Week 4-120808_035454 | Learning Theory (Education) | Learning Styles

SMB 3004

Practical approaches to developing learning
By Wan Hendra Wan Hamzah

The Learning Cycle
Set (new goals)

Review progress achieve goals

Plan to

Implement the plan

Set goals (Start)
- Identify the aim of the learning activity, that is, to identify what they want to achieve. - emphasis is on specific goals. - Once the specific goals are developed, learners will go on to set specific objectives. Objectives are things that will be carried out to help achieve the specific goals

Plan to achieve goals
 make plans of how to carry out their learning  Details plan.

Implement the plan
 Once all the plans have been made it is time for implementation. Whatever is planned is now carried out and all the resources that were identified are now used.  Learners must now participate actively in the learning and they must produce the outcome of the learning that is they must demonstrate the skills acquired

Review progress
 The implementation of the plans will be followed by a review process. Here learners will reflect on the goals achieved, whether they are effective or not.  Learners will also have to identify reasons for under-achievement. To do this learners will have to reflect on the learning process that they went through.

Learning cycles
 Lewis and Allan have described the stages and activities in learning cycles as follow:  Individual level -learning to use new software package. -chairing a meeting -giving difficult feedback.  Team level -completing a project -achievement of monthly targets -development of goals for next year

 Whole organisation level -development of 3 year plan. -analysis of sources of income for previous month -review of the staff development process

Learning Styles
 Different people learn in different ways  Learning style is the way or method by which a person prefers to learn and remember what he or she has learnt  In an organization it is very important to know the preferred learning style of the members in a learning project because it will make them be involved actively in the learning and to keep them from abandoning the learning.

 Three primary learning styles existed. The three styles are:  Visual-A visual learner is a person who learns and remembers best by seeing.  Auditory-An auditory learners is someone who learns best by listening.  Kinesthetic-A kinesthetic learner learns by doing or using his or her sense of touch.

 Honey and Mumford four learning styles: b) Activists – Become fully involved in new experiences,living for the here and now and trying anything once.Like to learn by doing things. c) Reflectors – Stand back from action and observe from variety of angles before coming to conclusions.Like to learn by bringing together lots of ideas and theories and weighing up the best approach.Enjoy sitting and listening to ideas and stories.

c) Theorist – Are logical,developing sound and complex theories from their observations.Prefer objectives than subjective judgments.Like to collect information.Unhappy about acting without sufficient information. d) Pragmatists – Like to try out things to see if they work in practice. They want to put new ideas into immediate practice.

 According to Kolb, learning styles could be seen on a continuum running from: • Concrete experience: being involved in a new experience • Reflective observation: watching others or developing observations about own experience • Abstract conceptualization: Creating theories to explain observations • Active experimentation: using theories to solve problems, make decisions

 Hartman (1995) took Kolb's learning styles and gave examples of how one might teach to each of them: • for the concrete experience - offer laboratories, field work, observations or trigger films • for the reflective observer - use logs, journals or brainstorming • for the abstract conceptualizer - lectures, papers and analogies work well • for the active experimenter - prefer simulations, case studies and homework

 Litzinger and Osif (1992) break it down into several process of cognition, conceptualization and affective.  Cognition is how one acquires knowledge.  Conceptualization is how one process information like looking for connections among unrelated events or events triggering a multitude of ideas.  Affective is people's motivation, decisionmaking styles, values and emotional preferences. All these will help to define a person's learning styles.

Single and Double Loop Learning  In single loop learning, the learning cycle is used as a means of improving current activities and perhaps organization procedures as well.  In double loop learning the situation is more complex. Double loop learning involves thinking and challenging accepted practices and strategies.

The Learning Theory
1.Anchored instructions -become an important paradigm for technology-based learning that has been developed by the Cognition & Technology Group at Vanderbilt (CTGV) under the leadership of John Bransford. The video materials serve as `anchors' (macrocontexts) for all subsequent learning and instruction

The Learning Theory
2. Contiguity theory -E. Guthrie originated the contiguity theory.

Contiguity theory specifies that `a combination of stimuli which has accompanied a movement will on its recurrence tend to be followed by that movement'. -Contiguity theory further suggests that forgetting is due to interference rather than the passage of time; stimuli become associated with new responses and old responses become `unlearned'. - In this theory, the role of motivation is to create a state of arousal and activity that produces responses that can be conditioned.

The Learning Theory
2.Constructivist theory -developed by Bruner is that learning is an active

process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge. -Cognitive structure (i.e. schema, mental models) provides meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to `go beyond the information given'. -teacher should try and encourage students to discover principles by themselves. The teacher and student should engage in an active dialog (i.e. socratic learning); -Curriculum should be organized in a spiral manner so that the student continually builds upon what they have already learned.

The Learning Theory
3.Conditions of learning -Conditions of learning were developed by R. Gagne.
His theory stipulates that there are several different types or levels of learning. -The significance of these classifications is that different types of learning require different types of instruction. Gagne identifies five major categories of learning:  Verbal information,  Intellectual skills,  Cognitive strategies,  Motor skills and  Attitudes.

The Learning Theory
5. Dual coding theory -Proposed by Paivio attempts to give equal weight

to verbal and non-verbal processing. -The theory assumes that there are two cognitive subsystems, one specialized for the representation and processing of nonverbal objects/events (i.e. imagery), and the other specialized for dealing with language. -Dual Coding theory identified three types of processing: (1) representational, the direct activation of verbal or non-verbal representations, (2) referential, the activation of the verbal system by the nonverbal system or vice-versa, and (3) associative processing, the activation of representations within the same verbal or nonverbal system.

The Learning Theory
6.Experiential learning -C. Rogers distinguished two types of

learning: cognitive (meaningless) and experiential (significant). -Rogers lists these qualities of experiential learning as:  Personal involvement  Learner-initiated  Evaluated by learner  Pervasive effects on learner -To Rogers, experiential learning is equivalent to personal change and growth.

The Learning Theory
7.Genetic Epistemology -Jean Piaget conducted a program of naturalistic

research that has profoundly affected our understanding of child development. -The concept of cognitive structure is central to his theory. Cognitive structures are patterns of physical or mental action that underlie specific acts of intelligence and correspond to stages of child development. There are four primary cognitive structures (i.e. development stages) according to Piaget: Four Primary Cognitive Structures • Sensorimotor • Preoperations • Concrete operations • Formal operation

The Learning Theory
8.Information Processing Theory -George A. Miller has provided two theoretical ideas

that are fundamental to the information processing framework. -The first concept is `chunking' and the capacity of short term (working) memory. -A chunk could refer to digits, words, chess positions, or people's faces. -The second concept, that of information processing, uses the computer as a model for human learning.

The Learning Theory
9.Lateral thinking -Edward de Bono has written extensively about the
process of lateral thinking. -The point of lateral thinking is that many problems require a different perspective to solve successfully. -De Bono identifies four critical factors associated with lateral thinking.Thinking • Recognize dominant ideas that polarize the perception of a problem • • • Searching for differ ways of looking at things Relaxation of rigid control of thinking Use of chance to encourage other ideas

The Learning Theory
10.Multiple Intelligences. -Was popularized by Howard Gardner. Multiple
Intelligences theory is a pluralized way of understanding the intellect. -Howard Gardner has identified seven such faculties, which he labels as `intelligences':  Musical Intelligence  Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence  Logical-Mathematical Intelligence  Linguistic Intelligence  Spatial Intelligence  Interpersonal Intelligence  Intrapersonal Intelligence

The Learning Theory
11.Operant Conditioning -The theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea

that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. -Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. -Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner's S-R theory. A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response.

The Learning Theory
12.Situated Learning -J. Lave argues that learning as it normally occurs is
a function of the activity, context and culture in which it occurs (i.e. it is situated). -This contrasts with traditional classroom learning activities which involve knowledge which is often presented in an abstract form and out of context. -Social interaction (Social Development Theory) is a critical component of situated learning--learners become involved in a `community of practice' which embodies certain beliefs and behaviors to be acquired.

The Learning Theory
13.Social Development Theory -The major theme of L. Vygotsky's theoretical

framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. -Second aspect of Vygotsky's theory is the idea that the potential for cognitive development is limited to a certain time span, which he calls the `zone of proximal development' (ZPD). -Vygotsky's theory is a key component of situated learning theory and anchored instruction. Because Vygotsky's focus was on cognitive development

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