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Electric Machine :
2
I. Fundamentals
A. Utilisation
 Induction motor
 Induction generator
Special application
Fundamental disadvantages
• The speed is not easily controled
• The starting current may be 5 to 8 times fullload current
• The power factor is low and lagging when the machine is lightly loaded
In wind power system, to supply additional power to a load in a remote area that
is served by a weak transmission line
3
I. Fundamentals
B. Basic physical phenomena
 Transformer phenomena
Power is supplied to only the stator winding. Then, voltage and current
are induced in the rotor winding
Induction machine could be seen as a 3phase transformer with
short cicuited and rotating secondary winding
Stator winding Rotor winding
3phase AC
Power supply
Induction
phenomena
4
II. Structure
A. Major components of induction machine
 Stator
 Rotor
Similar with the stator of synchronous
machine
Containing short circuited threephase
winding
• Wound (slip ring) rotor
Physical construction is really similar with
the stator
• Squirrel cage rotor
Physically consists of a series of conducting bars
5
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
A. Operating concepts of induction motor
Stator
Rotor
3  current is
flowing through
stator winding
Current is flowing
through the rotor bars
B
S
pass over
the rotor bar
3  AC voltage
is applied to
stator
Rotating
magnetic field
(B
S
) is produced s
s
s
N
dt e
dB A
·
= ·
B
S
induces a
voltage in the
rotor bars
dt
dB A
N e
s
r r
·
=
Rotor magnetic
field (B
R
) is
produced
dt
dB
r
Torque is
induced in the
rotor (t
ind
)
s r ind
B kB × = t
6
Slip
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
B. Basic concepts of induction motor
The difference between the stator rotating magnetic field speed (n
s
)
and the rotor speed (n
m
)
m s slip
n n n ÷ =
(31)
% 100 ×
÷
=
s
m s
n
n n
s
(32)
 The speed of rotating magnetic field in stator
(rpm)
(%)
Speed
(33)
(rpm) f
p
n
s
· =
120
 The speed of rotor
( )
s m
n s n · ÷ = 1 ( )
s m
s e e · ÷ = 1 (34a)
(rad/s) (rpm) (34b)
7
Frequency of rotor voltages and currents (f
r
)
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
B. Basic concepts of induction motor (cont’d)
f : frequency of rotating magnetic field (power system)
 When n
m
= 0
s = 1 and f
r
= f
 When n
m
= n
s
s = 0 and f
r
= 0
sf f
r
= (35) (Hz)
( )
m s r
n n
p
f ÷ =
120
(Hz) (36)
p : number of pole
8
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
C. Equivalent circuit
Circuit model of stator
R
1
jX
1
I
1
I
M
I
2
V
1
E
1
R
C
jX
M
Circuit model of rotor
R
R
jX
R
I
R
E
R
1 0
sE sE E
R R
= =
(V) (37)
• Induced voltage
E
R0
: E
R
when n
m
= 0, s = 1 and f
r
= f
• Reactance
R r R
L f X t 2 =
R R
fL s X t 2 =
0 R R
sX X =
(38) (O)
(O) (39)
(O) (310b)
When n
m
= 0, s = 1 and f
r
= f
R R
fL X t 2
0
=
(310a)
Induced voltage and reactance
vary with f
r
9
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
C. Equivalent circuit
Circuit model of rotor (cont’d)
(A) (311)
• Rotor current
0
0
R R
R
R
jsX R
sE
I
+
=
0
0
R
R
R
R
jX
s
R
E
I
+
=
(A) (312)
• Rotor equivalent impedance
0 R
R
R
jX
s
R
Z + =
(O) (313)
R
R
/s jX
R0
I
R
E
R0
10
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
Equivalent circuit of induction motor
eff
R
a
I
I =
2
0 1 R eff
E a E =
R eff
R a R
2
2
=
0
2
2 R eff
X a X =
(314)
(315)
(316)
(317)
(A)
(V)
(O)
(O)
a
eff
: the ratio of the stator perphase
conductors to the rotor perphase conductors
C. Equivalent circuit
R
1
jX
1
I
1
I
M
I
2
V
1
E
1
R
C
jX
M
R
R
/s jX
R0
I
R
E
R0
R
1
jX
1
I
1
I
M
I
2
V
1
E
1
R
C
jX
M
jX
2
R
2
/s
11
D. DC measurement, no load and
blocked rotor tets
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
• DC measurement
For obtaining stator resistance (R
1
)
R
1
R
1
R
1
V
D
C
I
D
C
Stator winding is connected in Star
(318a) ( )
1 1
R R I V
DC DC
+ =
DC
DC
I
V
R
·
=
2
1
(318b)
Based on KVL
12
D. DC measurement, no load and
blocked rotor tets
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
• No load test
s m
n n ~
0 ~
ind
t
0
2
~ I
For obtaining R
1
+ R
c
, X
1
+ X
M
and P
rot
R
1
jX
1
I
1
I
M
V
1
R
C
jX
M
I
2
~0
jX
2
R
2
/s
I


1 ,
1 ,
1
1
NL
NL
NL
I
V
I
V
Z = = (319)
 

u
1 , 1 ,
3 ,
3
NL NL
NL
NL
I V
P
Cos
· ·
=
(320)
2 2
1 NL NL M NL
R Z X X X ÷ = + = (322)
( )
1
2
1 , 3 ,
3 R I P P
NL NL rot
· · ÷ =
 
stray W F core rot
P P P P + + =
&
(323a)
(323b)
NLl NL c NL
Cos Z R R R u · = + =
1
(321a)
1
R R R
NL c
÷ =
(321b)
13
D. DC measurement, no load and
blocked rotor tets
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
• Blocked rotor test


1 ,
1 ,
1
1
BR
BR
I
V
I
V
Z
BR
= = (324)
 

u
1 , 1 ,
3 ,
3
BR BR
BR
BR
I V
P
Cos
· ·
=
(325)
2
2
'
BR BR BR
R Z X ÷ =
BR
test
rated
BR
X
f
f
X X X '
2 1
· = + =
(327)
(328)
R
1
jX
1
I
1
I
M
~0
V
1
R
C
jX
M
I
2
>>
jX
2
R
2
/s
I
0 ~
m
n
>>
ind
t
>>
2
I
0 ~
M
I
BR BR BR
Cos Z R R R u · = + =
2 1
(326a) (326b)
1 2
R R R
BR
+ =
14
E. Power flow, losses, efficiency and torque
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
Power flow and losses
1
2
1
3 R I P
SCL
= (329) (W)
C
core
R
E
P
2
1
3
=
(330) (W)
core SCL in AG
P P P P ÷ ÷ =
s
R
I P
AG
2
2
2
3 =
(331a) (W)
(331b) (W)
2
2
2
3 R I P
RCL
=
AG RCL
sP P =
(332a) (W)
(332b) (W)
RCL AG conv
P P P ÷ =
( )
AG conv
P s P ÷ = 1
(333a)
(W)
(333b) (W)
stray W F conv out
P P P P ÷ ÷ =
&
(334)
(W)
P
core
(Core
loss)
P
RCL
(Rotor
copper loss) P
SCL
(Stator
copper loss)
P
A
G
P
friction and
windage
t
ind
e
m
P
conv
P
stray
In stator
In rotor
u cos 3 · · · =
L L in
I V P
m load out
P e t · =
15
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
E. Power flow, losses, efficiency and torque
Separation of P
RCL
and P
conv
in equivalent circuit
Based on equation (331b), (332a), and (333a) :
2
2
R
s
R
R
conv
÷ =

.

\
 ÷
=
s
s
R R
conv
1
2
(335)
(O)

.

\

÷ · =
2
2
2
2
3 R
s
R
I P
conv
(336a)
(336b)
(O)
R
1
jX
1
I
1
I
M
I
2
V
1
E
1
R
C
jX
M
jX
2
R
2
/s
R
1
jX
1
I
1
I
M
I
2
V
1
E
1
R
C
jX
M
jX
2
R
2
(1s)/s
R
2
(P
RCL
)
(P
con
)
16
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
E. Power flow, losses, efficiency and torque
Efficiency
% 100 × =
in
out
P
P
q (337) (%)

.

\

÷
=
s
s
R I P
conv
1
3
2
2
2
stray W F out
P P
s
s
R I P ÷ ÷

.

\

÷
=
& 2
2
2
1
3
Based on equation (334) and (335) :
(338)
(W)
(339) (W)
•Efficiency depends on the slip
•Efficiency will be max when n
m
almost reaches n
s
(s ~ 0)
% 100
1
3
& 2
2
2
×
÷ ÷

.

\

÷
=
in
stray W F
P
P P
s
s
R I
q
(340) (%)
17
E. Power flow, losses, efficiency and torque
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
Torque
m
conv
ind
P
e
t =
s
AG
ind
P
e
t =
(341a)
(N.m)
(341b) (N.m)
• Induced torque
• Output torrque
m
out
out
P
e
t =
(342) (N.m)
18
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
E. Power flow, losses, efficiency and torque
Derivation of induced torque from the equivalent circuit
Solving the equivalent circuit by using Thevenin
M
M
TH
Z Z
Z
V V
+
=
1
1 (343a)
(343b)
V
TH
R
1
jX
1
V
1
R
C
jX
M
M
M
TH
jX jX R
jX
V V
+ +
=
1 1
1
For given slip, the torque varies as
the square of applied voltage
Based on equation (331b) :
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
X X
s
R
R
s R V
P
TH TH
TH
AG
+ +

.

\

+
=
(348)
R
TH
jX
TH
V
TH
jX
2
R
2
/s
I
2
( )
2
2
2
2
2
X X
s
R
R
V
I
TH TH
TH
+ +

.

\

+
=
(347)
Based on equation (336b) :
( )
(
¸
(
¸
+ +

.

\

+
=
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
X X
s
R
R
s R V
TH TH s
TH
ind
e
t
(349)
( )
) (
1 1
1 1
M
M
TH
X X j R
jX R jX
Z
+ +
+
=
2
1
1


.

\

+
=
M
M
TH
X X
X
R R
1
X X
TH
~
(344)
(345)
(346)
R
C
jX
M
R
1
jX
1
R
TH
19
F. Torque – speed characteristics
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
n
s
n
s
n
s
I
R
or
B
R

B
net
Cos u
R
n
m
n
m
n
m
I II III
• Region I : the lowslip region
 The entire normal steadystate operating range of induction motor
 The motor slip linearly increase with the increased load (the increased I
R
)
 The X
R
is negligible. So, the rotor power factor is unity (Cos u
R
= 1)
1
• Region III : the highslip region
 The induced torque decreases with the increased load
starting
t
ind
n
s
n
m
t
ind
peak
t
ind
 f
r
is bigger
 X
R
is on the same orde of magnitude as R
R
 Contains the point of peak torque (pullout torque)
 Cos u
R
starts to drop
• Region II : the moderateslip region
 t
ind
= 0 at synchornous speed (n
m
= n
s
)
 peak t
ind
cannot be exceeded (peak t
ind
~ 200 – 250 % of fullload torque)
 starting t
ind
~ 150 % of fullload torque. So, an induction motor
can start with full load
20
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
F. Torque – speed characteristics
Pull out (maximum) torque
( )
(
¸
(
¸
+ + +
=
2
2
2
2
max
2
3
X X R R
V
TH TH TH s
TH
e
t
(350)
( )
2
2
2
2
X X R
s
R
TH TH
+ + =
When P
AG
is maximum (R
2
/s must be equal the input impedance)
( )
2
2
2
2
max
X X R
R
s
TH TH
+ +
=
(351)
(352)
Based on equation (349)
R
TH
jX
TH
V
TH
jX
2
R
2
/s
I
2
21
F. Torque – speed characteristics
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
Variation in torquespeed characteristics by rotor design
• Varying rotor resistance (R
2
)  for wound rotor
Note : high resistance makes slip higher,
then efficiency becomes bad
High R
2
n
m
t
in
d
n
m rated
Desired curve
Low R
2
22
F. Torque – speed characteristics
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
NEMA class A
NEMA class B
NEMA class C
NEMA class D
• Varying depth of bar and having
double cage  for squirrel cage rotor
Variation in torquespeed characteristics by rotor design (cont’d)
23
F. Torque – speed characteristics
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
Operating region of induction machine
0
n
m
, rpm
(+)
()
t
ind
, N.m
(+)
()
Motor region
Generator region
If n
m
is driven faster than n
s
n
s
t
max
Braking region
If the rotor is turning
backward relative to the
direction of stator
magnetic field
24
G. Starting method
III. Characteristics of Induction Motor
Starting current of the induction motor may cause a such “dip”
in the power system voltage
• Wound rotor
Low starting current can be achieved by inserting addtional resistance
in the rotor during starting time.
• Squirrel cage rotor
 designing the rotor to have effective rotor resistance at starting condition.
This effective rotor resistance will determine the starting apparent power of
the motor
 using stardelta starter on the stator for decreasing the voltage supply
Low starting current can be achieved by :
25
IV. Speed Control
( )
s m
n s n · ÷ = 1
Motor (rotor) speed
f
p
n
s
120
=
Synchronous speed
( )
2
2
2
2
max
X X R
R
s
TH TH
+ +
=
Slip
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
X X
s
R
R
s R V
TH TH s
TH
ind
+ +

.

\

+
=
e
t
Induction torque
• Induction motor speed control techniques
 Pole changing
 Line frequency changing
 Line voltage changing
 Rotor resistance changing
26
V. Application
A. Application area
• Squirrel cage induction motor
•Design A (normal starting torque) :
injectionmolding machines
•Design B (normal starting torque & low starting current) :
fan, pumps and machine tools
•Design C (high starting torque) :
driving heavy breakway loads
•Design D (high starting torque & low starting current) :
crunch press, cranes, elevators and oil well pumps
• Wound (slip ring) induction motor
Variable speed applications (not dependending on load)
27
V. Application
B. Nameplate
 Output power
 Voltage
 Current
 Speed
 Nominal efficiency
 NEMA design Code
 Starting code
 Frequency
28
VI. OnePhase Induction Motor
A. Principles
• Components
 Stator having one phase winding
 Squirrel cage rotor
• No starting torque with conventional one phase winding
• No stator rotating magnetic field
• Only variable (pulsating) magnitude of stator magnetic field
S R ind
B kB × = t
¸ t sin
S R ind
B kB =
(353a)
(353b)
180 sin
S R ind
B kB = t
0 =
ind
t
(353c)
(353d)
B
R
B
S
Stator
Rotor
¸
29
VI. OnePhase Induction Motor
B. Classification based on starting techniques
• Starting techniques
 Splitphase winding
 Capacitortype winding
 Shaded stator pole
• Splitphase winding
Single phase induction motor with two stator winding : main winding
and auxiliary winding with 90 electrical degree
M
M
A
A
X
R
X
R
>
(354)
I
M
I
A
I
V
Current
Relationship
B
A
B
M
Magnetic field
Relationship
e
R
A
jX
A
jX
M
R
M
V(AC)
+

I
M
a
i
n
w
i
n
d
i
n
g
Auxiliary winding
I
M
I
A
switch
Rotor
30
VI. OnePhase Induction Motor
B. Classification based on starting techniques
• Capacitortype winding
 Capacitorstart
I
M
I
A
I
V
Current
Relationship
B
A
B
M
Magnetic field
Relationship
e
R
A
jX
A
jX
M
R
M
V(AC)
+

I
M
a
i
n
w
i
n
d
i
n
g
Auxiliary winding
I
M
I
A
switch
C
Rotor
31
VI. OnePhase Induction Motor
B. Classification based on starting techniques
• Capacitortype winding (cont’d)
 Permanent split capacitor
R
A
jX
A
jX
M
R
M
V(AC)
+

I
M
a
i
n
w
i
n
d
i
n
g
Auxiliary winding
I
M
I
A
C
I
M
I
A
I
V
Current
Relationship
B
A
B
M
Magnetic field
Relationship
e
Rotor
32
VI. OnePhase Induction Motor
B. Classification based on starting techniques
• Capacitortype winding (cont’d)
 Capacitorstart and capacitorrun
I
M
I
A
I
V
Current
Relationship
B
A
B
M
Magnetic field
Relationship
e
R
A
jX
A
jX
M
R
M
V(AC)
+

I
M
a
i
n
w
i
n
d
i
n
g
Auxiliary winding
I
M
I
A
C
run
C
start
start run
C C <
(355)
switch
Rotor
33
VI. Onephase Induction Motor
C. Operating Characteristics
• Splitphase winding
• Capacitorstart
• Permanent split capacitor
• Capacitorstart and capacitorrun