PAB 2073: FACILITIES ENGINEERING

MAZLIN IDRESS EXT: 7067

Pipeline… An introduction
PAB 2073

Learning outcome
 At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
 Differentiate between a pipeline and a tanker and their application for transportation of hydrocarbons.  Describe different types of pipelines and the respective application.

Pipelines Definition
A pipeline system is defined as a pipeline section extending from an inlet point (may be an offshore platform or onshore compressor station) to an outlet point (may be another platform or an onshore receiving station).

Pipeline Classification
 Pipelines can be classified as:
 Onshore  Offshore

 The onshore and/or offshore pipelines have THREE (3) types:
 Trunk or gathering  Transmission or transportation  Distribution

Types of Pipeline: Gathering Line  These lines are used to transport oil from field pressure and storage to large tank where it is accumulated for pumping into the long distance called trunk line. .  Gathering pipelines typically consist of lines ranging from 4″-8″ inside diameter.

change in the elevation and other losses. oil is moved through large diameter.  Pump are required at the beginning of the trunk line and pumping stations must also be spaced a long the pipeline to maintain pipeline pressure at the level required to overcome friction. . long distance pipeline called trunk line to refineries.Types of Pipeline: Trunk Line  From large central storage.

.Types of Pipeline: Trunk Line  Crude trunk lines operate at higher pressure than gathering systems. These lines are made of steel and individual sections are joined by welding.  These lines are almost buried below ground surface are coated externally to protect against corrosion.

countries and even continents.Mainly long pipes with large diameters. refined products) between cities. moving products (oil.Types of Pipeline: Transmission/Transportation  Transportation Pipelines . gas. .

 The large diameter may range from 24 to 60 inches  Example Trans ASEAN line .Types of Pipeline: Transmission/Transportation  These transportation networks include several compressor stations in gas lines or pump stations for crude and multi-products pipelines.

Composed of several interconnected pipelines with small diameters. Pipelines at terminals for distributing products to tanks and storage facilities are included in this group. used to take the products to the final consumer.Types of Pipeline: Distribution Line  Distribution Pipelines . . Feeder lines to distribute gas to homes and businesses downstream.

Types of Pipeline: Distribution Line .

Oil and Natural Gas Pipeline “The general principles governing oil and natural gas pipelines are the same. This is an important factor in understanding the differences between oil and natural gas pipelines” Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler . except that gas is many times more compressible.

Oil pipelines are made from steel or plastic tubes with inner diameter typically from 10 to 120 cm (about 4 to 48 inches).    . From the gathering system the crude oil is sent to a pump station where the oil delivered to the pipeline.Oil Pipelines  Crude oil is collected from field gathering systems consisting of pipelines that move oil from the wellhead to storage tanks and treatment facilities where the oil is measured and tested.2 meters (about 3 to 6 feet). Most pipelines are buried at a typical depth of about 1 .

Oil Pipelines  The pipeline may have many collection and delivery points along route. or shipping terminals. . where the oil is loaded onto tankers. Booster pumps are located along the pipeline to maintain the pressure and keep the oil flowing usually flows at speed of about 1 to 6 m/s. where the oil is processed into products.  The delivery points may be refineries.

. The pipeline will schedule its operation to ensure that the right crude oil is sent to the correct destination.Oil Pipelines     A pipeline may handle several types of crude oil. Storage is located along the pipeline to ensure smooth continuous pipeline operation. The pipeline operator sets the date and place when and where the oil is received and when the oil will arrive at its destination. Crude oil may also move over more than one pipeline system as it journeys from the oil field to the refinery or shipping port.

Natural Gas Pipelines  Natural gas pipelines are used to move gas from the field to consumers. Gas produced from onshore and offshore facilities is transported via gathering systems and interand intra-state pipelines to residential.  For natural gas. commercial. industrial.400 mm) in diameter. depending on the type of pipeline. . and utility companies. pipelines are constructed of carbon steel and varying in size from 2 inches (51 mm) to 56 inches (1.

prime movers.Natural Gas Pipelines  The gas is pressurized by compressor stations and is odorless unless mixed with an odorant where required by the proper regulating body.  Most natural gas pipelines operate using a complex have become so automated that they are capable of operating under command of a computer system that coordinates the operation of valves. . and conditioning equipment.

Natural gas pipelines  Also has gathering lines and main lines  Send off to gas processing plant  Gas gathering lines collect raw gas . predominantly methane  Dry gas – methane with very little heavier HC  Vapors in raw gas stream condense into liquids as they cool off.associated or nonassociated  Raw gas mixture of smaller HC molecules. reach dew point and form hydrates  Wet gas – contain liquid/component heavier than ethane Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler .

.  The main elements of a pipeline system are shown in the figure on the next slide.Pipelines Components  Pipeline networks are composed of several pieces of equipment that operate together to move products from location to location.

Pipelines Components .

 Storage facilities. . is the beginning of the system. where the product is injected into the line.Pipelines Components  Initial Injection Station .Known also as Supply or Inlet station. pumps or compressors are usually located at these locations.

Pumps for liquid pipelines and Compressors for gas pipelines.  The location of these stations is defined by the topography of the terrain. . are located along the line to move the product through the pipeline.Pipelines Components  Compressor/Pump Stations . the type of product being transported. or operational conditions of the network.

these facilities allow the pipeline operator to deliver part of the product being transported.Known also as Intermediate Stations. .These are the first line of protection for pipelines.  With these valves the operator can isolate any segment of the line for maintenance work or isolate a rupture or leak.Pipelines Components  Partial Delivery Station .  Block Valve Station .

depending on the type of pipeline. the trajectory of the pipeline and/or the operational conditions of the line.  The location of these stations depends exclusively on the nature of the product being transported.Pipelines Components  Block valve stations are usually located every 20 to 30 miles (48 km). .  Even though it is not a design rule. it is a very usual practice in liquid pipelines.

Regulators are usually located at the downhill side of a peak. .This is a special type of valve station.Pipelines Components  Regulator Station . where the operator can release some of the pressure from the line.

this is where the product will be distributed to the consumer. It could be a tank terminal for liquid pipelines or a connection to a distribution network for gas pipelines.Known also as Outlet stations or Terminals. .Pipelines Components  Final Delivery Station .

Maintenance “ For pipeline companies. They perform necessary inspections. and repair failures after they occur” Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler . maintenance is about understanding the condition of the asset. correct potentially unsafe conditions before they cause failures.

also known as. or paraffin.  Often these pipelines are inspected and cleaned using pipeline inspection gauges pigs. and in colder climates wax buildup may occur within a pipeline. scrapers or Go-devils.Pipelines Inspection  Crude oil contains varying amounts of wax. .

the calculations involved are fairly complex” Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler .How Pipelines Work “The operation of pipeline seems simple enough: pump fluid in one end and take it out the other. While the principles dictating the behaviour of fluids are rather intuitive.

the pressure is almost always lower as the fluid moves Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler . pressure is higher in valleys and lower in hilltops • Once the line start flowing.The Physics of Fluid Flow • Pressure makes fluid move • Pressure is a reflection of energy added to pipelines by pumps. compressors or gravity • The pressure in a non-flowing pipeline along a level route is the same along its entire length • But in a route with elevation changes.

Pressure due to elevation changes Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler .Energy Energy Compressor station Direction of flow Level pipeline Pressure at any point = Pressure at origin .Pressure loss due to friction +/.

pipe lengths and flow rates • Friction causes resistance to flow • Faster flow rates produce more friction than slower rates • Changing one variable. can change the other.Friction losses. and changing the length changes both Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler . pressure or flow rate.

Hydraulic Properties of Hydrocarbon Fluids  Important properties of fluid concerning pipeline operators:  Density  Viscosity  Pour Point  Vapor pressure (evaporation)  Pressure  Compressibility Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler .

more energy to move fluid  Pour Point  Temperature can drop until reach pour point and cease to flow  Pressure  Absolute pressure (psia) = Gauge pressure (psig) + Atmospheric pressure Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler .Hydraulic properties of hydrocarbon fluids  Density  Temperature and pressure both affect density  API gravity – measure of density for fluids  Viscosity  Higher viscosity.

bubbles form • Compressibility – Important for gas pipeline – How much work to force a given mass into smaller space Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler . they turn to liquid • When line pressure of oil pipeline drops below vapor pressure.Hydraulic properties of hydrocarbon fluids • Vapor pressure – Temperature and pressure determines if fluid stays as liquid or evaporate to gas – Higher vapor pressure means more volatility – Important consideration for oil and natural gas pipelines • When combination of gas pipeline operating P&T exceeds vapor pressure of the heavier molecules.

Basic Flow principles and Equations  Principles:  First Law of Thermodynamics  Law of conservation of energy  Fundamental to pipeline hydraulics  Bernoulli’s Principle  “Static pressure + Dynamic pressure + hydrostatic pressure = Constant” Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler .

transitional turbulent. density. fully turbulent  Friction loss  Major factor why pumps and compressors are required  Factors of viscosity. pipe length. roughness of inside pipe  Elevation loss or gain  How much decline or gain depends on weight of fluid and height of ‘hill’  Flow rates and capacities  “Mass = density x area x velocity x time” Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler .Basic Flow principles and Equations  Equations:  Flow characteristics  Laminar. velocity.

fungus and algae living on the surface of the pipes! Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler .Corrosion • Almost all oil and natural gas lines are steel • Steel corrode if not protected • Pipeline can leak or rupture if too much metal is removed • Few different types of corrosion – most common is galvanic corrosion • Corrosion outside pipe  external corrosion • Corrosion inside pipe  internal corrosion • Both can be influenced by bacteria.

fusion-bonded epoxy applied to outside pipe wall  Reverse flow of electrons . coal tar enamel.“cathodic protection”  Sacrificial anode  bury metal with higher electrochemical potential than iron (anodes) in selected locations along the lines Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler .g.Corrosion  To prevent external corrosion:  External corrosion is caused by current flow – so stop flow of electrons stop corrosion  Insulating coatings e.

Corrosion  To prevent internal corrosion:  Internal corrosion occurs in low spots where contaminants like water tend to collect  Regular pig runs  Inject corrosion inhibitors  It works by coating the internal of the pipe to prevent current flow  Interact with pipe materials to lower the pipe’s electrochemical potential  React with oxygen etc before they corrode the pipe Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler .

” Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler . These include pumps. compressors. meters. the bulk of a pipeline is pipe. valves.Major Components “ When most people think of pipelines. sensors and so on. Nevertheless. But there are many other essential components needed to build and operate pipelines. fittings and many more including hundreds of instruments. they think of pipe.

Pipe  Today. steel is the material of choice for highpressure pipelines  Low-pressure pipelines use various types of plastics and fiberglass  Pipelines produced in standard sizes and strength ratings  Pipes selected based on their chemical and physical properties  Chemical properties of metal – carbon affect strength. ductility  Physical – pipe’s stress must be below specified minimum yield strength (SMYS) and return to original size when pressure is relieved Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler .

Concrete coating Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler . Coal tar Enamel. Shrink sleeves. Tape. Fusion bond epoxy.Coating • Properly protected pipe can last virtually forever • Most important is that coatings insulate line electrically so protect from current flow and thus corrosion • Many types. Plastics. for e.g.

Fittings and Flanges Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler .

g. stop flow – flow smooth. block valve (a function) has few types gate valve/ball valve  Main valves  Gate valve – main use to block flow completely  Ball valve – block flow. uniform  Pressure Relief valve – protect pipeline from excessive pressure Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler . or control flow rate (specifically designed)  Plug valve – “double block and bleed” – ensure no fluid leaking across valve. Use in metering or multiproduct system  Check valve – allows flow in one direction only  Globe valves – most common control valve – start.Valves  Valves are critical – they control flow  Variety of valves – classified by types or functions  E.

Pumps. Prime Movers and VSD  Pumps – oil service  Compressors – natural gas service  Positive Displacement (PD) and Centrifugal designs are for both oil and gas pipelines  PD pumps/compressors add pressure (potential energy) by forcing more fluid in pipeline  Centrifugal pumps/comps spins -create kinetic energy. compressors. and then slow down – convert to potential energy  Pumps and compressors get power from prime movers  Engines  Electric motors  Turbines  Variable Speed Devices (VSD) – control pumps and compressors Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler .

Master meters and Pipe provers Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler .g. count chambers as they go Turbine meters– measure speed of bladed rotor to calc. flow rate Orifice meter – measure gas flow! Coriolis meter – works for both oil and gas  Provers – used to ensure accurate metering measurements. no hazard  Classification  Direct volume meter – measure volume directly  Inference meter – use flow properties to calculate flow rate  Main types     PD meters– flow separate in chambers. E.Meters and Provers  Function of metering  Ensure pipeline customers receive the amount of oil/gas they put in  Ensure pipeline operates environmentally safe.

approximate route. metering. diameters and wall thickness. storage needs. The document includes the line’s intended use. The preliminary design document is then handed off to the design group for detailed engineering. as well as suggested operating pressures. primary receipt and delivery points.Engineering and Design “The pipeline planners have developed a plan with preliminary routes and volumes. instrumentation and control” Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler . They may also include pumping and compression needs. intended volumes.

flanges. prime movers Flow and pressure control Stations – numbers. Looping Systems curves – Pressure vs. locations. flow rate Fittings. design and layout Source: Oil and Gas Pipelines Miesner and Leffler . valves Pumps. compressors.DESIGN of pipeline system • • • • • • • • Safety considerations Route selection Complex! Line size. Wall thickness.

State the problem and how to mitigate the problem. • A week to complete • Presentation date: 28 and 29th March . Find out the new technology used in the industry to overcome the problem. prepare a 10 minutes presentation on FLOW ASSURANCE problems in pipelines.ASSIGNMENT • In a group of 5 people.

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