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MBA

3th Jan 2009

FOUNDATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR
1. Understanding self
2. Personality ,
3. Perception ,
4. values ,
5. Attitudes,
6. job satisfaction
Understanding self
 One of the most important Leadership
Qualities is understanding self.
 Everyone can learn to lead by discovering
the
power that lies within each one of us to
make a difference and being prepared when
the call to lead comes.
 Understanding self is the first step towards
understanding others.
Person in an organization is product of

Learning/Shaping/Experience

Education
Mental /Physical Training Skills /Knowledge
Self development

Abilities

Input Output :Behavior

Personality
Motive

Drivers

Competencies : Behavioral indicators for Knowledge /skill /abilities /motives and personality
Definitions
 1. Capability is the mental or physical power to do
something: Individuals capability is product of knowledge ,
skills , personality traits and motivations .
Unrealized power
Capability Demonstrated power

 2. Competency refers to the demonstrated observed power due to
Knowledge /skills , motivations /personality traits etc to deliver
superior results :

 4. Talent emphasizes inborn ability, especially in the arts: numbers
,music , games etc

 5. Skill stresses knowledge (operational/conceptual) acquired or
developed through experience:

6. Attitude : Evaluative statements or judgments concerning
objects , people or events . ( product of values , emotions/ feelings )

 7. Aptitude /Interest : Innate interest in some functional area ie
mechanical , computers etc
Individual : Exhibited

 INTERESTS: Things that you enjoy,
that make you happy.
 SKILLS: Things that you do well,
abilities and aptitudes.
 VALUES: Things which are important
to you.
 PERSONALITY: Traits that you have,
your natural tendencies.
Finally Individual is a product of
– Born with o : IQ and talents
– Develops :Feelings/Emotions : Resulting in
attitudes
– What he Needs /wants : Motivation /Desires
– What he acquires : Knowledge and skills and
values from external environment

 Finally How he exhibits in terms of behavior
in terms of Personality traits
 Individual being sub unit of organization ,his behavior
results into overall organizational behavior
What is intelligence
 Two British psychologists , Cyril Burt and C. E. Spearman
both supported two principles: (1) intelligence is a single,
measurable entity, and (2) it is innate and
unchangeable.
 University of Chicago psychologist L. L. Thurstone (1887-
1955) disagreed, contending that there were seven primary
mental abilities: (1)verbal comprehension, (2)word
fluency, (3)computational ability, (4)spatial
visualization,(5) associative memory, (6)perceptual
speed, and(7) reasoning.
 Another psychologist Guilford found 120 types of mental
abilities.
 Today IQ testing is used not primarily for children, but
for adults. Today we attempt to write tests that will
determine an adult's true mental potential, unbiased by
culture, and compare scores to the scores of other adults who
have taken the same test.
Intelligence IQ
 Originally, IQ, was used to detect children of lower
intelligence in order to place them in special education
programs.
 The first intelligence test for school children was
developed in Paris by Alfred Binet between 1905 and
1911.
 The first IQ tests were designed to compare a child's
intelligence to what his or her intelligence "should be" as
compared to the child's age.
 If the child was significantly "smarter" than a "normal"
child of his or her age, the child was given a higher score,
and if the child scored lower than expected for a child of
his or her age, the child was given a lower IQ score.
IQ Score : How calculated
 To compute IQ, Stern divided mental age by the actual,
chronological age of the person taking the test and then
multiplied by 100 to get rid of the decimal point. So, a child
who was eight years old and answered the test questions as
well as a twelve-year-old scored than his intelligence
quotient (IQ) of 12/8 x 100, or 150.
 This formula works well for comparing children, but
since intelligence levels off in adulthood, it is not
appropriate for adults. (A thirty-year-old who answers
questions as well as an average twenty-year-old would have an IQ of
only 20/30 x 100, or 66. )
 So intelligence tests today no longer use the IQ formula.
Instead, the score on a modern intelligence test compares a
person’s performance with others his/her own age, while
arbitrarily defining the average score as 100. By convention,
most people still use the term IQ to refer to a score on an
intelligence test.
IQ Score Interpretation
Sn Intelligence Cognitive
interval designation
1 40-54 Severely challenged
2 55-69 Challenged
3 70-84 Below Average
4 85-114 Average
5 115-129 Above average
6 130-144 Gifted
7 145-159 Genius
8 160-175 Extra Ordinary Genius
*
Limitation of Intelligence Tests
 Performance on mathematical and linguistic
tasks, which form the bulk of academic
assessments, are taken as a yardstick of
the student's overall intelligence.
 Second, we overlook other talents and do
not provide sufficient opportunities for
students to explore and excel in other
domains.
 Children having other talents for music ,
sports , creative works are dubbed as non
intelligent due to narrow definition . But
these are some of the qualities , that make
people succeed later on in the jobs.
Intelligence Tests : current
Practices

 Most intelligence tests consist of a number of subtests
that assess abilities such as (a) verbal (b)
mathematical reasoning, © logical thinking, (d)
vocabulary and (e) general knowledge — abilities that
are generally required in a traditional scholastic
environment
 In SRF , OTIS test is one such mental ability test which
measures overall intelligence in verbal reasoning
,numerical reasoning , spatial skills, English etc as
one overall factor of mental ability.
Intelligence : What it is ?
 Fundamental questions that are raised ?
(a) Is intelligence one general ability or several
independent systems of abilities?
(b) Is intelligence a property of the brain, a
characteristic of behavior, or a set of knowledge
and skills?
 North Americans often associate verbal and
mathematical skills with intelligence,
 Some in the islands of the South Pacific view
spatial memory and navigational skills as markers
of intelligence.
Intelligence : some consensus ?

Intelligence exists as a very general
mental capability involving ability to
reason, plan, solve problems, think
abstractly, comprehend complex ideas,
learn quickly and learn from experience.
The brain processes involved are little understood.
(52 psychologists, from all over the world concluded as above
wide article published in the December 13, 1994 Wall Street
Journal),
I. Mental ability part of the personality

 Intellectual ability
 IQ is measure of Intellectual ability
 Seven important components that are
normally associated with IQ are
1. Number aptitude
2. Verbal comprehension
3. Perceptual speed
4. Inductive reasoning
5. Deductive reasoning
6. Spatial visualization
7. Memory
II. Psychological profile
 The key part of the psychological
personality is emotional ability.
 Various personality traits give the indication
of emotion ability of the person
 Eg how confident he/she is in social
situations and office situations
 How does one related to others
 How does he/she cares
PERSONALITY :defined

 Personality *of a Person is defined as “the complex set of
attributes--behavioral, temperamental, emotional and
mental--that characterize a unique individual “
 Personality is also can be defined as characteristics inside
people that explain why they do what they do
 Personality is sum total of innate and acquired abilities ,
skills, knowledge , motivations and traits that drive a person
to perform .
 Personality is How people manage themselves (think & act )
and relate to people around them ( in workplace )
 Personality is concerned with a person's preferred way of
behaving , thinking and feeling .
* :Dynamic Vs Static
Personality Determinants : heredity Or Environment

 It is shaped by heredity as well as environment
shaped by situational factors .
 Heredity
 Environment
 Situation
 A Unit of personality is called Trait ie Enduring
characteristics ( repeatedly displayed ) that describe
a individuals behavior
 Shyness ,aggressiveness, caring ,submissive
,laziness ,loyalty ,timidity etc/
Primary traits P-94
Sixteen Primary Traits
1 Reserved Outgoing
 Researches isolated 171 2 Less intelligent More intelligent
traits that form
3 Affected by feeling Emotionally
personality . stable
4 Submissive Dominant
 But 16 of them are
constant and are main 5 Serious Happy go lucky
source of behavior or 6 Expedient Conscientious
predictors of behavior as 7 Timid Venturesome
per PF-16 test.
8 Tough minded Sensitive
 They are other tests
9 Trusting Suspicious
such as Big Five and
10 Practical Imaginative
OPQ 32 which also
measure various traits 11 Forthright Shrewd
12 Self assured Apprehensive
13 Conservative Experimenting
14 Gp dependent Self sufficient
15 Uncontrolled Controlled
16 Relaxed Tense
How does Personality gets displayed

 Behavior that you exhibit
 That part of the behaviors that predict
success on the job are called
competencies .They are called behavioral
indicators
 Competency of a personality of person is
also depended on “opportunities he gets
*Motivations
 Intrinsic
 Extrinsic

 Motivation Theories
 Maslow
 Herzberg

 McClelland

* Will be separately covered
Competency ,Knowledge & skills
 Knowledge : is understanding “know how” underpinning
of the area.
 Conceptual ( when it is theoretical)
 Practical (Ability to link with work place )
 Skill : is application of knowledge over a period of time .It
can be at different levels
 Novice /Beginner
 Semiskilled ( can operate )
 Skilled ( Can solve problems )
 Expert ( Can train others )
 Competency (1) :An indicator of knowledge , skill or ability
in terms of behavior which results in superior performance
Competency : Result of
PAST DISPOSITIONS
EXPERIENCE
Abilities
Skills Personality
Knowledge Motivation

Software Hardware

Indicators COMPETENCIES
Behaviours

Opportunities

Competence
Link between Competency & Personality

 Competency is that part of Overall
personality that indicates the success of the
candidate for that particular job profile.
 It is knowledge , skills , abilities , Motivation
that is needed for superior performance on
the job.
 It is measured in terms of positive /negative
indicators in terms of defined behaviors.
Finally :
 what is overall Personality gets
displayed
 Inputs /Triggers
 Process ( How it is processed )
 Outputs ( How it is displayed )
Overall Psychological Personality

Division of Brain brain
P C
Old Store

Right
Amygdla
Primary

Your Actions /
Thinking Behavior
feelings / (Voice /
Process Primary response emotions Secondary Tone
Situation Triggers
How do I respond Negative , positive , Words )
passive

Seconadary
External events
Emotional &
intellectual
Social
A Left
Processes
Here & now
Neocortex
Learning & problem solving

.( Change your thoughts and you change your world “)
Individual in industry is factor of

Software
Hardware
How you feel & behave at
What you have Personality/ Workplace & relate with people
Innate & acquired Behavior &
Abilities , Motivation
Skills
Psychometric assessments

Body of knowledge

Job or domain knowledge
Psychometric Assessment: Traits
 Assessment techniques focus on
measuring the competencies for
managing self and managing others at
workplace in terms of behavior traits or
Types .
 Hence Trait or Type is being measured
through Personality tests.
 Traits are deemed to be better predictor
of the behavior compared to Type .
Three Types of Test Instruments

How you act & display
What you have Psychometric

Ability Tests •MBTI
•Attainment tests •16 PF
•Aptitude tests : Verbal •Big Five
reasoning, Numerical , •OPQ & MQ
•IQ tests •EQ

Interest tests
•General Occupational test
•Engg / Artist / Doctor
•Management Interest Inv test

What Interests you as a career
Types of Tests /Instruments
 Ability tests ( to measure what you have )
 Aptitude Tests
 IQ tests
 Attainment tests
 Personality tests( to measure how you act /display )
 Type ( MBTI ,Personality Type A/B ,belvin)
 Trait ( 16 pf , big 5 ,Thomas ) OPQ
 Motivation Tests ( MQ)
 Interest Inventories ( to measure which area suits you )
 Mechanical , Arts , Computers
Perception

3rd Jan 2009
Definition
 Is a process by which individuals
organize and interpret their
sensory impressions in order to
give meaning to their work
environment.
Perception: Input to decisions
 Is a important factor in decision making
and interpersonal relations .
 One takes decision based on how he
perceives the information ,data , thoughts
,ideas based on the meaning he gives .
 Two people can see same thing and
interpret it differently based on their ego
profile.
 A Manager who can differentiate between
perception and facts gives better decisions.
 Most often employees become victim or
gainer in PMS due to perception .
Factors influencing perception
Factors in perceiver /Target / Situation
makes a difference
2. Perceivers personality
 His /Her own Attitudes
 His Motives
 His Interests
 His /her Experience
 His /Her Expectations
2. Situation
 Time
 Work setting
 Social setting
3. Target
 Novelty
 Motion
 Sounds
 Size
 Background
 Similarity
 Proximity
Perception examples
 Eg Reaction to rewards is filtered
by perception , which is individuals
own view of the world. People
perceive their environment based on
the own experiences and values .
 Different colors can give different
meaning to different religious people.
Attribution