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easYgen-3200 Training

Section 8 - Controller

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Contents
Introduction Controller Set Points Load Sharing FAQ Exercises slide 3 4 13 17 24 30

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Introduction
Introduction
Controller

Set points

Load sharing
FAQ

The easYgen-3200 provides the user with a selection of bias signals to operate numerous speed controls and voltage regulators. The easYgen-3200 may be configured to use analog voltage and/or current signals, PWM signals, or raise/lower contacts to increase or decrease the speed and voltage reference point.

Exercises

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Controller
Introduction

Analog / PWM controller

Controller
Set points

Proportional Gain
Integral Gain Derivative ratio

Load sharing
FAQ

Exercises

Frequency / power controller and voltage / power factor controller


Adjustable bias signal (+/-20mA / +/- 10V) or 500 Hz PWM (duty cycle signal)

Example: -10V
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10V

Controller
Introduction

P (Proportional gain) The proportional gain indicates the closed-loop control system gain. By increasing the gain, the response is increased to permit larger corrections to the variable to be controlled. The further out of tolerance the process is the larger the response action to return the process to the control set point. If the gain is configured too high, the result is excessive overshoot/undershoot of the desired value.

Controller
Set points

Load sharing
FAQ

Exercises

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Controller
Introduction

I (Integral gain) The integral gain represents the I-component of the PID controller. The integral corrects for any offset (between set point and process variable) automatically over time by shifting the proportioning band. Integral gain automatically changes the output requirements until the process variable and the set point are the same. This parameter permits the user to adjust how quickly the integral attempts to correct for any offset.

Controller
Set points

Load sharing
FAQ

Exercises

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Controller
Introduction

D (Derivative ratio) The derivative represents the D-component of the PID controller. By increasing this parameter, the stability of the system is increased. The controller will attempt to slow down the action of the throttle in an attempt to prevent excessive overshoot or undershoot. Essentially, derivative acts as the brake for the process.

Controller
Set points

Load sharing
FAQ

Exercises

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Controller
Introduction

Controller
Set points

FREQUENCY

63 62 61 60 59 58 57

Load sharing
FAQ

Exercises

TIME

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Controller
Analog / PWM controller bias signal
Introduction

The analog outputs are used for the bias signals


Controller
Set points

Speed bias (F/P control) Voltage bias (V/PF control)

Load sharing
FAQ

Exercises

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Controller
Introduction

Three step controller (raise/lower/off)

Controller
Set points

- Time pulse (minimum energize time)


- Gain factor - Dead-band adjustment - Expand dead-band function

Load sharing
FAQ

Exercises

Frequency / power controller and Voltage / power factor controller (raise / lower) are possible through configuration of the LogicsManager.

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Controller
Introduction

Three Step controller

Controller
Set points

The time interval between the raise / lower pulse depends on the actual difference between set point and actual value.
Raise/lower pulse Time delay Difference between setpoint and real value

Load sharing
FAQ

Exercises

1
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Controller
Introduction

Controller tuning

Controller
Set points

The analog and three-step controllers should ramp in a similar manner as shown below when properly tuned.

Load sharing
FAQ

120 Volts
Exercises

90 Volts Ramp of Voltage Controller is determined by the Gain Point at which Controller takes control 0 Volts
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30 Volts

Set points
Introduction

External Set points in AUTOMATIC operation mode

Controller

Frequency set point


Voltage set point Power set point Power factor set point Analog inputs 0/4 to 20 mA or 0 to 500 Ohm Discrete inputs

Set points
Load sharing
FAQ

Exercises

Raise/lower set point via momentary switch


Interface CANopen or Modbus
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Set points
Introduction

Analog Inputs

Controller

Set points
Load sharing
FAQ

Exercises

User defined is in relation to the Rated power (in %).

0 Min. value ( 0% of rated)


10000 Max. value (100.00 %)
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Set points
Introduction

Discrete Input for raise/lower

Controller

Set points
Load sharing
FAQ

Exercises

The power ramp always starts at the current measured value. If the breaker is opened this set point automatically resets to 0 kW.
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Set points
Interface power set point
Introduction Controller

Set points
Load sharing
FAQ

Exercises

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Load sharing
Introduction

Load sharing over the CAN bus Real load sharing is performed as a utilization factor. (Generators compare measured load:generator rating) Reactive load sharing is performed as a utilization factor. (Generators compare measured reactive load:generator rating) Maximum of 32 units can load-share Split bus applications are possible with up to four bus bars (different segment numbers)

Controller

Set points

Load sharing
FAQ

Exercises

Load sharing with GCP-30 series is not possible !

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Load sharing
Introduction

Connection between the units via CAN 1

Controller

Set points

Load sharing
FAQ

The units need different device numbers CAN 1

Exercises

Generator 1

CAN 1

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Generator 2

More units

Load sharing
Introduction

Active power load sharing

Controller

Maintain frequency / maintain power utilization factor


Weighting factor may be applied to load sharing (> 50% more frequency, < 50% more power utilization)

Set points

Load sharing
FAQ

Exercises

Reactive power load sharing Maintain voltage / maintain reactive power utilization factor Weighting factor may be applied to reactive load sharing

(> 50% more voltage, < 50% more reactive power utilization)

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Load sharing
Segment numbering for multiple common busses
Introduction

General segment definition Alternative segment groups for use with bus tie breakers

Controller

Set points

Load sharing
FAQ

Only the generator connected to the same segment number may load share with each other

Exercises

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Load sharing
Introduction Controller

Segment 1
Load

Set points

Load sharing
FAQ

Exercises

Segment 2 Load

Segment 3
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Load

Load sharing
Introduction Controller

Segment 1
Load Segment #2 TRUE

Set points

Load sharing
FAQ

Exercises

Segment 2 Load

Segment 3
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Load

Load sharing
Introduction Controller

Segment 1
Load

Set points

Load sharing
FAQ

Exercises

Segment 2 Segment #3 TRUE Load

Segment 3
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Load

FAQ
Introduction

How can I configure my controller bias signal output? How can I limit the generator load when the cooling water temperature is below a desired threshold?

Controller

Set points

Load sharing

FAQ
Exercises

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FAQ
Introduction

How can I configure my controller bias signal output? There are two possible types: - Three step controller (raise / lower outputs) Relays via LogicsManager - Analog controller (bias signals) / PWM Analog output

Controller

Set points

Load sharing

FAQ
Exercises

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FAQ
Introduction Controller

How can I configure my controller bias signal output? Three step controller (raise / lower outputs) LogicsManager
Parameters for frequency control

Set points

Load sharing

FAQ
Exercises

Select freely configurable relay

LogicsManager input commands:


03.20 Governor raise
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03.22 AVR raise 03.23 AVR lower

03.21 Governor lower

FAQ
Introduction Controller

How can I configure my controller bias signal output? Analog controller (bias signals) Analog output
Parameters for frequency control Configure analog output

Set points

Load sharing

FAQ
Exercises

Data source:
00.02 Voltage bias 00.03 Speed bias

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Test controller range with initial state

FAQ
Introduction

How can I limit the generator load when the cooling water temperature is below a desired threshold?
Use the warm up limit of the active load controller The easYgen controls the warm up load limit (in % of rated power) whenever the measured value of the analog input drops below the threshold.

Controller

Set points

Load sharing

FAQ
Exercises

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FAQ
Introduction

How can I limit the generator load when the cooling water temperature is below a desired threshold? The warm up load limit permits a partial load warm up with a lower set point whenever the generator runs parallel to mains.

Controller

Set points

Load sharing

FAQ
Exercises

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Exercise:
Introduction Controller

Configure the analog output manager (FlexOut) Speed bias signal for analog output 1 range: 3 7 V

Set points

Load sharing
FAQ

Exercises

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Exercise: Solution
Introduction Controller

Configure the analog output manager speed bias signal for analog output 1 range: 3 7 V
Hardware type user defined with min. / max. configuration complete output range is +/- 20 mA (+/- 10 V) 3V 65.00% min. value 7V 85.00% max. value -10V 0V

Set points

Load sharing
FAQ

10V

Exercises

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End of this presentation


Other sections are :
1 Overview 2 Hardware and I/O 3 Operational Modes 4 Configuration and ToolKit 5 Communication 6 LogicsManager 7 Analog Manager

8 Controller
9 Synchronization and breaker 10 Application 11 Sequencing

Thank you for your attention


Note:
Information contained herein is intended for and appropriate to the purposes of this publication/presentation. Woodward reserves the right to update or otherwise revise any portion of this publication at any time. Technical data and detailed information is available in Woodward product specs. Specific reliance should be given only to information contained in purchase order(s), other contractual document(s), or information otherwise expressly represented in writing by Woodward as correct and accurate for the specific facts, circumstances and applications.
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