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Chapter 9

High-Speed Digital Access:


DSL, Cable Modem, and SONET
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9.1 DSL Technology

ADSL Other DSL Technologies

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Note: ADSL is an asymmetric communication technology designed for residential users; it is not suitable for businesses.

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Note: The existing local loops can handle bandwidths up to 1.1 MHz.

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Note: ADSL is an adaptive technology. The system uses a data rate based on the condition of the local loop line.

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Figure 9.1

DMT

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Figure 9.2

Bandwidth division

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Figure 9.3

ADSL modem

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Figure 9.4

DSLAM

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9.2 Cable Modem Traditional Cable Networks HFC Network Sharing CM and CMTS DOCSIS

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Figure 9.5 Traditional cable TV network

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Note: Communication in the traditional cable TV network is unidirectional.

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Figure 9.6

HFC network

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Note: Communication in an HFC cable TV network can be bidirectional.

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Figure 9.7

Coaxial cable bands

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Note: Downstream data are modulated using the 64-QAM modulation technique.

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Note: The theoretical downstream data rate is 30 Mbps.

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Note: Upstream data are modulated using the QPSK modulation technique.

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Note: The theoretical upstream data rate is 12 Mbps.

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Figure 9.8

Cable modem

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Figure 9.9

CMTS

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9.3 SONET
SONET Devices SONET Frame Frame Transmission Synchronous Transport Signals STS-1 Virtual Tributaries Higher-Rate Service
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Note: SONET is a synchronous TDM system controlled by a master clock.

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Figure 9.10

A SONET

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Figure 9.11 Frame format

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Table 9.1 SONET rates


STS STS-1 STS-3 STS-9 OC OC-1 OC-3 OC-9 Rate (Mbps) 51.84 155.52 466.56 SPE (Mbps) 50.12 150.336 451.008 User (Mbps) 49.536 148.608 445.824

STS-12
STS-18

OC-12
OC-18

622.08
933.12

601.344
902.016

594.432
891.648

STS-24
STS-36 STS-48 STS-192

OC-24
OC-36 OC-48 OC-192

1244.16
1866.23 2488.32 9953.28

1202.688
1804.032 2405.376 9621.604

1188.864
1783.296 2377.728 9510.912

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Figure 9.12

Data rate

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Figure 9.13

VT types

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Figure 9.14

STS multiplexing

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