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# Automation Lecture 2.

Laplace transformation
d n y (t ) dy(t ) d m y (t ) dx(t ) an .. a1 a0 y (t ) bm ..b1 b0 x(t ) n m dt dt dt dt
Laplace transformation

## y ( s ){an s n ... a1s a0 } x( s ){bm s m ... b1s b0 }

(s z1 )(s z2 )...(s zm ) y(s) bm s m ... b1s b0 G( s) K zp n u( s) an s ... a1s a0 (s p1 )(s p2 )...(s pn )

1 Tn pn

## General Diferencial Equation Laplace transformation Transfer Function G(s) s=j

Fourier transformation

## PT2 process example

dp1 p1 pin dt dp2 Rp 2 C p 2 p2 p1 dt R p1 C p1

## d 2 p2 dp2 Tp 2 Tp 2 (Tp 2 Tp 2 ) p2 pin 2 dt dt

Y ( s) Ap 1 T1s T2 s 2
2

## HPT1 process example

c1

dxsz (t ) c0 xsz (t ) c xb (t TH ) dt

Y (s)

As e sTH 1 T0 s

controller
plant

## Gd(s) Gc(s) Ga(s) Gp0(s)

Gt(s)
compensator or control task error signal (e) comparing element or error detector reference signal (r) transmitter actuator manipulated variable (uP) measured signal (ym) action signal or control signal (u) disturbance variable (d)

## Feedback Control simple loop

u(s) Control Signal r(s) Set Point e(s) Error Signal ym(s) Controlled Variable

Gc(s)

Gp(s)

Gt(s)
Controller Transmitter Process

## ym ( s) Gc (s) G p (s) Gt (s) G0 Grym (s) r ( s) 1 G0 (s) 1 G0

P controller
xr

xe

Ga ( s ) 1

Kp

ym

Gc ( s ) K p

PI controller
Ga ( s ) 1

xr

xe

Gi ( s )

1 Ti s

Kp

ym

1 Gc ( s ) K c {1 } sTi

PD controller
Ga ( s ) 1

xr

xe

Kp

ym

Gd ( s )

## sTd 1 0.2 sTd

m n!

sTd Gc ( s) K c {1 } 1 0.1sTd

Ga ( s ) 1

xr

xe

Gi ( s )

1 Ti s
sTd 1 0.2 sTd

Kp

ym

Gd ( s )

## 1 sTd Gc ( s ) K c {1 } sTi 1 0.1sTd

m n!

Performance specifications
Unit step response

90%

## %Over sh oot 100 Decay _ ratio

pv fv fv pv fv spv fv

Stability example 1.
Gc(s) Gp(s)

Gt(s)

Gc ( s ) 5

Gt ( s) 1

G( s)

1 3s 2 2s 1

Stability example 2.
Gc(s) Gp(s)

Gt(s)

Gc ( s ) 5

Gt ( s) 1

G( s)

1 4s 3 3s 2 2s 1

Stability Criteria
The control system is stable if : - The phase shift is smaler than -1800 ,where the gain is bigger than 1! - The gain is smaler than 1 where the phase shift is 1800 !

## Controlling example PT1 process controlled by a PI controller

Gc(s) Gp(s)

Gt(s)

Gc ( s ) K c {1

Ti 0.5
Kc 1

1 } sTi

1 G( s) 2s 1 Gt ( s) 1
Ti - is set to the T0 - time constant of the process

Gd ( s) 0.1
Gd(s)

Gc(s)

Gp(s)

Gt(s)

Ti 0.5
Kc 1

1 Gc ( s ) K c {1 } sTi

1 G( s) 2s 1 Gt ( s) 1