You are on page 1of 18

Cross-Culture Communication and Negotiation

MEMBERS
Ameek Sandhu Ritu Dalal Tanya Tripathi Gaurav Kandpal Deepak Kathkar Bhupiunder
2

Functions of Communication
Communication is the exchange of meaning.

In organizations, it has several functions:


Affecting Behavior through both formal and informal channels Emotional expression - fulfillment of social needs

Information - facilitating decision making


3

The Communication Process

Source

Encoding

Channel

Decoding

Receiver

FEEDBACK

Types of Communication
Verbal: Oral
Face-to-face Distant (phone, video)

Written
Print Electronic

Non-Verbal
5

Overall Communication Process


Verbal Communication Styles
Context

Information that surrounds a communication and helps to convey the message High-context societies
Messages often are coded and implicit Rely on indirect style

Overall Communication Process


Low-context societies Message is explicit and the speaker says precisely what s/he means Rely on direct style

High- vs. Low-Context Cultures


HIGH CONTEXT

LOW CONTEXT

Chinese Korean Vietnamese Arab Greek Spanish Italian English French North American Scandinavian German Swiss
8

Non-verbal Communication
Body movement (Body Language) adds to, and often complicates, verbal communication Kinesics - Gestures, facial configurations, and other movements of the body Intonations - Change the meaning of the message Facial expression - Characteristics that would never be communicated if you read a transcript of what is said Physical distance - Proper spacing is largely dependent cultural norms
9

Cross-Cultural Communication
Nonverbal communication: a major role across cultures Distance between people

North Americans: stand 5 1/2 to 8 feet apart Latin American cultures: people stand much closer
Reactions

Latin American moves close to the North American North American backs away Latin American might perceive the North American as cold and distant

10

Cross-Cultural Communication
Time orientation
Latin Americans view time more casually than North Americans Swiss strongly emphasize promptness in keeping appointments Egyptians usually do not look to the future
11

Cross-Cultural Communication
Time orientation (cont.)
Southeast Asians view the long term as centuries Sioux Indians of the United States do not have words for "time" or "wait" in their native language Potential misunderstandings are large

12

Negotiation
The process in which two or more parties communicate and exchange goods or services in an attempt to rich a mutually agreeable solution

13

Cultural Differences in Negotiations


Negotiating styles vary among national cultures; for effective cross-cultural negotiation, you need to understand other partys communication patterns, time orientations, social behavior and idiosyncratic national issues

14

Successful Negotiators Characteristics


US
Preparation & planning skill Thinking under pressure Judgment & intelligence Verbally expressive Product knowledge Perceive & exploit power Integrity

Japanese
Dedication to job Perceive & exploit power Win respect & confidence Integrity Demonstrate listening skills Broad perspective Verbally expressive

Taiwanese
Persistence & determination Win respect & confidence Preparation & planning skill Product knowledge Interesting Judgment & intelligence

Brazilian
Preparation & planning skill Thinking under pressure Judgment & intelligence Verbally expressive Product knowledge Perceive & exploit power Competitive
15

Cultural Differences in Negotiations


Cultural context significantly influences: History & identity in relation to conflict Time frame (short/long; deadlines) Emphasis on rationality/emotion/ideals The amount and type of preparation for bargaining Participants: few essential or the more the merrier; young professional or respectable elder The relative emphasis on task versus interpersonal relationships and formal vs. informal mechanisms (e.g., lawyers)
16

Differences in Negotiations
Where the negotiation should be conducted (business/leisure) and emphasis on entertainment Communication patterns (verbal/nonverbal); direct vs. non-direct rejection The tactics used: Extent of bargaining Initial offersextreme or moderate Nonverbal behavior
17

18