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Organ reproduksi wanita
Ovarium Tuba falopii Uterus Vagina

Masa kanak-kanak ovarium blm aktif Pubertas terjadi perubahan2 pd ovarium,

mengakibatkan perub pd tubuh wanita

Pubertas tjd usia 12-16 th ditandai dg perub

pd payudara, tumbuhx rambut kemaluan, ketiak dan haid pertama kali (menarche)

Pubertas masa reproduksi berlangsung

30 th
Masa reproduksi masa klimakterium

(peralihan antara masa reproduksi dan senium)

Masa klimakterium haid mjd sedikit dan

berhenti sama sekali (menopause)

Ovary- primordial follicle

The ovary consists : outer cortex n inner

medulla (zona vaskulosa) Medulla :

connective tissue, muscle cells, elastic n reticular fiber, vessels Follicles are not present

cortex :
surface epithelium (germinal epithelium) The surface epith is singel-layered, cells cuboidal or columnar
tunica albugenia does not contain follicles cortical stroma It consists of connective tissue cells, myofibroblasts and interstitial gland cells and contains primordial follicles and primary follicles.

Ovary- primordial follicle

1. Cortical stroma with many primordial and primary follicles 2. Ovarian medulla (zona vasculosa) 3. Surface epithelium 4. Tunica albuginea
Semi-thin section; stain: methylene blue-azure II; magnification: 200

OvaryPrimary Follicle Secondary Follicle

a) and b) Primary follicle The single-layered epithelium cuboidal or columnar Zona pellucida is interleaved between the oocyte and the follicular epithelium A basal membrane and a connective tissue sheath (theca folliculi) encase the primary follicle

c) Secondary follicle (preantral follicle)

A multilayered epithelium The surface epithelium (follicular epithelium, stratum granulosum) is also called granular epithelium. The zona pellucida : glycoprotein layer. The connective tissue sheath (theca folliculi) follows it. The sheath shows a concentric arrangement of cells.

d) Atresia of a secondary follicle.

OvaryPrimary FollicleSecondary Follicle

a) and b) Primary follicle Secondary follicle (preantral follicle) d) Atresia of a secondary follicle

OvarySecondary Follicle or Preantral Follicle

1 Follicular epithelium 2 Zona pellucida 3 Basal membrane 4 Theca folliculi
Stain: hematoxylin-eosin; magnification: 300

OvarySecondary Follicle
1 Oocyte 2 zona pellucida 3 Multilayered granulosa cell epithelium 4 Theca folliculi interna 5 Interstitial gland cells
Semi-thin section; stain:methylene blue-azure II; magnification: 200

OvaryTertiary Follicle or Antral Follicle

Ovarian follicles with a developed antrum are called

tertiary follicles (antral follicles or Graafian follicles) vessel-free, multilayered granulosa cell epithelium lines the antrum folliculi (1) a dome-like protrusion in one spot called cumulus oophorus (2) The cumulus oophorus contains the oocyte

OvaryTertiary Follicle
1 Antrumfolliculi 2 Cumulus oophorus with oocyte 3 Theca folliculi
Stain: hematoxylin-eosin magnification: 220

OvaryGraafian Follicle
1 Antrum folliculi 2 Cumulus oophorus 3 Granulosa epithelial cells 4 Theca folliculi 5 Radial corona cells
Stain: alumhematoxylin-eosin;

magnification: 25

OvaryCorpus Luteum
Lipid droplets are present in the granulosa lutein

cells (1) They also store lipid droplets and turn into theca lutein cells (2) They are interspersed with vascularized connective tissue (3)

OvaryCorpus Luteum

OvaryCorpus Albicans
This creates a shinywhite corpuscle (corpus

albicans sive fibrosum) (1) The corpus albicans looks like connective tissue scar

OvaryCorpus Albicans

This electron micrograph shows the head region of the spermatozoon in the center (1) Small vesicles (2) occur mostly in the cell center The oocyte is enveloped by the zona pellucida (3) , which is formed by the glycoproteins of the extracellular

matrix. Cumulus oophorus have already been lost The light space between zona pellucida and oocyte surface is the perivitelline space 4

At the time of ovulation, the oocyte has a diameter of 120130m. This makes it one of the largest cells in the human body.

1 Head region of the spermatozoon 2 Vesicle 3 Zona pellucida 4 Perivitelline space
Electronmicroscopy; magnification: 1000

Perkembangan folikel
Folikel primordial folikel primer (oosit dikelilingi

oleh dua atau lebih sel kuboid)

Setiap siklus menstruasi setelah puberitas folikel primer perkembangn lbh lanjut pembesaran oosit n proliferasi disekitar folikel sel granulosa

Antara sel granulosa n oosit dibatasi oleh zona pelusida

Sel granulosa ++proliferasi n folikel +besar

rongga berisi liquor folliculi

Oosit terdesak kepinggir dan terdapat ditengah

tumpukan sel yg menonjol kdlm rongga folikel disebut cumulus oophorus

Sementara folikel berproliferasi, sel stroma

(sekitar folikel) theca foliculli

Theca folikuli : theca interna dan theca externa Theca interna : kaya pemb darah, sintesis

steroid (berdifusi ke folikel) estradiol Theca externa : sedikit pem darah, jar ikat padat, tdk mensintesis steroid
Terus tumbuhnya 1 folikel primer menyebb folikel lain atresia

Folikel masak folikel de graaf

Folikel de Graaf makin mendekati permukaan krn desakan liquor folikuli Permukaan ovarium makin tipis folikel de Graaf pecah sel telur keluar ovulasi Sel2 granulosa yg mengelilingi sel telur yg telah bebas tsb dsbt corona radiata

Setelah ovulasi sisa sel2 granulosa dr folikel

corpus luteum (menghasilkan progesteron)

Fertilisasi : Corpus luteum dipertahankan 8

mggu awal kehamilan Tdk fertilisasi : corpus luteum corpus albicans

Histofisiologi ovarium
Siklus ovarium tergantung pd :

FSH : proliferasi sel granulosa, mengaktifkan enzim

u/ sitesis steroid
Theca interna : androgenic steroid

precursorsdifusi ke folikel estradiol

estradiol FSH LH ovulasi

OviductAmpulla Tubae Uterinae

The human oviduct is about 1015cm long It consists of tunica mucosa, tunica muscularis, the

vascularized tela subserosa and the tunica serosa

OviductAmpulla Tubae Uterinae

The mucosa of the ampulla of the Fallopian tube rises to high longitudinal folds (1)
The tunica muscularis (tuba uterinae musculature)

(2) consists of three layers

the inner and outer longitudinal the middle a circular

The wide subserosal tissue layer contains numerous vessels (3) (4)

smooth muscle cells of variable density in the

subperitoneal muscle layer The tunica serosa (6) covers the subserosal tissue

OviductAmpulla Tubae Uterinae

1 Mucosa fold (plica) 2 Oviduct musculature 3 Artery 4 Vein 5 Mesosalpinx 6 Tunica serosa
Stain: iron hematoxylin-eosin;
magnification: 10

OviductIsthmus Tubae Uterinae

The width of the tunica muscularis increases.
The relatively wide mucosa plicae Blood vessels are found in the subserosal tissue

OviductIsthmus Tubae Uterinae

1 Smooth musculature 2 Mucosa plicae 3 Tunica serosa 4 Subserosal tissue 5 Artery
Stain: alumhematoxylin-eosin magnification: 40

UterusUterine Cervix
Structures mucosa in the uterine cervix n the

uterine corpus differences The tunica mucosa of the uterine cervix is 2 5mm thick. The plicae of the mucosa (plicae palmatae) (1) create a ragged surface relief The lamina propria (2) of the cervical mucosa is richer in fibers n stronger than the tunica propria of the endometrium.

UterusUterine Cervix

The uterus is a pear-shaped It is about 79cm long, 34cm wide, 23cm thick and weighs 100120 g. The uterus is located in the plica lata uteri The uterine cavity (1) (cavum uteri) has the shape of a slit The uterine wall is 1.5 to 2cm thick Starting at the outer limit :
Perimetrium (2) or tunica serosa (peritoneal epithelium) myometrium (3) or tunica muscularis with four layers

(stratum submucosum, stratum vasculosum, stratum supravasculosum, stratum subserosum) the endometrium (4) or tunica mucosa.

Single-layered columnar cells some of them are

ciliated functional layer endometrium : cellulous connective tissue with only a few fibers (stroma endometrii) The endometrial stroma resembles mesenchymal tissue called lamina propria contains (nerves and many vessels, such as the undulating arteries (spiral arteries))


a) Early follicular phase (9th day of the menstrual cycle) b) Late folliculin phase (16th day of the menstrual cycle) c) Secretory phase, luteal phase (23rd day of the menstrual cycle) d) Desquamation phase, menstruation (1st day of menstrual cycle)


early follicular phase

the tubular uterine glands in the deeper, ap proximately 5-mm thick functional layer of

the endometrium show a corkscrew configuration The secretory ducts are empty

early follicular phase

final part of the secretion phase

1 Myometrium 2 Fibrous connective tissue 3 Sectioned tubular glands
Stain: hematoxylin-eosin
magnification: 80

Desquamation phase
1 Endometrial basal layer, basalis 2 Myometrium
Stain: hematoxylin-eosin magnification: 80

Uterus- myometrium
With a width of 1.52.0cm (widest layer of the

uterinewall) The thickest layer Mostly contain of circular muscle fibers, lymph and blood vessels stratum vasculosum The inner thin layer stratum subvasculosum The outer thin layer stratum supravasculosum

Uterus- myometrium

The wall of the vagina consists : tunica mucosa
does not contain glands It is covered by a multilayered nonkeratinizing

squamous epithelium (1) rich in glycogen

tunica muscularis tunica adventitia

The lamina propria (2) with elastic fibers and a venous plexus borders on the

epithelium The epithelium consists :

basal cells parabasal cells intermediary cells surface cells

1. multilayered nonkeratinizing squamous epithelium
2. The lamina propria

Vagina- labia minora

They are covered by a multilayered squamous

epithelium The subepithelial basal cell frequently heavily pigmented The loose connective tissue contains collagen fibers blood vessels, the tissue appears red Hair is not present many sebaceous glands

Vagina- labia minora

1 Multilayered stratified keratinizing squamous epithelium 2 Loose connective tissue 3 Sebaceous glands
Stain: azan;magnification: 40