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Subtopic 1.

The Role of the Circulatory System in the Bodys Defence Mechanism

Bodys defence mechanism against diseases


3 lines of defence mechanism in the body:

First Line of Defense

Second Line of Defense

Third Line of Defense

Including skin mucous membranes Function to prevent pathogens from entering the body.

Mucous Membrane consists of cells lining the respiratory tract and openings of the urinary and reproductive systems. The membrane secretes a protective layer of mucus.
Mucus sticky and traps pathogens and other particles

The Second Line Of Defence


Deals with pathogens (microorganisms that caused disease) that have bypassed the first line of defence. Phagocyte (phagocytic white blood cells) digests the pathogens by phagocytosis in order to destroy the pathogens.

The Third Line Of Defence

Lymphocytes in the blood produce chemicals called antibodies that destroy bacteria and viruses before they get inside the body cells.

Immunity ability of an organism to resist infection. Antigen a foreign substance capable of stimulating an immune response or the formation of antibodies. Examples of antigens are pathogens, toxic substances, and various harmless molecules and cells.

Antibodies proteins that interact with the antigens and thereby rendering them harmless. Specific antibodies interact with specific antigens. Immunisation a technique used to induce immunity to a specific disease in humans or other animals by exposing the individual to an antigen in order to stimulate the production of specific antibodies. achieved through injection a vaccine that contains killed or severely weakened antigen into the body of an individual.

Antibodies are proteins are produced by lymphocytes are in response to specific antigens provide immunity against certain microorganisms or their toxins

HIV
(Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

HIV
virus that attacks the human immune system. leads to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). A person who has AIDS is vulnerable to various infections because the immune system is being destroyed progressively. The infected person eventually dies of secondary infections because the immune system collapses and is unable to defend the body against pathogens.

There are four main ways that HIV can be transmitted:


Through any form of sexual intercourse with an infected person. Through contact with blood products of an infected person. Through shared needles or syringes that are contaminated with blood of an infected person. From an infected mother to child, either during pregnancy, birth or breast feeding.

Infection of HIV virus in the blood stream