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Wave Energy Blue Gold?

Australian Institute of Energy Sydney 1st May 2006

Tom Engelsman Raymond Alcorn

What is wave energy How much is there How do Energetech convert it Power Water Summation

What is Wave power?

Simply - Conversion of ocean wave energy to electrical energy or fresh potable water Reality Generating acceptable power consistently, efficiently with little environmental impact, competitively.

The Holy Grail of wind/wave/tidal..

Be able to produce renewable power, irrespective of the local wind/water conditions Be able to produce renewable power at rates equal to the gas/coal fired main land installations, based on initial investment costs and/or lease, without major subsidy.
Energetech may be the first company in the world able to reach both of these goals within a 5 year time frame

The Resource kW/m

How is it measured?
Wave Analysis South of Melbourne - 15m

PERIODS 0.033333 TO 0.2 SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OUTPUT Hs(w) Te Pi 2.16 13.80 35.08

ZERO CROSSING ANALYSIS OUTPUT Hrms Hs H10 Hmax 1.58 2.32 3.20 6.15

Tz 13.01

Pe 35.60

Principle of Conversion


focuses & amplifies Incoming waves

converts wave motion To air flow

Converts oscillating flow to unidirectional torque

Energetech Turbine
Developed by Energetech and University of Sydney Same direction of rotation irrespective of air-flow Variable pitch High Torque, Low RPM Low drag loss Novel blade design Active control and Self Start

Port Kembla Prototype Device

35m Parabola & OWC 1.6m diameter, 21-blade, 500RPM, servo controlled Energetech turbine Highly instrumented 0.5MW capacity 11kV onboard transformer Successfully tested during 2005 In dock for reconfiguration

PK Power Module


to grid

Induction Generator Turbine Brake Coupling

Bearing housing Servo Actuator Isolation Door Support base

Why this system?

Flexibility Ability to dynamically change station setup under range of conditions Controlled variable speed Software Configurable Remotely monitor, operate, alarm, trending and predict

And the cost per Kw-Hr ..

10 9 8
PK as is

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Cost of Unit

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Cents per Kw-Hr

Just PK or Rhode Island

Unit cost Cents/Kw-hr

Portland/Water 2006 Order

Water - The golden commodity

Price for Sydney Home water A$ 1.1 per 1000 liters Price for Sydney bottled water A$ 2.75 per liter

A barrel of Oil today Aus $ 87 (at the well) A barrel of water Aus $ 0.20 (at the tap)

And then there is storage

Water can be a lake Electricity is an Autobahn

The higher the density The greater the risk

Free flowing entry Storage

Either Go or Stop

No storage

SWRO Cost/Unit Water History

$US/M3 $2.50 2.50

2.00 $2.00
1.50 $1.50 1.00 0.50
$1.00 $0.50 $0.00

And this is on the basis of the full capital costs plus electric power at a cost of 8 US cents/kw-hr !!

1980 1980

1990 1990

2000 2000

2001 2002 2001 Israel 2002 Israel Singapore Singapore

Desalination currently being built or planned

The major issues with large desalination plants

Capital cost since scale is an essential element of cost reduction Massive need for energy, and hence greenhouse impact becomes Catch-22 Major coastal footprint Return loop for the residual brine Major central location with pipelines to users Very expensive standby during rain period Water pricing problems due to high marginal cost

But with a wave unit

Free renewable energy Zero greenhouse emission Offshore up to 5 Km Locate off the coast from markets small water farms Disperse brine in the location Small footprint due to density of medium (ocean) Scale to suit local demand Minimal pipelines ideal for remote locations

The Energetech concept

Replace the electrical generator with a conventional high pressure centrifugal pump Lift sea water using this pump from the in situ location Pressurize a conventional Reverse Osmosis with this pumping system. Use brine power recovery to pump fresh water to shore Generate small amounts of power for other pumping and/or control needs Run as an un-manned remote control water farm

Water Module
Turbine Actuator High Pressure Turbine


Auxiliary Generator Simple Instruments

The ability to make fresh drinking water without first having to make electric power

Single Support Base

Water Module-

Energy Recovery

RO Membranes
100 flow 69 bar 41.2 flow 2 bar

Permeate 40% flow

PX Booster Pump 58.8 flow 66 bar FM

Energy Recovery Pressure Exchanger

60 flow 67 bar

PX High Pressure Outlet Seal Zone


PX High Pressure Inlet

Seal Zone PX Low pressure Outlet

PX Low Pressure inlet

Seawater Pump 100% flow

58.8 flow 2 bar

PX Rotor Rotation

Low Pressure Brine

60% flow 1 bar

Does it really work?

An Ocean Farm
1.5MW Water Unit 1.5MW Water Unit 1.5MW Water Unit 1.5MW Water Unit 1.5MW Water Unit 1.5MW Power Unit

Fresh Desalinated water

Fresh Water Storage Facility This system would deliver approximately 10 Billion liters of fresh water each year

Pump Unit

The operating cost structure

Item Power/Energy costs System Depreciation Membranes Parts Replacement Chemical Consumables Labor Admin Total water cost per cubic meter % Cost structure Zero 40.2% 11.2% 18.7% 13.4% 12.8% 3.6% ~ 30 55 Cents Aus cents

So what are the numbers?

Power consumption of 3.75 Kw/Cubic Meter for water pumped to the shoreline Production costs of around 45 to 65 cents per cubic meter (potable standard) All of the above are on a single unit basis Above includes zero allowance for any grants or credits for emission Above costs have future reduction potential with either number of units or size of installation

Cost of water produced (2 Giga-Liter unit)

(cents per cubic meter)

Cost/Meter Produced Water

60 50 40
Future? The sweet Spot

30 20 4 5 6 7 8 9
Overall Project Investment ($mm)

Summation A Wave Energy Barge makes

The Wave Energy Barge

Low Cost Emission free Desalinated drinking water

Emission free electrical power At costs comparable to current Fossil based supply systems

Waves 2 meters high and with 50 meters breadth equals a free barrel of Oil every 10 minutes A major city could be supplied with 10 Giga- Liters of fresh water for a capital cost of roughly $65 Million

The benefits
Low profile, small foot print Up to 5 Km offshore Minimal Brine handling problems Locate near Market need

Competitive cost base

Absolutely no Greenhouse Gas

If we could ever competitively, at a cheap rate, get freshwater from saltwater, that would be in the long-range interest of humanity (and) would dwarf any other scientific accomplishment President John F. Kennedy, April 12, 1961

wave energy blue gold?