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Submitted by:Rakesh Kumar Padhy 0901106221 Electrical engineering

Power Factor: An Introduction Types of circuit
Linear Circuit Non-linear Circuit

Importance of power factor in distribution systems Disadvantages of low power factor PFC in linear loads The APFC (Automatic Power Factor Correction) unit Parts of the APFC unit Maintenance of the APFC unit Conclusion

Power factor: An introduction

It is the ratio of real power flowing through the load to the apparent power in the circuit It is also defined as the cosine of the angle between the voltage and current phases It is a dimensionless no between 0 and 1 Whether the current is leading or lagging the power factor is termed as leading or lagging PF correspondingly

Types of Circuit
There are two types of circuits based on the type of current waveform
Linear loads Non-linear loads

The type of loads which doesnt change the current waveform shape are known as linear loads The loads on the others case which change the shape (distort) the current waveform are termed as non-linear loads Distortion decreases average power transmitted to the load

Variation of PF in transmission systems

Generally due to inductive loads the power factor never remains unity in reality A capacitive network gives reactive power and an inductive network takes the same In both the cases the power factor becomes less than 1 causing more current to be transferred for the same amount of real power

Disadvantages of low PF
Voltage regulation becomes poor Greater amount of apparent power needed to get the same amount of real power The increase in reactive power increases the current flowing through the network Size of the transformer, switch gears etc. increase thereby increasing the transmission cost

Power Factor Correction for linear loads

Various methods of power factor correction (PFC) are adopted to minimize the apparent power as: Using capacitor banks in Automatic Power Factor Correction (APFC) units For high voltage rating the power electronic devices such as Static VAR compensator or STATCOM are used Its also a good practice to use an unloaded synchronous motor

APFC unit
Its an automatic system adjusting itself to control the power factor above a desired value by a bank of capacitors switched by means of contractors Contractors are controlled by a regulator that measures PF in the network Depending upon the load PF the controller will adjust the PF by switching the necessary no of capacitors from the bank

Parts of the APFC unit

1.Reactive power control relay Capable of measuring the reactive and active power of the network Works in conjunction with a capacitor bank Controls the programmed target PF by activating/deactivating the capacitors

The main functions of the reactive power control relay Automatic connection detection (Star or Delta) Automatic detection of capacitor stages Patented characteristics avoiding compensation of very low active power Reactive power requirement-switching delay time Alarm signals for
Failure to reach the target PF Overcurrent in the capacitor Defects at capacitor stages

2.Network connection points Since the power factor of the loads is to be compensated hence the connection of the APFC unit is always done in parallel with the supply connection. Generally Y- connection of the capacitor bank is preferred because the transmission distribution of three phase distribution system above 132 kv is Y connected always

3.Slow-blow switches Slow blow switches are always used because of the following requirements To sustain the inrush and starting current surges due to varrying loads It offers a time delay between overloading and fusing They can withstand heavy currents (about ten times the rated)

4.Inrush current contactors Used for damping the inrush current arising due to Remaining capacitor voltage due to fast switching Short circuit power of supply Fault level of supply networks The contractors also protect the welding of the main contacts of the contactors Prevent the capacitors from high stress

5.Capacitor Bank The capacitor bank is the main part of the APFC units. Large capacitor banks are installed in the APFCs which switch in order to meet the desired power factor requirement. Each capacitor is individually fused with appropriately sized current limit fuse.

6.Control Transformer Monitors the switchboard load (or load to be corrected) Placed physically above (towards the supply) the connections for the PFC system In case more than one transformers are fitted they are always connected in series as they work as CT

Maintenance of the APFC unit

The major maintenance checks involved for the APFC unit are In out of maximum demand hours (eg. Late nights or weekends) switch off the system after internal and external checks Remove contactor tops and inspect for contact wear, check capacitance of each capacitor Check (and adjust if necessary) all connections to contactors, capacitors, fuses etc. Re-energize system and check current (true RMS) and harmonics drawn by each capacitor step. Check voltage level and fuses

Hence the APFC units correct the power factor above a decided value by switching the appropriate no of capacitors from the capacitor bank In non-linear loads we use inductors, filters, valley-fill circuit etc. to suppress harmonics as they cause the current wave form to be distorted