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Presented by –

Bapan Ghosh
M.Sc Microbiology
2ndsem
A double stranded DNA molecule is
capable of
Producing two identical molecules from
nucleotide monomer with the help of
some proteins .This is known as DNA
replication .
DNA needs replication ,because every
cell produced by division of a preexisting
cell must be provided with an identical
genetic material.
The enzyme that catalyze the DNA
synthesis are called DNA polymerase .
Three types of DNA polymerase I, II
& III have been identified in
prokaryotic cells.
DNA polymerase I – it has three
activities
iii.5’-3’ polymerase activity
iv.3’-5’ exonuclease activity
v.5’-3’ exonuclease activity
• DNA polymerase II – consist of
four polypeptide chain. It has –
• 3’-5’ exonuclease activity
• 5’-3’ polymerase activity
• Participated in DNA repair
• DNA polymerase III – It is also a
multi subunit assembly.
• Synthesizes new DNA by its 5’-3’
polymerase activity.
• DNA Ligase – catalyze the covalent
closer of nicks by using energy from
NAD or ATP.
• DNA helicase - unwind the DNA
molecule.
• DNA topoisomerase – catalyze
transient breaks in DNA molecule .It
is introduce or remove super coils
from DNA.
• SSB proteins – separating DNA
strands during replication & prevent
ss DNA from reform of double helix.
• Hu protein – heat stable DNA
binding protein .
Restrain DNA super coiling.
• Primase – synthesize a short RNA
primer.
• Replication proceed in two direction
around the chromosome leading to
the formation of a bubble is called
theta mode of replication.

• A circular parental chromosome is
replicate to two circular daughter
chromosome.
• Light dependent Repair
• It consists an exchange of a
damaged segment of one DNA
molecule by an undamaged segment
of another one.
• Such exchange take place only after
replication of the DNA has take
place.
• recA gene involve in this repair
mechanism.
Inherited Disorder Symptoms

Xeroderma pigmentosum UV sensitivity, early onset skin cancers,
neurological disorder.
Cockayne syndrome UV sensitivity, neurological and
developmental disorder, premature aging.
Trichothiodystrophy UV sensitivity, neurological disorder,
mental retardation.

Ataxia-telangiectasia Radiation sensitivity, chromosome
instability, cancer prone.
Fanconi anemia Sensitivity to DNA cross linking agents,
cancer prone.
Bloom syndrome chromosome instability, , mental
retardation, cancer prone.
Werner syndrome chromosome instability, progressive
neurodegeneration .