfaced: different mainframe makers often required different terminals. karROX Technologies Limited .

E-mail came soon after Networking was born! ARPANET defined almost the entire scope of networking concepts we use in today’s networks. FTP.Introduction to Network ARPANET ARPA was created in 1958 by President Eisenhower. then Telnet into another mainframe and enter commands. If you’re unfamiliar with the terms “server” and “client” as they apply to networks. the same president who created another important network. the Interstate Highway System. The earliest version of ARPANET successfully interconnected four mainframes in late 1969. still popular today. just as if you were seated at a terminal connected directly to that mainframe. One connection enabled you access to all of the other computers. Initially. enabled users to transfer files from one mainframe to another. fear not—we cover them in the section “Servers and Clients.” karROX Technologies Limited . ARPANET only provided two types of data transfer. You could log into your local mainframe.CHAPTER I . Concepts like “server” and “client” first came into existence with this nowancient network.

but remember—all the data is on a single computer. there must be more than one computer. karROX Technologies Limited . . The magic word here is “sharing.CHAPTER I . Right now.Introduction to Network The Goal of Networking Folks often make two big mistAkes when they initially attempt to understand networking.” A single mainframe computer with a zillion terminals can’t really share. NOTE A network must consist of more than one computer. they fail to understand the goal of networking. all those terminals provide multiple access points to its data. Second. For something to be a network. Granted. let’s think about the goal of networking.

Today. PCs share more than just folders and printers. It was not until the mid-1990s that we saw PC network makers develop the software to enable a PC to connect to the Internet. they also share web pages. karROX Technologies Limited . FTP. e-mail. and even each other’s desktops.What to Share? • The designers of PC networks used ARPANET as a guide for how PC networks should work.

you must share the entire folder in which the file resides karROX Technologies Limited . A resource is anything that a particular device on a particular network wants to share with other systems on the same network. all the sharing processes work basically the same way. Even though all operating systems provide ways for one system to access another system’s folders. Let’s consider two seemingly different types of networking—surfing The World Wide Web and printing to a shared printer—and see how they share a number of important similarities. but not individual files.How Do We Share? • Even though a PC network shares many types of data. If you want to share a file. no OS lets you specify which individual files to share! All operating systems enable you to share folders. Networks enable computers to share resources.

karROX Technologies Limited . you must have at least one serving computer and one client computer. Any system that shares resources on a network will work best if it has extra power to handle all the incoming requests for its shared resources. while a client is a system that accesses a shared resource. a client system must run a client program to access shared resources on a network. Any system that wants to share its resources must run a serving program. To share a resource.CHAPTER I . By the same token.Introduction to Network Servers and Clients A server is a system on a network that shares resources.

and one of the great challenges of a network support person is to determine how to start sharing a resource once the sharing software is turned on! Part of sharing a resource is giving it some form of network name or address so that client systems can access the shared resource. so servers share resources and clients access those shared resources. at some point the shared resource must have a name. A shared printer will need a name like LASER1 No matter what type of resource you share. Note the highlighted Server service.Introduction to Network Making Shared Resources Useable Okay.CHAPTER I . Sharing a Resource First. In the serving system must ensure that its serving software is started. and then we access the shared resource on a client system. this permissions process varies tremendously based on the type of resource shared. First we share the resource on the serving system.slammo. you alternate-click a folder and select the Sharing menu option. A web site will need a name like www. Again. karROX Technologies Limited . Every sharing program has this step.

In other cases especially with shared folders and printers in Windows are more resource might not look precisely like a local resource. How do you know the name of the shared resource? In a Windows network. many serving programs use the Windows logon. To get to your e-mail. Also. it’s up to the client to go out and access that shared resource. karROX Technologies Limited . you need some form of e-mail client. Remember the goal of networking: to make a shared resource look and act as though the resource were local to the client system. you must know the name of the shared resource. It shows an example of how a shared folder appears in Windows 2000. but it should act like a local resource when you access it.Introduction to Network Accessing a Shared Resource Once a serving system shares a resource. To access your e-mail. you’ll find shared printers and folders in your My Network Places—although you might have to dig a bit. it should interact with the client system’s file manager or word processing software just as if it were local to that system. So. the shared resource may not look exactly like a local resource— that’s okay as long as that shared resource is comprehensible and usable to the local machine. Even though the shared folder may not look exactly like a local resource. in some cases.CHAPTER I .

and we do better on the Network+ exam! karROX Technologies Limited . we become better network techs. Thinking about a network in terms of its goal as opposed to simply what it is. This book is nothing more than learning processes involved with enabling a network to achieve its goal.Introduction to Network The Goal of Networking The goal of networking is to make a resource shared by a remote system act as a resource on a local system.CHAPTER I .

CHAPTER II Network Topologies karROX Technologies Limited .

pure star topology does not exist in the modern computer networks. all nodes connect topology central wiring point the key advantage of this star topology is that a break in the cable affects only the machine connect topology that cable. but provides the stability of a star topology :if a cable gets cut.using star bus topology maintains consistence with previous Ethernet standards which CSMA/CD. employing instead star bus topology. In a star topology. Logically the nodes behave as though attached directly topology the segment. While the star boasts are more robust. fault-tolerant cabling system. The physical topology describes the layout of the wires while the logical topology depicts the behaviour of the electronic. sharing the segment CSMA/CD rules of 10base2 and 10base5.CHAPTER II . only one node drop of the network.Network Topologies What is a star bus topology? 10baseT discards the pure bus topology of 10base2 and 10base5. star bus networks use a physical star that provides improved stability and a logical bus that maintains compatibility with existing Ethernet standards. karROX Technologies Limited . Physically the nodes connect to a hub sitting in a central location forming a star. A star bus topology is a hybrid if the star and bus topologies. The hub contains circuitry that mimics a terminated Ethernet segment.

which computer should use a shared cable at a given moment.if another machine is using the network the node will detect the traffic and wait until the cable is free if it detect no traffic than the node sends the data packet.Network Topologies CSMA/CD Ethernet networks use a system called carrier sense multiple acces/collision detection to determine. Carrier sense means that each node using the network examine the node before sending the data packet .CHAPTER II . karROX Technologies Limited .

CHAPTER II .Network Topologies TERMINATORS The use of CSMA/CD in the real world has physical consequences for Ethernet network. This resistor absorbs the reflection. karROX Technologies Limited . several things happen when the signals reaches the end the wire and travels back up in the wire when the other Ethernet Nodes on the networks attempts to send. When electrical signal travels down copper wire. They wait for reflection to dissipate before sending now quickly build up to a point that the networks looks permanently busy to all the nodes attached to it in order to prevent this reflection a terminator resistor must be connected to each end of the segment. they check the cable and misinterpret that reflects as another attempts to sending out packets. thereby enabling the segment to function properly a csma/cd networks bus cables using copper cabling won’t function properly unless both ends of the networks bus cables terminated with terminating resistors. Most Ethernet uses copper cabling to transmit their data packets as electrical signals.

This results in reflection in both directions promoting all the nodes on the networks to go into perpetual waiting mode thereby shutdown the entire network karROX Technologies Limited .Network Topologies Cable break The use of csma/cd in the Ethernet networks causes interesting behavior when the cable breaks in a five nodes network connected to single segment of cable.CHAPTER II . computer a will not be able to communicate with the rest of the machine but that not the end of the trouble. If the piece of cable between computer and computer b breaks. because a break anywhere in the bus cable causes loss of data and termination in cable.

CHAPTER II .Network Topologies karROX Technologies Limited .

CHAPTER III Ethernet cabling systems karROX Technologies Limited .

signal quality degrades.5 Kilometers.CHAPTER III . commonly referred to as thicknet. where it got it's thicknet nickname. as the 5 stands for it's maximum cable distance. which marks the entry point for the vampire clamps that are used to connect into this cable.Ethernet cabling systems 10Mbps Ethernet This is the original cable used for Ethernet. or 160 feet karROX Technologies Limited .5 meters. (1650 feet) The cabling it uses is a thick cabling. 1650 feet 100 5 2. If less then 2. or 1. This form of cable is marked every 2. 500 meters. or 8 feet 4 2.5 miles 50 meters.5 meters.5 meters (just over 8 feet) is spaced between connections. It gives you a simple clue as to it's origins. Maximum segment length Maximum taps Maximum segments Minimum distance between taps Maximum repeaters Maximum overall length with repeaters Maximum AUI drop cable length 500 meters.

610 feet 925 meters. or 3050 feet karROX Technologies Limited .Ethernet cabling systems 10Base2 (Thinnet) Thinnet uses 50-ohm RG-58A/U or RG-58C/U coaxial cable. and RG-59 cable is meant for television cabling and will not work with thinnet.CHAPTER III . Maximum segment length Maximum overall length with repeaters 185 meters. Using RG-58U or RG-59 cabling is not recommended as 58U does not meet IEEE specifications. although RG-58A/U is the more common format.

Maximum segments Maximum segments with nodes Maximum segment length Maximum nodes per network Maximum hubs in a chain 1024 1024 100 meters. or 330 feet 1024 4 karROX Technologies Limited . This is because it's cheap and extremely easy to work with.CHAPTER III .3 cabling standard states that UTP cable must be used. and the IEEE 802. 10BaseT refers only to Unshielded-twisted pair (UTP) cable.Ethernet cabling systems 10BaseT (Twisted-Pair) Twisted-pair cable is the most common cabling media installed in networking today.

Ethernet cabling systems 10BaseFL (Optical Fiber) 10BaseFL is the only category of Ethernet to use light rather then electricity to transfer signals. 10BaseFL is a star-wired network because it requires a network hub (referred to as a concentrator) to send and receive network signals. It is fairly expensive to hook up each computer with fiber optics.CHAPTER III .2 miles 1024 4 karROX Technologies Limited . and there are few systems that require the kind of speed and distance fiber optic cable delivers. Maximum segments Maximum segments with nodes Maximum segment length Maximum nodes per network Maximum hubs in a chain 1024 1024 2 kilometers. or 1.

also known as Fast Ethernet. 4. It uses a star topology and defines how child hubs can be connected to parent hubs to extend the network. The length of any two 100VG-AnyLAN cable segments combined must not be more then 250 meters. 100VG-AnyLAN can be used over Cat 3.CHAPTER III . 100VG-AnyLAN :This form of Ethernet. which is considered Voice-Grade Ethernet. hubs can be connected to hubs in the star format to expand the network in a cascading fashion.Ethernet cabling systems 100Mbps Ethernet /100VG-AnyLAN The common standards for faster forms of Ethernet are 100VG-AnyLAN and 100BaseT Ethernet. Essentially. combines standard Ethernet specifications with Token Ring. and 5 twisted pair and fiber optic cable. karROX Technologies Limited .

Ethernet cabling systems Token Ring Token Ring was developed by IBM as a large-scale. It can be run through conduit. or in wire-ways for short distances.CHAPTER III . karROX Technologies Limited . self-correcting network. Type 1: STP cable used to connect terminals and distribution panels and to run through walls to wiring closets in the same building. and is a physical star but a logical ring network. It is made of 2 twisted pairs of solid-core 22 AWG copper wire surrounded by a braided shield.5 standard. the IEEE 802. Be careful when using IEEE 802.5 standard differs from IBM's implementation of Token Ring. Token Ring is governed by the IEEE 802. IBM provides for 7 different types of cabling that can be used with Token Ring. (Smart Multistation Access Unit) Although IBM invented the Token Ring system. inside walls.5 and IBM's Token Ring.

with the exception that it incorporates 4 twisted pairs of telephone wires. used for connecting terminals located in the same physical area or room and distribution panels in wiring closets. It is made just like type 1 cable. This is so you can hook up both data and telephone equipment with one equipment run.Type 2: Also STP cable. karROX Technologies Limited .

It is cheaper then Type 1 and 2 cable.Type 3: UTP cable with 4 pairs.6 meters of length. It uses either 22 or 24 AWG wire. . karROX Technologies Limited . each twisted two times for every 3. The disadvantage of Type 3 is that it is subject to crosstalk and noise. and you cannot use it for runs as long as those possible with Types 1 and 2 cable.

It consists of 62.Type 4: optical cable used onlt on the main ring path. karROX Technologies Limited .5 micron diameter or 100 micron diameter fiber-optic cable.

Type 6 is much easier to work with than Type 1 because it is more flexible. It is generally used only as a patch cable or as an extension in a wiring closet.Type 5: STP cable that does not carry signals as far as Type 1 or 2. It is made of 26 AWG stranded-core copper wires twisted together in a shielded jacket. (Since it consists of stranded copper wire rather then solid-core) karROX Technologies Limited .

it is made of two 26 AWG stranded -core wares twisted together.Type 6: Used for runs under carpets. karROX Technologies Limited . Like Type 5 cable.

It is plenum-rated and used for runs in ceilings where ventilation systems exist. It is made with two 26 AWG stranded-core wires twisted together in a shielded jacket karROX Technologies Limited .• Type 7: Basically the fire-retardant version of Type 6 cable.

Rather than limiting Ethernet topology a single high speed solution. The major variation includes 100baseT and 100BaseFX 100BaseT 100BaseFX Migrating to Fast Ethernet Full Duplex Ethernet karROX Technologies Limited . the IEEE endorsed multiple standards for fast Ethernet and allowed the market place topology choose from among them.Ethernet cabling systems HIGH SPEED ETHERNET Fast Ethernet is not a single technology.CHAPTER III . The term fast Ethernet refers topology anty several Ethernet flavour that operates at 100 MBPS.

Ethernet cabling systems Gigabyte Ethernet For the true speed the most powerful version of Ethernet exist: Gigabyte Ethernet. 1000BaseT comes under the IEEE 802. 1000BaseT connection and ports looks exactly like 10BaseT network. 1000BaseT has maximum cable length of 100-meter.3ab standards.CHAPTER III . karROX Technologies Limited . Like 10BaseT. 1000BaseT 1000BaseT uses 4 pairs Cat5 cabling in full duplex mode to achieve Gigabyte performance.

1000BaseCX 1000BaseCX uses a unique shield cable known twinaxial cable. Twinaxial cables are special shielded with 150ohms cables with a length with only 25meter.

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1000BaseSX 1000BaseSX uses multi-mode fiber optic cabling to connect systems, with a generous maximum cable length of over 500-meter (the exact length depends upon various manufacturers.) 1000BaseSX uses a 850nm wave length to transmit the light in the fiber optic cable.

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1000BaseLX 1000BaseLX is a long distance career for Gigabyte Ethernet and uses single mode cables and shoots data in laser at a distance of 5 Kms and by using a repeater can be increased upto 70 kms.

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CHAPTER IV Network Cabling Tools karROX Technologies Limited .

I have one solid core cable going to my work bench. (RJ means "Registered Jack"). . hence forward will discuss the ethernet cabling based on other types. . I don't think this is a real concern in the average small network. or brown) twisted around a second wire with a white background and a stripe of the same color.3 committee recognizes that no single cable solution can work in all situation. Be sure you buy Technologies Limited plugs appropriate for the wire you are going to use.CHAPTER IV Network Cabling Tools The IEEE 802. . Cable colors are commonly described using the background color followed by the color of the stripe. The straight through and cross-over patch cables discussed in this article are terminated with CAT 5 RJ-45 modular plugs. green. e. orange. so it provides a verity if cabling standards. Likewise. Stranded wire patch cables are often specified for cable segments running from a wall jack to a PC and for patch panels. Each pair is color coded with one wire having a solid color (blue.g. NETWORK CABLE AND CONNECTORS There are several classifications of cable used for twisted-pair networks. However. Also. 10baseT. featuring cryptic names like 10base5. Make sure they are rated for CAT 5 wiring. 10base2. CAT 5 cable has four twisted pairs of wire for a total of eight individually insulated wires.. CONNECTORS. there are RJ-45 plugs designed for both solid core wire and stranded wire. Others are designedkarROX specifically for one kind of wire or the other. They are more flexible than solid core wire. there are several fire code classifications for the outer insulation of CAT 5 cable. For example. The solid colors may have a white stripe in some cables. white-orange is a cable with a white background and an orange stripe. the rational for using it is that the constant flexing of patch cables may wear-out solid core cable--break it.

").CHAPTER IV Network Cabling Tools NETWORK CABLE TOOLS Modular Plug Crimp Tool. and possibly stripping the outer jacket. I find that the following tools are better for stripping and cutting the cable. Here are the diagrams: karROX Technologies Limited . COLOR-CODE STANDARDS Let's start with simple pin-out diagrams of the two types of UTP Ethernet cables and watch how committees can make a can of worms out of them. Even though the crimper has cutters which can be used to cut the cable and individual wires. It is easier to use diagonal cutters ("diags" or "dikes") to cut the cable off at the reel and to fine tune the cable ends during assembly.

dryers. Avoid stretching UTP cables (tention when pulling cables should not exceed 25 LBS). 6. Here's a short list: copy machines. motors. but don't tighten them so much that you deform the cables. welding machines. do not over-cinch them. It presents a very dangerous lightning hazard! 7. 4. electric heaters. Try to avoid running cables parallel to power cables. elevators. It's okay to snug them together firmly. speakers. Use telephone wire/RJ6 coaxial wire hangers which are available at most hardware stores karROX Technologies Limited . printers. fluorescent lights. 5. telephones. washing machines. 2. fans.CHAPTER IV Network Cabling Tools CABLING RULES 1. Do not run UTP cable outside of a building. Do not bend cables to less than four times the diameter of the cable. and shop equipment. microwave ovens. Keep cables away from devices which can introduce noise into them. Do not use a stapler to secure UTP cables. If you bundle a group of cables together with cable ties (zip ties). TV sets. electric ovens. 3. copiers.


is used to connect to the physical network media.NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICs) A Network Interface Card (NIC).CHAPTER V . Some mainboards and most portable computers are equipped with a built-in (onboard) NIC. the most common today being Ethernet NICs with a RJ-45 socket for UTP/STP cabling. NICs are available for different types of network media. typically an expansion card in a computer. karROX Technologies Limited .

The RS-232 standard is designed to supports data transfer rates up to 20 Kbps. This type of cabling is typically made up of 4 twisted pairs of copper wires as depicted in the image below. UTP cabling is categorized using a number. and so does the complete bundle. TWISTED PAIR The most common type of twisted pair cabling is Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cabling. In full-duplex communication both hosts can transmit at the same time. Full-duplex communication Half-duplex means that only one host can communicate at a given time.NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICs) Half duplex vs. karROX Technologies Limited . two hosts communicating with each other will take turns transmitting.25 meters) at a baudrate of 19200.CHAPTER V . The maximum length for a RS-232 cable is 50 feet (15. Each wire has its own cover. RS-232 The RS-232 standard specifies serial cabling using DB-9 or DB-25 connectors. in theory allowing twice as much data to be transmitted over the same connection.

to reduce interference. COAXIAL Coaxial cabling is used primarily in 10Base2 (Thinnet) and 10Base5 (Thicknet) Ethernet networks. Coaxial cable uses a copper core with a protective shield. SC-type connectors are square in shape and are most common in North America. Both connectors offer the same features as far as distance and reliability.CHAPTER V . and so does the complete bundle. karROX Technologies Limited . SC or ST Connectors? First. but it is best to choose one type of connector and stick with it over your entire network.NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICs) TWISTED PAIR The most common type of twisted pair cabling is Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cabling. ST-type connectors are round and are more common in Europe and some parts of Asia. This type of cabling is typically made up of 4 twisted pairs of copper wires as depicted in the image below. FIBER OPTIC Fiber optic cabling is a rather new technology that allows for fast data transfer over large distances. Fiber optic cabling is not susceptible to electrical interference. you need to decide which type of fiber connectors you will be using. but needs expensive equipment and is fragile. Each wire has its own cover.

NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICs) Full Duplex or Half Duplex? Unlike an RJ-45 port. When a full duplex device tries to communicate with a half duplex device. karROX Technologies Limited . One port sends data and the other port receives data. or other fixed half duplex device. This is known as full duplex (FDX) operation.CHAPTER V . Some fiber add-on modules are capable of sending and receiving data at the same time. unstable network connections will result. Fast Ethernet hub. . FDDI networks are often used as backbones for wide-area networks providing data transfer rates up to 100 Mb/s using fiber media. Of course. FDDI Another token-passing network technology is Fiber Distributed Data Interface. then you fiber optic options will be limited to half-duplex connections. a half duplex connection will not allow the distance of a full duplex connection. a single fiber port is actually divided into two separate unidirectional ports. If you are using a fiber add-on module on a 10/100 Auto-Sensing Hub.

CHAPTER V . is that there must be a clear path between the devices. An advantage of IR communication is that it is not susceptible to electrical interference. laptops and printers.NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICs) WIRELESS Infrared Infrared (IR) communication is typically used between devices such as PDAs. The main disadvantage. Supports data transfer rates up to 4 Mbps. karROX Technologies Limited . besides the rather short maximum supported distance between devices.

802. Another WLAN standard that has recently emerged.11b is CSMA/CA. The topology used in wireless networks is known as cellular. 802. The access method for 802.11a. It is a wireless structure where stations send signals to each other via wireless media hubs. Clients connect via wireless access points with data transfer rates up to 11 Mbps. offers a maximum transmission speed of 54 Mbps at 5 GHz frequency.11b (Wi-fi) The 802.802.4 GHz range.11b standard specifies wireless Ethernet LAN technology.11b operates in the 2. karROX Technologies Limited .

CHAPTER VI The OSI-Layers model karROX Technologies Limited .

but the OSI layer model is conceptualized that way. each of which address an essential networking task. The seven layers are: Layer 7 Application Layer 6 Presentation Layer 5 session Layer 4 transport Layer 3 network Layer 2 data link Layer 1 physical This list may seem upside down.The OSI-Layers mode The OSI Seven layered model provides the precise terminology for discussing networks.CHAPTER VI . karROX Technologies Limited . which sends data to generate back down to the layer until it reaches the physical layer and is sends out as 1’s and 0’s. sending data up to the data link layer which in turned sends information upto the network layer and so on until it reaches the application layer. With the physical layer on the bottom. The OSI model also provides a common jargon that networks techs can use to describe the function of any network protocols. The model breaks up the task of networking computers into seven distinct layers. Most network documentation uses the OSI Seven layer model to define more precisely the role played by each protocol.

karROX Technologies Limited . All the virtual terminal software is in the application layer.CHAPTER VI . To handle each terminal type. For example. a piece of software must be written to map the functions of the network virtual terminal onto the real terminal.The OSI-Layers mode The Application Layer The application layer contains a variety of protocols that are commonly needed. Another application layer function is file transfer. this software must issue the proper command sequence to the real terminal to get its cursor there too. when the editor moves the virtual terminal's cursor to the upper left-hand corner of the screen.

and data structures composed of several simpler items.The OSI-Layers mode The Presentation Layer Most user programs do not exchange random binary bit strings. These items are represented as character strings. dates.CHAPTER VI . and invoices. The presentation layer is also concerned with other aspects of information representation. For example. integers. The job of managing these abstract data structures and converting from the representation used inside the computer to the network standard representation is handled by the presentation layer. data compression can be used here to reduce the number of bits that have to be transmitted and cryptography is frequently required for privacy and authentication karROX Technologies Limited . amounts of money. They exchange things such as people's names. floating point numbers.

the session layer provides a way to insert checkpoints into the data stream. Sessions can allow traffic to go in both directions at the same time. One of the services of the session layer is to manage dialogue control. or in only one direction at a time. To eliminate this problem. A session allows ordinary data transport. only the data after the last checkpoint has to be repeated. as does the transport layer.The OSI-Layers mode The Session Layer The session layer allows users on different machines to establish sessions between them. A related session service is token management. karROX Technologies Limited . so that after a crash. but it also provides some enhanced services useful in a some applications.CHAPTER VI .

if creating or maintaining a network connection is expensive. On the other hand. the transport layer might create multiple network connections.CHAPTER VI .The OSI-Layers mode The Transport Layer The basic function of the transport layer. karROX Technologies Limited . the transport layer creates a distinct network connection for each transport connection required by the session layer. a program on the source machine carries on a conversation with a similar program on the destination machine. the users of the network. The transport layer is a true source-to-destination or end-to-end layer. is to accept data from the session layer. using the message headers and control messages. The transport layer also determines what type of service to provide to the session layer. dividing the data among the network connections to improve throughput. the transport layer might multiplex several transport connections onto the same network connection to reduce the cost. Under normal conditions. In all cases. the transport layer is required to make the multiplexing transparent to the session layer. and ultimately. and ensure that the pieces all arrive correctly at the other end. In other words. split it up into smaller units if need be. If the transport connection requires a high throughput. pass these to the network layer. however.

The OSI-Layers mode The Network Layer The network layer is concerned with controlling the operation of the subnet.CHAPTER VI . The addressing used by the second network may be different from the first one. The second one may not accept the packet at all because it is too large. many problems can arise. The control of such congestion also belongs to the network layer. and so on. Example : X. It is up to the network layer to overcome all these problems to allow heterogeneous networks to be interconnected. the routing problem is simple. so the network layer is often thin or even nonexistent.25 Connection Establishment karROX Technologies Limited . When a packet has to travel from one network to another to get to its destination. In broadcast networks. The protocols may differ.

It accomplishes this task by having the sender break the input data up into data frames (typically a few hundred bytes). Since the physical layer merely accepts and transmits a stream of bits without any regard to meaning of structure. and process the acknowledgment frames sent back by the receiver. it is up to the data link layer to create and recognize frame boundaries. karROX Technologies Limited . transmit the frames sequentially. Another issue that arises in the data link layer (and most of the higher layers as well) is how to keep a fast transmitter from drowning a slow receiver in data.The OSI-Layers mode The Data Link Layer The main task of the data link layer is to take a raw transmission facility and transform it into a line that appears free of transmission errors in the network layer. The data link layer should provide error control between adjacent nodes.CHAPTER VI .

not as a 0 bit.21 digital interface.The OSI-Layers mode The Physical Layer The physical later is concerned with transmitting raw bits over a communication channel. how the initial connection is established and how it is torn down when both sides are finished. and how many pins the network connector has and what each pin is used for. electrical. and the physical transmission medium. which lies below the physical layer. karROX Technologies Limited . Physical layer design can properly be considered to be within the domain of the electrical engineer. it is received by the other side as a 1 bit.CHAPTER VI . Typical questions here ar e how many volts should be used to represent a 1 and how many for a 0. The design issues here deal largely with mechanical. how many microseconds a bit lasts. whether transmission may proceed simultaneously in both directions. Example : The X. and procedural interfaces. The design issues have to do with making sure that when one side sends a 1 bit.

CHAPTER VII PROTOCOLS karROX Technologies Limited .

8. It is a routable protocol that provides connection between heterogeneous systems. TCP/IP is different. but the octets. The "TCP/IP protocol" is actually the "TCP/IP suite" composed of many different protocols each with its own functions. for example it allows communication between UNIX. but the most important ones are a source and destination "port number" and a "sequence number". karROX Technologies Limited . An IP address is represented in a dotted decimal format. So if there are 500 octets of data in each datagram. This header actually contains at least 20 octets. for example: 159. these are the main reasons the protocol is so widely adapted. the next 1500. etc. The two main protocols are in its name: the Internet Protocol and the Transmission Control Protocol. Every IP address on the network must be unique. TCP/IP is today's most popular network protocol and is the protocol in the Internet. Windows. TCP puts a header at the front of each datagram. the next 1000.6. Netware and Mac OS computers spread over multiple interconnected networks. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) may seem baffling. the second 500.PROTOCOLS TCP/IP At first glance. IP addressing is assigning a 32-bit logical numeric address to a network device.CHAPTER VII .101. TCP doesn't number the datagrams. the first datagram might be numbered 0.

Although most IP traffic uses TCP. transferring files between computers.4. or finding out who is logged in on another computer. the checksum allows IP at the other end to verify that the header wasn't damaged in transit. so you have to tell IP which protocol to send the datagram to. Finally.) The destination Internet address is the address of the other machine.g. Of course it has to tell IP the Internet address of the computer at the other end. sending mail. there are other protocols that can use IP. The main things in this header are the source and destination Internet address (32-bit addresses.6.194). It doesn't care about what is in the datagram. the protocol number. Note that TCP and IP have separate checksums.CHAPTER VII . The source Internet address is simply the address of your machine. karROX Technologies Limited . Initially TCP/IP was used mostly between minicomputers or mainframes.PROTOCOLS The IP level TCP sends each of these datagrams to IP. Others are protocols for doing specific tasks. e. or even in the TCP header. Note that this is all IP is concerned about. (This is necessary so the other end knows where the datagram came from. The protocol number tells IP at the other end to send the datagram to TCP. and another checksum. like 128.

Every character you type is sent directly to the other system. Remote Login. They would maintain "mail files" on those machines. The computer mail system is simply a way for you to add a message to another user's mail file. This allows you to send messages to users on other computers. people tended to use only one or two specific computers. The file transfer protocol (FTP) allows a user on any computer to get files from another computer.CHAPTER VII . or to send files to another computer. karROX Technologies Limited . The network terminal protocol (TELNET) allows a user to log in on any other computer on the network. Generally. the connection to the remote computer behaves much like a dialup connection.PROTOCOLS File Transfer. Computer Mail. Originally.

the most important being IPX and SPX. nat. outbound. AppleTalk is not just one protocol. IPX was the protocol in Netware networks. This appendix lists information by subnet mask and identifies which masks are for networks. but a suite of several protocols for different functions. including the aaa. IPX/SPX Although current versions of Novell Netware use TCP/IP. It is built-in in every Macintosh computer and karROX Technologies Limited requires virtually no user interaction . global. Netbios names are sometimes referred to as friendly names. telnet. and broadcast addresses.CHAPTER VII . ip address. Like TCP/IP. linkpath. static. NetBEUI/NETBIOS NETBios Extended User Interface is a non-routable Transport layer protocol. The reason it is nonroutable is in its flat addressing schema. NetBIOS AppleTalk AppleTalk was developed by Apple Computers in the early 1980s to allow file and printer sharing and mail functionality between Macintosh computers. SPX is the Transport protocol used to provide reliable transport for IPX datagrams. The Netware protocol suite is a suite of several protocols for different functions. debug. before Netware version 5. and tunnel commands. A Mac that shares resources is called a server. hosts. route. it is a connectionless Layer 3 (Network layer) protocol used to transfer datagrams between hosts and networks.PROTOCOLS Subnet Masking and Addressing PIX Firewall commands let you use subnet masking for commands that accept network masks. alias. NETBEUI uses Netbios names to identify computers on the network that do not contain a network portion. similar as TCP does for IP. It is a small and easy to implement routable protocol developed by Novell and based on the Xerox Network System. IPX is similar to the Internet Protocol from the TCP/IP suite. and the computer connecting to it a client. conduit.

CHAPTER VIII DHCP / DNS / WINS karROX Technologies Limited .

Scope Options. For example. DHCP . Only reduce the duration if you are short of IP addresses.DHCP Server In a Windows Server 2003 (or 2000) domain all DHCP servers need to be authorized in Active Directory. . The most likely cause of Nack is the client is trying to renew an IP address from the wrong DHCP server. Examples of DHCP Scope Options: Router (Default Gateway).CHAPTER VIII .Relay Agent for Windows Server 2003 Instead of deploying a DHCP server on every subnet. DNS Servers (006) Domain Name (015) WINS (044 and 046) Address Reservation How does DHCP know which machine to lease a particular IP? Authorize . Then right click the DHCP server icon. and Authorize. DHCP Address Leases Lease is a good name for a DHCP IP property. Here is a table summarising how a DHCP service results in clients getting an IP address. but it comes into play if there are two DHCP servers and both make an offer to a potential client. configuring the scope options needs thought. discover how to install and configure a karROX Technologies Limited DHCP relay agent. if you only have 250 IP addresses but 300 possible clients.DHCP / DNS / WINS DHCP Install Whilst adding the DHCP service is easy. Note 1: DHCP Request may seem strange.

a client would end up with a 0. right click the Interface. Naturally.Installation So you need to install the relay agent on a Windows Server 2003. Just right click the DHCP Relay Agent. Conflict Detection is a property of the DHCP server as a whole and not of individual scopes. The conflict detection feature means that the DHCP server checks by pinging the proposed address lease before actually issuing it. DHCP Relay Agent.In action The secret of successful relaying is to create the appropriate scope on the DHCP server. Relay Agent .Concept Relay Agent .DHCP / DNS / WINS DHCP Relay Agent . karROX Technologies Limited . configuring is easy. not the server.0. In NT 4. As I say once you find and install the Relay Agent. I realized that the Relay Agent adds the Source IP address when it contacts DHCP. all you need to do is tell the router or DHCP relay agent the IP address of the real DHCP servers. and then you needed to reboot to obtain a valid IP address.0 address if there were no DHCP server. and then select properties from the shortcut menu.0. How many routers lie between your client and its DHCP server? From the Routing and Remote Access interface.CHAPTER VIII . navigate to the IP Routing.0 days. and check the Hop Count threshold. if the server receives a reply that IP address is not offered. On reflection.

CHAPTER VIII . Name Servers also register the records and are responsible for DNS house keeping. where is BigServer? NameServer has a record for the Computer Performance web at IP address 64. (As were DNS and IP 4). DNS Namespace Approach the DNS namespace as if admiring a pyramid. Name Servers know about other Name servers. Lots of Second level domains. DNS Servers are designed to answer queries. In DNS. Moreover. for example.144. karROX Technologies Limited .239. The most important nuance of Name Server is that here is a server that holds copies of these DNS resource records. Hosts means a simple (A) record that maps a machine name (HostName) to an IP address. In modern DNS. Name Server has several shades of meaning.DHCP / DNS / WINS About the DNS Introduction to DNS Names Let us start with a simple network where DNS maps the HostName to IP address.69. DNS Name Server (NS).

CHAPTER VIII . Large name servers are often authoritative for tens of thousands of zones. For example: Will your DNS name match our email domain? karROX Technologies Limited . The DNS system consists of three components: DNS data (called resource records).DHCP / DNS / WINS Rules of DNS naming DNS is a means of resolving ip addresses to host names. The Domain Name System (abbreviated DNS) is an Internet directory service. Most name servers are authoritative for some zones and perform a caching function for all other DNS information. but most name servers are authoritative for just a few zones. Unlike WINS. and Internet protocols for fetching data from the servers. The killer reason for implementing DNS is that Active Directory relies on DNS for finding Global Catalog. DNS is how domain names are translated into IP addresses. Introduction to DNS in Windows Server 2003 DNS makes it possible for clients to access network resources using alphanumeric names rather than pure IP addresses. and DNS also controls email delivery. servers (called name servers). Caching servers ask other servers for information and cache any replies. DNS is hierarchical. Kerberos and Logon Servers. with advent of Windows 2000 DNS became dynamic DNS.

DNS became Dynamic. •Scopes of DNS Zones •Secondary Zone .DHCP / DNS / WINS Type of zones •Primary Zones Also if your DNS servers are not Domain Controllers. Secure Updates means that only machines with computer records in Active Directory can add or update their Host (A) records with DNS servers.You know the hostname.Read only copies of records. gets updates from the primary server by zone transfer.CHAPTER VIII . DNS tells you the IP address. Forward Lookup zones supply the main DNS mechanism for finding Hosts (A). •DNS Zone Directions. DNS gives you the hostname.Forward and Reverse When you configure a DNS remember that there are 2 directions of DNS Zone. Name Servers (NS) or Service (_gc). Starting with Windows 2000.You know the IP. Reverse Lookup . Forward Lookup . karROX Technologies Limited .


Verify that XP recognizes the WLAN card Once you power on your system. but for the purposes of this tutorial. Before upgrading to XP. Windows XP was already installed on the system before I added the WLAN network adapter. you will achieve the same effect by installing the WLAN card before loading Windows XP. Click Network And Internet Connections. Click Network Connections. Windows will automatically add it to the list of available interfaces in Network Connections.CHAPTER IX . karROX Technologies Limited . Click Start | Control Panel. After it is recognized.WIRELESS WITH WINDWOWS XP Install the Wireless LAN network card In my case. uninstall the drivers and utilities that came with the WLAN card. Windows XP should automatically recognize your WLAN card.

WIRELESS WITH WINDWOWS XP You should then see an icon that says Wireless Network Connection. Double-click that icon to bring up the Wireless Network Connection Status dialog box (Figure A).CHAPTER IX . karROX Technologies Limited .

CHAPTER IX . click the Properties button. Wireless Networks. you can configure your WLAN adapter to connect to various wireless access points (WAPs). Figure B WLAN adapters have an additional configuration tab. karROX Technologies Limited . Now.WIRELESS WITH WINDWOWS XP Configuring wireless networks When you're ready to configure your WLAN settings.

WIRELESS WITH WINDWOWS XP The Wireless Networks tab is where you handle WLAN setup. Figure C karROX Technologies Limited .CHAPTER IX .

you'll need to make sure the Use Windows To Configure My Wireless Network Settings check box is selected. karROX Technologies Limited . you can manually set up a connection to a WAP by clicking the Add button.CHAPTER IX .WIRELESS WITH WINDWOWS XP First. Figure D The Wireless Network Properties screen enables you to set up a connection to an access point. In the Preferred Networks section. You'll notice that there are two sections to this tab: Available Networks and Preferred Networks.

access point will accept traffic. WLAN authentication and security Figure E First.Access point requests authentication from server. karROX Technologies Limited .If client is authenticated.Client responds. go into the properties of your WLAN network adapter (which appears in Figure B). 3.Here. 4. 5. you set your preference in terms of connecting to WLANs powered by access points or connecting to peer-topeer WLANs (basically just connecting to other client machines that have WLAN network adapters installed).

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