What is Robotics / A.I. ?
• Robotics is the study of the design, construction and use of robots. • Artificial intelligence is the branch of computer science that deals with writing computer programs that can solve problems creatively; "workers in AI hope to imitate or duplicate intelligence in computers and robots"

Definition of a Robot

robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks:
- Robot Institute of America, 1979

Karel Capek

Word robot was coined by a Czech novelist Karel Capek in a 1920 play titled Rossum’s Universal Robots (RUR) Robota in Czech is a word for worker or servant

Laws of Robotics
Asimov proposed three “Laws of Robotics”(1942) Law 1: A robot may not injure a human being or through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. Law 2: A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with a higher order law Law 3: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with a higher order law

History of Robotics..
Nikola Tesla ,famous inventor, patents the first remote controlled device. The 'teleautomaton' was a crewless boat that was controlled from a distance without wires


Westinghouse Electric Corp. creates two of the first robots that use the electric motor for entire body motion. Elektra could dance, count to ten and smoke, while his dog companion Sparko, could walk, stand on its hind legs and bark.

Elektra & Sparco


• The first electronic autonomous robots were created by William Grey Walter of the Burden Neurological Institute at Bristol, England in 1948 and 1949. •They were named Elmer and Elsie The first industrial robot :“UNIMATE”
Elmer Elsie


The first programmable robot is designed by George Devol, who coins the term Universal Automation. •He later shortens this to Unimation, which becomes the name of the first robot company (1962).

UNIMATE - originally automated the manufacture

of TV picture tubes

1956-Robot in Fiction/Hollywood Robby the Robot- the first robot seen at the movies

• •

A scene from Forbidden Planet Lost In Space (1965) •Star Wars

1978: The Puma (Programmable Universal

Machine for Assembly) robot is developed by Unimation with a General Motors design support


IBM enters the robotics field with its


PUMA 560 Manipulator


The robot industry enters a phase of rapid growth. Many institutions introduce programs and courses in robotics. Robotics courses are spread across mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and computer science departments.


Cognex In-Sight Robot

Barrett Technology Manipulator (BTM)

Our Times
• The Mini-Andros is used by bomb squads to locate and dispose of bombs. • About three feet long, it looks something like a small armoured tank with eight wheels on four "legs" that extend for climbing stairs. Mini-Andros


• NASA’s Mars Exploration Rovers launched towards Mars in search of answers about the history of water on Mars.

• Urashima — deep-sea autonomous underwater vehicle • It is a remotely operated vehicle for deep-sea exploration. • The goal is to analyze amounts of carbon dioxide, sodium and other chemicals for information on global warming and other environmental changes.

What tasks would you give robots?
Dangerous •Space exploration •chemical spill cleanup •disarming bombs •disaster cleanup Boring and/or repetitive •Welding car frames •part pick and place •manufacturing parts. High precision or high speed •Electronics testing •Surgery •precision machining.

Automata v/s Robots
 Automata –

Machinery designed to carry out a specific task or a predetermined sequence of operations or respond to encoded instructions. •Bottling machine •Dishwasher •Paint sprayer

Machinery designed to carry out a variety of tasks •Pick and place arms •Mobile robots •Computer Numerical Control machines

 Robots –

Types of robots

Pick and place
• Moves items between points

Continuous path control
• Moves along a programmable path

• Employs sensors for feedback

Pick and Place

Moves items from one point to another Does not need to follow a specific path between points

• Uses include loading and unloading machines, placing components on circuit boards, and moving parts off

Continuous path control

Moves along a specific path Uses include welding, cutting, machining parts.


Uses sensors for feedback. Closed-loop robots use sensors in conjunction with actuators to gain higher accuracy – servo motors. Uses include mobile robotics, telepresence, search and rescue, pick and place with machine vision

The Purpose of Robots
• Repetitive tasks that

robots can do 24/7. • Robots never get sick or need time off. • Robots can do tasks considered too dangerous for humans.

• Robots can operate equipment to much higher precision than humans. • May be cheaper over the long term • May be able to perform tasks that are impossible for humans

Industries Using Robots
• • • • • Agriculture Automobile Construction Entertainment Health care: hospitals, patient-care, surgery , research, etc. • Laboratories: science, engineering , etc. • Law enforcement: surveillance, patrol, etc. • Military: demining, surveillance, attack, etc. • Mining, excavation, and exploration • Transportation: air, ground, rail, space, etc. • Utilities: gas, water, and electric • Manufacturing • Warehouses

•Cartesian robot /Gantry robot: Used
for pick and place work, assembly operations, handling machine tools and arc welding. It's a robot whose arm has three prismatic joints, whose axes are coincident with a Cartesian coordinator.

•Cylindrical robot: Used for assembly
operations, handling at machine tools, spot welding, and handling at diecasting machines. It's a robot whose axes form a cylindrical coordinate system.

Spherical/Polar robot: Used for
handling at machine tools, spot welding, diecasting, fettling machines, gas welding and arc welding. It's a robot whose axes form a polar coordinate system.

SCARA robot: Used for pick and place work, application of sealant, assembly operations and handling machine tools. It's a robot which has two parallel rotary joints to provide compliance in a plane.

Used for assembly operations, diecasting, fettling machines, gas welding, arc welding and spray painting. It's a robot whose arm has at least three rotary joints.

Parallel robot: One
use is a mobile platform handling cockpit flight simulators. It's a robot whose arms have concurrent prismatic or

What are the parts of a robot?

•Manipulator •Pedestal •Controller •End Effectors •Power Source

(Mimics the human arm)

• Base • Appendages
-Shoulder -Arm -Grippers

(Human waist)

• Supports the

• Acts as a


(The brain)

• Issues instructions to
the robot. devices.

• Controls peripheral • Interfaces with robot. • Interfaces with

End Effectors • Spray paint
• Welding

attachments attachments

• Vacuum heads • Hands • Grippers

Power Source

(The food)

• Electric • Pneumatic • Hydraulic

Knowledgebase for Robotics
Typical knowledgebase for the design and operation of robotics systems Dynamic system modeling and analysis Feedback control Sensors and signal conditioning Actuators and power electronics Hardware/computer interfacing Computer programming
Disciplines: mathematics, physics, biology, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, computer engineering, and computer science

Key Components Power conversion unit Sensors Controller User interface Manipulator linkage Base Actuators

Robot Mechanism: Mechanical Elements
Gear, rack, pinion, etc.

Inclined plane wedge

Chain and sprocket

Cam and Follower

Lever Slider-Crank Linkage

Sensors: I
•Human senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell provide us vital information to function and survive •Robot sensors: measure robot configuration/condition and its environment and send such information to robot controller as electronic signals (e.g., arm position, presence of toxic gas) •Robots often need information that is beyond 5 human senses (e.g., ability to: see in the dark, detect tiny amounts of invisible radiation, measure movement that is too small or fast for the human eye to see)

Accelerometer Using Piezoelectric Effect

Flexiforce Sensor

Sensors: II

Vision Sensor: e.g., to pick bins, perform inspection, etc. Part-Picking: Robot can handle work pieces that are randomly piled by using 3-D vision sensor. Since alignment operation, a special parts feeder, and an alignment pallete are not required, an automatic system can be constructed at low cost.

In-Sight Vision Sensors

Sensors: III
Force Sensor: e.g., parts fitting and insertion, force feedback in robotic surgery
Parts fitting and insertion: Robots can do precise fitting and insertion of machine parts by using force sensor. A robot can insert parts that have the phases after matching their phases in addition to simply inserting them. It can automate high-skill jobs.

Actuators: I
•Common robotic actuators utilize combinations of different electro-mechanical devices •Synchronous motor •Stepper motor •AC servo motor •Brushless DC servo motor •Brushed DC servo motor

Actuators: II

Hydraulic Motor

Pneumatic Cylinder

Stepper Motor

Pneumatic Motor

DC Motor

Servo Motor

•Provide necessary intelligence to control the manipulator/mobile robot •Process the sensory information and compute the control commands for the actuators to carry out specified tasks

Controller Hardware: I
Storage devices: e.g., memory to store the control program and the state of the robot system obtained from the sensors

Controller Hardware: II
Computational engine that computes the control commands

RoboBoard Robotics Controller

BASIC Stamp 2 Module

Controller Hardware: III
Interface units: Hardware to interface digital controller with the
external world (sensors and actuators)

Analog to Digital Converter




LM1458 dual operational amplifier

Quality:  Robots have the capacity to dramatically improve product quality.  Applications are performed with precision and high repeatability every time.  This level of consistency can be hard to achieve any other way.


With robots, throughput speeds increase, which directly impacts production. Because robots have the ability to work at a constant speed without pausing for breaks, sleep, vacations, they have the potential to produce more than a human worker.

 Safety:
 

Robots increase workplace safety. Workers are moved to supervisory roles, so they no longer have to perform dangerous applications in hazardous settings.

 Savings:

Greater worker safety leads to financial savings. There are fewer healthcare and insurance concerns for employers. Robots also offer untiring performance which saves valuable time. Their movements are always exact, so less material is wasted.


Expense: The initial investment of robots is significant, especially when business owners are limiting their purchases to new robotic equipment. The cost of automation should be calculated in light of a business' greater financial budget. Regular maintenance needs can have a financial toll as well.


Employees will require training in programming and interacting with the new robotic equipment. This normally takestime and financial output.


Robots may protect workers from some hazards, but in the meantime, their very presence can create other safety problems. These new dangers must be taken into consideration.


They are program from humans for necessary reasons.

We do not have to pay them. They complete orders more accurate than humans mostly They follow orders as what they are programmed by us to be. They can improved the future in many ways (refer to the five examples of robots advantages). Creates new jobs.


The are extremely expensive. costs for maintainence. Creates job loses Hard to construct. Some companies will lag behind in industries due to the lack of sufficient financial resources and technical expertise. require more space, and new technology to accommodate robotics system and robots. Imperative in hiring skilled engineers, programmers, and others to set up robotics system and robots to avoid future dillemas and mishaps.

Future of robotics

What does the future hold for robotics? What is the next step, or the next technological boundary to overcome? The general trend for computers seems to be faster processing speed, greater memory capacity and so on. One would assume that the robots of the future would become closer and closer to the decision-making ability of humans and also more independent. Indeed, the human skeletal and muscular systems are complicated for many reasons.Presumably, once robots have the ability perform a much wider array of tasks, and voice recognition software improves such that computers can interpret complicated sentences in varying accents, we may in fact see robots doing our housework and carrying out other tasks in the physical world.

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