You are on page 1of 39

I

How to write an essay?

How to write an essay?

Research
Find other essays written on the same topic to learn as much as possible about the topic at hand.

How to write an essay?

Analysis
While reading other essays, try to analyze arguments, claims, reasons, evidence and weaknesses or strengths of logic.

How to write an essay?

Brainstorming
A prewriting technique that helps you create a list of words or phrases with all the ideas you have about a topic.

Parent-teen communication Problems talking with my father Called me immature sometimes Occasionally shouted Too tense Seemed overly critical My friends father Seemed to have a sense of humor about everything, not so serious, easygoing Guidance counselor Always calm, no hurry, always listened What prevents a good talk with a parent? persons voiceloud, soft, angry, calm Name calling, putdowns words that hurt bad language body languageno eye contact, frowning, glaring authoritarian or controlling monopolizing the conversation tense withdrawal or the silent treatment disrespectful and rude rushed, not listening rigid, wont consider any other viewpoint sarcastic

Organized Version Advice to Parents: How to Communicate with Your Teens Choose your words carefully do not call people names do not belittle themuse example of my father do not use bad language do not be disrespectful do not be mean or sarcastic do not use the silent treatment or monopolize the talk Listen to the way you sound, your tone, your attitude watch the volume of your voiceuse example of your friends father wait until you have calmed down so you do not sound angry and tense dont sound rushed and hurried, as if you have no time to listen dont sound too controlling Take a look at your body language work at being calm and relaxed do not withdraw; if possible give the person a hug or a pat on the shoulder no physical abusepushing, shoving, slapping what is your facial expression (frowning, glaring, smirking, no eye contact)?

How to write an essay?

Clustering
A prewriting technique that connects items on the brainstorming list.

How to write an essay?

Outline
The most formal method of organizing prewriting ideas, uses numerals and letters to distinguish between major headings and subheadings of your essay.

Thesis Statement
A thesis statement gives the main idea of an essay. It may show the writers viewpoint toward the topic or show how the writer intends to treat the topic. We say that the thesis has a controlling idea. This most important sentence is usually placed at the end of the introductory paragraph.

Thesis Statement
thesis statement: All-day kindergarten programs benefit children in several important ways.

title: The Advantages of All-Day Kindergarten

fact: Very few kindergartens in the United States offer a full day of instruction.

Exercises: Thesis Statement


If the statement is a thesis, mark TH If the statement is a title, mark T If the statement is a fact, mark F -----------------------------------------------

1. In the United States, kindergarten is not compulsory. 2. Children should begin learning to read in kindergarten. 3. Putting a child into kindergarten before he or she is ready can have several unfortunate effects on that child. 4. Learning to read in kindergarten 5. In some European countries, children do not begin formal schooling until the age of seven.
1. F 2. TH 3. TH 4. T 5. F

Exercises: Thesis Statement


1. It is estimated that two hundred grizzly bears live in Yellowstone National Park. 2. The survival of grizzly bears in our country should be a top priority. 3. When bears are young cubs, there are twice as many males as females. 4. Only about 60 percent of bear cubs survive the first few years of life. 5. Bears, a precious natural resource 6. The average life span of a bear today is only five or six years. 7. The sad plight of the American grizzly bear 8. Five actions need to be taken to save the grizzly bear from extinction. 9. To save the grizzly bear, we need laws from Congress, the cooperation of hunters and campers, and an educated general public. 10. A decision to save the grizzly bear

1. F 2. TH 3. F 4. F 5. T 6. F 7. T 8. TH 9. TH 10. T

CREATING AN EFFECTIVE THESIS STATEMENT


NARROWING THE SCOPE OF THE TOPIC Example

General topic: Studying Qualified topic: Studying in a group vs. studying alone Controlling idea: More helpful Strategy: description (sight, sound, taste, advantages, disadvantages, smell, touch) causes, effects, reasons, why, example, anecdote, definition, meaning, analysis classify, groups, types, kinds persuasion, argument, comparison, contrast process, steps, stages, how to Thesis statement: Studying in a group can sometimes be more helpful than studying alone.

CREATING AN EFFECTIVE THESIS STATEMENT


Exercise:language Games School Love Vacations Transportation Addiction Facebook Cars Travelling Egypt

What is an essay?
Introduction
-Orientate the reader -State thesis 1st Paragraph:-Topic sentence - Supporting details - Concluding sentence -2nd Paragraph:- Topic sentence -Supporting details -Concluding sentence

Body

Essay

Conclusion

-Restate thesis -Summarize argument

Advice to Parents: How to Communicate with Your Teens I. Introduction Topic Sentence: Parents need to consider their words, tone, and body language when they talk to their teens. II. Choose your words carefully. A. Do not call people names. 1. My father called me immature. 2. Parents sometimes use words like idiot. B. Do not use bad language. C. Do not be disrespectful. D. Do not monopolize the conversation. E. Do not use the silent treatment. III. Listen to your tone. A. Wait until you have calmed down so you do not sound angry and tense.

B. Watch the volume of your voice. 1. Stacys father speaks softly. 2. Stacys father speaks reassuringly. C. Taping a conversation would reveal tone. IV. Observe your body language. A. Notice your facial expression. 1. Are you glaring? 2. Are you full of rage? B. Make eye contact. C. Do not withdraw; if possible, give the person a hug or hold that persons hand. D. Physical abuse is never appropriate. V. Conclusion Parents who think about these three factors of communication will be able to avoid a lot of pain and heartache.

WRITING AN EFFECTIVE INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH


What is the Introductory Paragraph?

Introductory paragraph is the first paragraph of an essay. This introductory paragraph contains a thesis sentence.

How to write an Introductory Paragraph?


1. Begin with a general subject that can be narrowed down into the specific topic of your essay. OR 2. Begin with specifics (a brief anecdote, a specific example or fact) that will broaden into the more general topic of your essay. OR 3. Give a definition of the concept that will be discussed. OR 4. Make a startling statement.

How to write an Introductory Paragraph?


5. Start with an idea or statement that is a widely held point of view, and then surprise the reader by stating that this idea is false or that you hold a different point of view. 6. Start with a familiar quotation from a famous book or a famous person. 7. Give a number of descriptive images that will lead to the thesis of your essay. 8. Ask a question that you intend to answer. 9. Use classification to indicate how your topic fits into the larger class to which it belongs or how your topic can be divided into categories that you are going to discuss.

WHAT NOT TO SAY IN YOUR INTRODUCTION


1. Avoid telling your reader that you are beginning your essay: In this essay I will discuss . . . I will talk about . . . I am going to prove . . . 2. Do not apologize: Although I am not an expert . . . In my humble opinion . . . 3. Do not refer to later parts of your essay: By the end of this essay you will agree . . . In the next paragraph you will see . . .

WHAT NOT TO SAY IN YOUR INTRODUCTION


4. Do not use trite expressions. Because these expressions have been overused, they have lost all interest and effectiveness: busy as a bee you cant tell a book by its cover haste makes waste

Using Transitions
1 To make points stand out:

2 To provide an example: For example For instance

The first reason First of all In the first place Second, secondly Another example Even more important Also, next Then Finally Most important All in all In conclusion To summarize

3 to show consequence
Therefore As a result then

4 contrast
On the other hand

But
Contrary to current thinking however

Using Transitions
5 Admit a point: Of course granted

7 Call attention
Before attempting to

6 Resume argument:

Nevertheless Even though Nonetheless still

answer these questions, let me In our discussion so far, we have seen that At this point, it is necessary to It is beyond the scope of this paper to

Exercise: Find Transitions


Some world problems have a way of lingering and festering. They appear, disappear, then reappear again in the daily newspapers of the world. Usually theyre based on land: who controls it, who gets to live on it. In the past the U.S. and the RSSU usually took opposing sides in these conflicts. Sometimes there were very real moral reasons for backing one side or another, but many times the reasons were said to be geopolitical, which really meant if the Soviets were on one side, we decided to join the other and vice versa.

Exercise: Find Transitions


All this could get pretty cynical. For one thing, almost every obscure corner of the world was declared geopolitically strategic at one point or another. For another, the morality could get very dicey. For example, during the 1970s we supported Ethiopia and the Soviets supported Somalia in their dispute over the Ogaden, a dry and remote desert region populated by Somali nomads but controlled by Ethiopia. Naturally, we set up military posts in our ally Ethiopia and the Soviets put in military bases in their ally Somalia, and each superpower talked of its love of and historic ties to its ally. Then local Marxists seized control in Ethiopiaand after a short while the U.S. and the Soviets calmly switched client states. The U.S. moved into the former Soviet bases in Somalia, the Soviets moved into Ethiopia, and both sides started talking about their real ties to their new ally.

Exercise: Find Transitions


Of course, once the Cold War was over, no one cared about either nation anymore, and they both degenerated into anarchy, aided by mounds of heavy weapons and automatic rifles helpfully supplied by both sides. Finally we moved in to save Somalia from itself and our legacy of arms salesand congratulated ourselves on our humanity.

Effective Concluding Paragraph


1 Come full circle that is, return to the material in your introduction. OR 2 Summarize by repeating the main points. OR 3 Show the significance of your thesis by making predictions, giving warning, giving advice, offering a solution, suggesting an alternative or telling the results. OR 4 End with an anecdote that illustrates your thesis.

Examples of Conclusion Paragraph


1- Full circle:Living in the modern world, I cannot help but be shaped by it, suckered by the influence and impact of our great institutions. The New York Times, CBS, and Newsweek have made me into a news addict. In daily life I have come to accept the supposition that if the New York Times places a story on the front page, it deserves my attention. I feel obligated to know what is going on. But sometimes, in quieter moments, another voice asks: If the news went away, would the world be any worse for it?

Examples of Conclusion Paragraph


2- Summarize by repeating the main points:In summary, African art explains the past, describes values and a way of life, helps man relate to supernatural forces, mediates his social relations, expresses emotions, and enhances mans present life as an embellishment denoting pride or status as well as providing entertainment such as with dance and music.

Examples of Conclusion Paragraph


3- results:This pleasure goes on and on. In an average year we start making cider the second week of September, and we continue until early November. We make all we can drink ourselves, and quite a lot to give away. We have supplied whole church suppers. One year the girls sold about ten gallons to the village store, which made them some pocket money they were prouder of than any they ever earned from babysitting. Best of all, there are two months each year when all of us are running the farm together, just like a pioneer family.

Examples of Conclusion Paragraph


4- End with an anecdote:When I was a boy I had a neighbor, a man who, after retirement, had a number of strokes. An old man and a young boy, we had in common a love of sports, which, when we met on the street, was our only topic of conversation. He once inspected a new glove of mine, and instructed me to rub it down with neats-foot-oil, place a ball firmly in the pocket, wrap string tightly around the glove, and leave it like that for the winter. I did, and it worked. After his last stroke but one, he seldom left his house. Afternoons he spent in a chair in his bedroom, a blanket over his lap, listening to Cub games over the radio. It was while listening to a ball game that he quietly died. I cannot imagine a better way.

What NOT to say in the Conclusion


1 Do not introduce a new point. 2 Do not apologize. 3 Do not end up in the air, leaving the reading feeling unsatisfied. This happens if the last sentence is not strong enough.

What is Title?
1- it predicts content. 2- it catches the reader's interest. 3- it reflects the tone or slant of the piece of writing. 4- it contains keywords that will make it easy to access by a computer search.

How to Write a Title


Be sure to follow the standard procedure for writing your title:1. Capitalize the first and last words and all other principal words. This excludes articles (the, a, an), coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so), prepositions, and the to in infinitives. 2. Do not underline the title or put quotation marks around it.

3. Think of a short and catchy phrase (three to six words). Often writers wait until they have written a first draft before working on a title. A phrase taken from the essay might be perfect. If you still cannot think of a clever title after you have written a draft, choose some key words from your thesis statement.
4. Center the title at the top of the page, and remember to leave about an inch of space between the title and the beginning of the first paragraph.

How to Write a Title?


1. Copy out of your draft a sentence that could serve as a title. 2. Write a sentence that's not in the draft to use as a title.

3. Write a title that is a question beginning with What, Who, When, or Where.
4. Write a title that is a question beginning with How or Why. 5. Write a title that is a question beginning with Is/Are, Do/Does, or Will. 6. Pick out of the essay some concrete imagesomething the reader can hear, see, taste, smell, or feelto use as a title. 7. Pick another concrete image out of the essay. Look for an image that is a bit unusual or surprising.

How to Write a Title?


8. Write a title beginning with an -ing verb (like Creating a Good Title).

9. Write a title beginning with On (like On the Titles of Essays).


10. Write a title that is a lie about the essay. (You probably won't use this one, but it might stimulate your thinking.) 11. Write a one-word titlethe most obvious one possible.

12. Write a less obvious one-word title.


13. Write a two-word title.

How to Write a Title?


14. Write a three-word title. 15. Write a four-word title.

16. Write a five-word title.


17. Think of a familiar saying, or the title of a book, song, or movie, that might fit your essay. 18. Take the title you just wrote and twist it by changing a word or creating a pun on it.

19. Do the same with another saying or title of a book, song, or movie.
20. Find two titles you've written so far that you might use together in a double title. Join them together with a colon [ : ].