Malaria can be prevented by controlling malaria mosquitoes, either by reducing the malaria mosquitoes population or by preventing them from

biting. Mosquito (Vector) control methods include those that; a. Kill adult mosquitoes and reduce the survival rate of Adult mosquito population. b. Protect human from mosquitoes bites c. Reduce or prevent mosquitoes breeding

PREVENTION OF MALARIA

• • Insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) Indoor residual spraying (IRS)  Methods that prevent mosquitoes biting humans • • • ITNs Untreated mosquito nets Products for domestic use such as insecticide sprays.vaporising mats and repellents . The two most commonly used methods for killing adult mosquitoes include. coils.

Methods that inhibit mosquito breeding include • Destruction of larvae through chemical or biological control • Environmental mgt to reduce breeding sources. In insecticidal control of Adult mosquitoes involves:  Insecticide treated mosquito nets  Distribution and delivery of ITN  Information. A. Education and communication .

Chemicals used for treating mosquito nets include.  Permethrin 10%  Deltamethrin 1%  Deltamethrin 25%  Lambda-alhalothrin 25%  Cyfluthrin 5%  Etofenprox 10%  Alpha cypermethrin 10% .

.  Insecticide Retreatment – Annually or twice a year  Delivery mechanisms for Retreatment Include • Mass treatment campaigns which can provide quick and comprehensive coverage in the community • Mobile RX services which may involve market days or door to door agents • Fixed Rx services where people are able to take their nets when they wish . • Dip –it yourself kits for individual next Rx that people can use their homes. Safety guidelines  Checking the insecticidal power of the net.

arabiensis in Africa have their main biting times between 10pm and 4am. A gambiae and A. • Mosquitoes find it difficult to fly far with a blood meal inside them.In door residual spraying (IRS) An insecticide is sprayed on to the inside walls of ceilings Most but not all mosquitoes rest in doors before and after biting This is because • Malaria mosquitoes tend to bite when people are asleep. As it approximately double their weight. .

. •Some mosquitoes which bite cattle outside come indoors to rest. houses are relatively humid and cool places for mosquitoes spend the day.In door residual spraying (IRS) Cont’d •In hot dry countries.

fluviatilis in indian sub continent  A. funestus in tropical and southern Africa  A. darlingi in south America  A. albimanus in central America and northwestern south America  Note. House spraying conditions • coverage • Species of malaria mosquitoes has to be able to rest indoors for long periods • susceptibility of mosquitoes to insecticides used • Safe application of insecticide  Species targeted for house spraying  A.gambiae and A. dirus leaves house immediately after blood feeding . A.

Insecticides commonly used for house spraying against malaria mosquitoes include:  Organochlorines (DDT)  Organophosphates • Malathion • Fenitrothion • Primiphomethyl  Carbamates (Bendiocard)  Pyrethroids • Deltamethrin • Lambda –cyhalothrin .

6. 3. 7. 4. Spraying operations sprayer should wear overalls A cap or hat with a broad or brim to minimize insecticide droplets Rubber gloves Rubber boots Goggles and gauze face masks . 5.Safety applications 1. 2.

numerous and shifting such as small Rain tunnels –puddles and hoof prints .3.control of mosquito larvae Each Anopheles species has a characteristic range of preferred breeding sites Species • Anopheles darlingi • Anopheles minimus • Anopheles gambiae Preferred breeding sites slow –moving rivers foothill –streams and ditches typically small.

numerous and shifting such as small Rain tunnels –puddles and hoof prints wells and water tank • Anopheles stephensi .control of mosquito larvae Cont’d Species • Anopheles umbrosu • Anopheles abimanus Preferred breeding sites complete shade typically small.3.

Five steps in targeting bleeding sites Identify important malaria vectors Find out the breeding habits of these malaria vectors Locate all potential breeding sites Target the most productive breeding sites Divide the target area into sections and assign responsibility for action. .

Methods of attacking breeding sites Laviciding       Oils Synthetic insecticides Pyrethroids Insect growth regulators Bacterial insecticide Natural products .

.Methods of attacking breeding sites Cont’d Biological control Environmental control  Filling and draining  Constructing small dams  Opportunistic interventions Bioenvironmental Grass cutting myth Malaria can also be prevented in pregnant women by use of (IPT).

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